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Nepali language

Nepali is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language of one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. Known by the endonym Khas kura, the language is called Gorkhali or Parbatiya in some contexts, it is spoken in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan. In India, Nepali has official status in the state of Sikkim, it has a significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Uttarakhand. It is spoken in Myanmar and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide. Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili, shows Sanskrit influence. However, owing to Nepal's location, it has been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages. Nepali is differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group; the language was called Khas Speech, spoken by the Khas people of Karnali Region and Gorkhali before the term Nepali was adopted.

The origin of modern Nepali language is believed to be from Sinja valley of Jumla. Therefore, the Nepali dialect “Khas Bhasa” is still spoken among the people of the region. Nepali developed a significant literature within a short period of a hundred years in the 19th century; this literary explosion was fueled by Adhyatma Ramayana. The contribution of trio-laureates Lekhnath Paudyal, Laxmi Prasad Devkota, Balkrishna Sama took Nepali to the level of other world languages; the contribution of expatriate writers outside Nepal in Darjeeling and Varanasi in India, is notable. According to the 2011 national census, 44.6 percent of the population of Nepal speaks Nepali as the first language. And 32.8 percent speaks Nepali as a second language. The Ethnologue reports 12,300,000 speakers within Nepal; as per the 2011 Census of India, there were a total of 2,926,168 native speakers of the language in India, amounting to 0.25% of the total population. Nepali is traditionally spoken in the hilly regions of Nepal.

The language is prominently used in governmental usages in Nepal and is the everyday language of the local population. The exclusive use of Nepali in the court system and by the government of Nepal is being challenged. Gaining recognition for other languages of Nepal was one of the goals of the decade large Maoist insurgency in Nepal. In Bhutan, native Nepali speakers, known as Lhotshampa, are estimated at about 35 percent of the population; this number includes displaced Bhutanese refugees, with unofficial estimates of the ethnic Bhutanese refugee population as high as 30 to 40 percent, constituting a majority in the south. Since the late 1980s, over 100,000 Lhotshampas have been forced out of Bhutan, accused by the government of being illegal immigrants. A large portion of them were expelled in an ethnic cleansing, are now being resettled to various first world countries from their refuge in eastern Nepal. There are 2.9 million Nepali language speakers in India. The oldest discovered inscription in the Nepali language is believed to be the Dullu Inscription, believed to have been written around the reign of King Bhupal Damupal around the year 981 CE.

It is believed that the language bore a lot of similarities with other Northwest Indian languages like Punjabi and Lahanda. It's believed that there is some mention of the Khasa language in texts like Manusmriti and the Puranas; the Khashas were documented to have ruled over a vast territory comprising what is now western Nepal, parts of Garhwal and Kumaon in northern India, some parts of southwestern Tibet. King Ashoka Challa is believed to have proclaimed himself Khasha-Rajadhiraja in a copper-plate inscription found in Bodh Gaya, several other copper-plates in the ancient Nepali language have been traced back to the descendants of the King; the popular variant of Nepali is believed to have originated around 500 years ago with the mass migration of a branch of Khas people from the Karnali-Bheri-Seti eastward to settle in lower valleys of the Karnali and the Gandaki basin that were well-suited to rice cultivation. Over the centuries, different dialects of the Nepali language with distinct influences from Sanskrit, Maithili and Bengali are believed to have emerged across different regions of the current-day Nepal and Uttarakhand, making Khasa the lingua franca.

However, the institutionalization of the Nepali language is believed to have started with the Shah kings of Gorkha Kingdom, in the modern day Gorkha district of Nepal. In 1559 AD, a prince of Lamjung, Dravya Shah established himself on the throne of Gorkha with the help of local Khas and Magars, he raised an army of khas people under the command of Bhagirath Panta. In the late 18th century, his descendant, Prithvi Narayan Shah and modernised an army of Chhetri, Thakuri and Gurung people among others and set out to conquer and consolidate dozens of small principalities in the Himalayas. Since Gorkha had replaced the original Khas homeland, Khaskura was redubbed Gorkhali "language of the Gorkhas. One of the most notable military achievements of Prithvi Narayan Shah was the conquest of Kathmandu Valley; this region was called Nepal at the time. After the overthrowing of the Malla rulers, Kathmandu was established as Prithvi Narayan's ne

Imperial Japanese Airways

Imperial Japanese Airways was the national airline of the Empire of Japan during World War II. With the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War, there was a tremendous need for air transport capability by the Japanese military, which had traditionally drawn on the resources of the civilian national flag carrier, Japan Air Transport, for its charter requirements; as Japan Air Transport's capacity was limited, conflict arose between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy over priority, the government saw the need for the creation of a single, national monopoly. The government bought a 50 percent share of Japan Air Transport, renamed it the Dai Nippon Kōkū in December 1938. In the late 1930s, Dai Nippon Kōkū operated an extensive international network with a combination of foreign and domestic aircraft; the airline was linked with Manchukuo National Airways for routes in Chosen and Manchukuo, had routes in the Japanese occupied portions of mainland China. Internally, Dai Nippon Kōkū linked the Japanese home islands with the Kwantung Leased Territory, Taiwan and Saipan and Palau in the South Pacific Mandate.

The airline served the west and central Pacific areas using converted military flying boats. The airline operated some longer charter flights, including flights to Iran and Italy in 1939, had long-term plans to serve Europe through two routes, one passing through Manchuria and Central Asia and the other running from Bangkok through India and the Middle East. After the start of the Pacific War in 1942, the airline became government-owned and operated as two separate units under the control of the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy respectively. By 1943, the airline flew a circular military convoy route from Taiwan through the Philippines, Singapore and southern China. Operations continued until the surrender of Japan despite heavy losses. Haneda Airport was seized by Allied forces in September, the airline was formally disbanded in October. During the Allied occupation, surviving aircraft and equipment were confiscated, civil aviation in Japan was banned until the formation of Japan Air Lines in 1951.

Douglas DC-4E Kawanishi H6K2-L Kawanishi H6K4-L Kawanishi H8K2-L Seiku Kawasaki Ki-56 Kokusai Ki-59 Mitsubishi K3M3-L Mitsubishi MC-20 Mitsubishi MC-21 Nakajima AT-2 Nakajima/Douglas DC-2 Nakajima Ki-6 Showa/Nakajima L2D2 Tachikawa LO Tachikawa Y-59The airline contracted to purchase long-range Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor aircraft from Germany in 1939, but never took delivery. 8 December 1938 Nakajima/Douglas DC-2 crashed in the East China Sea off the Kerama Islands due to engine failure, killing 10 of 12 on board. 17 May 1939 Lockheed 14-WG3B Super Electra struck a fence on takeoff from Fukuoka Airport and crashed, killing six of 11 on board. Wilson, Stuart. Airliners of the World. Australian Aviation. ISBN 1-875671-44-7

Amélie Suard

Amélie Suard was a French writer and salonnière. Her letters provide a valuable source of information on life in France before the French Revolution of 1789; the Suards remained loyal to the Bourbon regime and experienced difficulty during the revolutionary years, but resumed their salons in 1800 under Napoleon. Amélie Panckoucke was born on 12 May 1743, her parents, the author and bookseller André-Joseph Panckoucke and Marie–Marguerite Gandouin, married on 12 February 1730. She was one of 15 children, including publisher Charles-Joseph Panckoucke. Amélie married Jean Baptiste Antoine Suard on 17 January 1766, they had only one child, a daughter who died young. J. B. A. Suard was a journalist, he was a minor philosophe. Before the marriage he frequented Madame Geoffrin's salon. In the late 1760s and early 1770s J. B. A. Suard attached himself to encyclopédistes such as Jean le Rond d'Alembert. At the suggestion of Jeanne Julie Éléonore de Lespinasse he was given seat 26 of the Académie française in 1772.

In 1774 he was named censor of theatrical materials by Louis XV. Amélie Suard began to visit the salons in the 1760s, where she was to be a leading figure for the remainder of the Ancien Régime, she was one of the better writers of the period, her letters have great value as sources of information on the period. Madame Geoffrin disapproved of Suard's imprudent marriage since Amélie did not bring a significant dowry and Suard had only a small income, she refused to see either of them for two years. Amélie managed to charm Madame Geoffrin, who supported the Suard's petite ménage from on. To minimise wear on her best clothes, Amélie dressed in them just before going out to a salon; the young couple did not have a carriage, a woman could not visit on foot, but Madame de Marchais or Madame Necker would always send their horses. The Suards benefitted from the generosity of their friends. Madame d'Épinay reported in a letter to Ferdinando Galiani, "An unknown individual has placed a sum of twenty thousand byres to be placed on the head of M. and Mme Suard as a lifetime income.

He took a long time to decide to accept it, they did accept it, on the condition that the benefactor make himself known. He did make himself known after the acceptance: it was M. Necker; this anecdote should please you." The etiquette of gifts like this was that the donor would insist on being anonymous, but their name would become known. In June 1775 her brother took Amélie to Ferney to visit Voltaire aged 77, a philosopher whom they both admired, she was not disappointed, described the meeting in a series of letters to her husband that combine trivial observations of Voltaire's appearance and habits with philosophical thoughts. For two decades Amélie was the closest female friend of the Marquis de Condorcet, he wrote her many letters describing his views on current affairs. Amélie and her husband became close friends of Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert when he began to frequent Necker's salon in the 1770s; the Suards held a salon frequented by people such as Joseph Joubert, Madame Geoffrin, Jacques Necker and his wife, D'Alembert and François-René de Chateaubriand.

J. B. A. Suard was an acquaintance of Laurence Sterne during his visits to Paris. Unlike many couples at the time, the Suards seem to have remained faithful to each other. During the worst days of the French Revolution the Suards retired to a small house they owned at Fontenai. Condorcet came to the home of the Suards during the Terror looking for refuge, but was refused and committed suicide, they learned of the death of Maximilien Robespierre in July 1794. However, despite his efforts to remain out of trouble, J. B. A. Suard was proscribed and his house was sealed. J. B. A. Suard was to have been deported as a Royalist, but avoided this by going with his wife in July 1794 to stay with Necker at Coppet. After Madame de Staël warned her father that it was dangerous for him to shelter proscribed people J. B. A. Suard went into exile in Switzerland and Germany for three years, while Amélie stayed with friends near Paris. Although Amélie's letters were sentimental, her actions were pragmatic and in her own interests.

Her husband was lazy, she had to struggle to advance his career. While he was in exile she kept the newspaper. In 1799 she joined her husband in Frankfurt, the two moved to Ansbach where they lived among a small colony of exiles for a year. After Napoleon took power the Suards were able to return to France and Suard was appointed to the well-paid position of Permanent Secretary to the Académie; the Suards reopened their salon. Although Madame Suard did not object to her husband accepting honours and money from Napoleon, whom she saw as a usurper to the throne, she remained distant from Madame de Staël for some time due to her republican opinions. Claude Hochet met Benjamin Constant and Madame de Staël at Madame Suard's salon in Paris. Madame Suard continued to hold soirées after the Bourbon Restoration. In 1814 the king made J. B. A. Suard an officer of the Legion of Honour. J. B. A. Suard died in 1817. Amélie worked on compiling his memoirs. Amélie Suard died in 1830