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Demographics of Peru

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Peru, including population density, education level, the health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Peru is a multiethnic country, which means that it is home to people of many different historical backgrounds. Therefore, it is a multicultural country as well. Since it is a multiethnic society, Peruvian people treat their nationality as a citizenship instead of an ethnicity; the Peruvian census does not contain information about ethnicity so only rough estimates are available. According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 31,989,260 in 2018, compared to only 7,728,000 in 1950; the proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 27.9%, 65.3% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6.8% was 65 years or older. Structure of the population: Source: UN World Population Prospects Registration of vital events is in Peru not complete.

The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. Total Fertility Rate and Crude Birth Rate: The metropolitan areas of Peru have been formed from the urban growth of Peruvian cities more populated and they are formed by the integration of two or more municipalities; the most populated Peruvian metropolises by districts are: Lima, Trujillo and Arequipa. Peru is a multiethnic country formed by the amalgamation of different cultures and ethnicities over thousands of years. Amerindians inhabited the land for over ten millennia before the Spanish conquest in the 16th century; as a result of European contact and conquest, the population of the area now known as Peru decreased from an estimated 9 million in the 1520s to around 600000 in 1620. This happened because of the unintended spread of germs and infectious diseases. In fact, the spread of smallpox weakened the Inca empire before the Spanish arrival; the Amerindians did not have as much natural immunity to the disease as did the Europeans, exposed to smallpox for two centuries.

For this reason, several Amerindian populations were decimated. Furthermore, the disease killed Inca ruler Wayna Capac, triggering a civil war in the Inca empire that preceded the conquest efforts the Spaniards. Thus, the conquest was facilitated by the weakness of the Inca empire, recovering from both a civil war and epidemics of unknown diseases. However, other reasons for the decrease of Amerindian population include violence during the conquest followed by the breakdown of the Inca social system and famine; the Amerindian population suffered further decrease as the Spanish exploited an Inca communal labor system called mita for mining purposes, thus killing thousands in forced labor. Spaniards arrived in large numbers under colonial rule. After the independence, there has been a gradual European immigration from Austria, Scotland, Germany, Italy and Spain. Polynesians came to the country lured to work in the Guano islands during the boom years of this commodity around the 1860s. Chinese arrived in the 1850s as a replacement for slave workers in the sugar plantations of the north coast and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society.

Other immigrant groups include Arabs, South Asians and Americans from the United States and Colombia. Mestizos compose about 60% of the total population; the term traditionally denotes European ancestry. This term, was part of the caste classification during colonial times, whereby people of exclusive Spanish descent but born in the colonies were called criollos, people of mixed Amerindian and Spanish descent were called mestizos, those of African and Spanish descent were called mulatos and those of Amerindian and African descent were called Zambos. Nowadays, these terms have racist connotations. Most Peruvian mestizos are of Amerindian and European descent, but other ethnic backgrounds are present, in varying degrees, in some segments of the mestizo population. Most mestizos are urban dwellers and show stronger European inheritance in regions like Lima Region, La Libertad Region, Callao Region, San Martín Region, Cajamarca Region, Piura Region, Amazonas Region, Lambayeque Region, Arequipa Region.

Amerindians constitute around 26% of the total population. The two major indigenous or ethnic groups are the Quechuas, followed by the Aymaras found in the extreme southern Andes. A large proportion of the indigenous population who live in the Andean highlands still speak Quechua and have vibrant cultural traditions, some of which were part of the Inca Empire. Dozens of indigenous cultures are dispersed throughout the country beyond the Andes Mountains in the Amazon basin; this region is becoming urbanized. Important urban centers include Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado and Yurimaguas; this region is home to numerous indigenous peoples, though they do not constitute a large proportion of the total population. Examples of indigenous peoples residing in eastern Peru include the Shipibo, Urarina and Aguaruna, to name just a few. European descendants constitute around 6% of the total population, they are descendants of the Spanish colonizers and other Europeans such as Germans, British and Croatians who arrived in the 19th and 20th centuries.

The majority of them live in the largest cities in the North and Center of Peru: Lima, Chiclay

Zouaves of Death

Zouaves of Death were a Polish military unit during the January Uprising, formed in February 1863 from volunteers in Ojców, Poland, by the Frenchman François Rochebrune. Rochebrune had been a sergeant in the French Zouaves, he based his formation on the French Zouaves. The Zouaves of Death were regarded for their bravery, but they suffered high casualties and their numbers were depleted within months; the unit ceased to exist when the rebellion was defeated in 1864. After the fighting in Poland, Rochebrune returned to the French army, as a captain and colonel; the name of the unit referred to the original French formations recruited from a particular tribe of the Berbers, the Zouaoua of North Africa, in French Algeria in the 1830s. The "of death" portion of the name referenced the oath that the members of the unit were required to swear upon being accepted, which stated that the only outcome of the military engagements that the unit was to participate in was "either victory or death"; the formation was known for its distinctive and elaborate uniforms based on that of the Algerian Zouaves, which consisted of a cotton shirt, a vest made of elk hide, a black silk robe, a collarless black silk frock coat, puffy hose, a black and white scarf, knee high leather boots, a red fez with a ram skin brim and a distinctive large embroidered white cross on the chest.

The identifying standard of the unit reflected the uniform. The unit's baptism by fire occurred at the Battle of Miechów, where under the command of adjutant Wojciech Komorowski, they charged Russian forces defending the local cemetery. However, the overall engagement was a defeat for the Poles. In the Battle of Chroberz the Zouaves covered the retreat of the main body of Polish forces under Marian Langiewicz, they fought at the follow-up Battle of Grochowiska where they captured Russian artillery positions but suffered high casualties. In that engagement Langiewicz lost control over the overall deployment of forces, it was Rochebrune who assumed command and managed the retreat; as a result, he was promoted to the rank of General and, afterward nominated for the position of overall leader of the uprising. However, his candidacy was not recognized and, disillusioned with the political infighting which characterized the insurrection Rochebrune left for France. Another part of the unit, under Cpt.

Stefan Malczewski, fought at the Battle of Pobiednik Mały where outnumbered, they suffered heavy casualties, in good part because of their refusal to retreat according to their oath. The bodies of the dead Zouaves were buried in a mass grave and the Tsarist authorities decreed that the grave was to be left unmarked. However, local villagers, in defiance of the order, planted four saplings on the corners of the mass grave to commemorate them. On, a cement headstone was constructed and a great grandson of one of the Zouaves who died at the battle funded a memorial statue. Rochebrune returned to the fight in the final months of 1863 but at that point the insurrection had suffered severe military setbacks and Rochebrune returned to France. Subsequently Rochebrune was awarded the order of Legion of Honour for his part in the Polish uprising by the French government, he remained a strong advocate for the cause of Polish independence while in France. He took part in the Franco-Prussian war in the rank of colonel where he insisted on fighting in his Zouaves of Death uniform at the head of a unit he called Les Gaulois.

He was killed in November 1870 by a sniper shot near Saint-Cloud. After Rochebrune's departure the Zouaves of Death were led for a short time by the second in command, Tytus O'Brien de Lacy but for all practical purposes it ceased to exist. A portion of the troops crossed over into Austria, while twenty one of its soldiers remained in Poland and fought, alongside the Garibaldi Legion at the Battle of Krzykawka; the Uprising was crushed by Russia in 1864. Włodzimierz Wolski composed a song dedicated to Zouaves, the "March of Zuaves"

Television Personalities

The Television Personalities are an English post-punk band formed in 1977 by London singer-songwriter Dan Treacy. Their varied and long career encompasses post punk, neo-psychedelia and indie pop. Present and former members include Chelsea childhood mates'Slaughter Joe' Joe Foster, one time best friend Ed Ball and Jowe Head, with Jeffrey Bloom from 1983-94; the threesome of Dan and Jeff is considered by many to be the band's definitive line-up. Although prolific, the Television Personalities are best known for their early single "Part Time Punks", second and fourth albums, as well as the critically acclaimed Privilege and Closer to God LPs. Despite their minor commercial success, the Television Personalities are regarded by critics and have been influential on the C86 generation, on many of the bands signed to Creation Records in the 1990s, on American artists such as Pavement and MGMT. Treacy's unconventional but dryly witty and culture infused lyrics, have led to his reputation as a seminal and iconic figure within the independent music scene.

In 2006 music critic Cam Lindsay described Treacy as having "recorded some of the most bizarre and brilliant pop songs in the last three decades". Treacy was inspired to form the Television Personalities after hearing the Sex Pistols and Jonathan Richman. Unconventional, Treacy said he was not that much interested in music and the band rehearsed. Treacy was averse to preparing set-lists for live performances, preferring to keep the band on their toes. Head remembers "us rehearsing once in late 1983. We did another one five years and, about it." The band struggled to find a name, early suggestions included the names of mainstream and ridiculed television hosts such as Nicholas Parsons, Russell Harty, Bruce Forsyth and Hughie Green, before they decided on the more generic and pointed "Television Personalities". Their first single "14th Floor" was released in January 1977 to critical acclaim, it was followed by the 1978 EP Where's Bill Grundy Now? which brought them to popular attention. The EP features their lone chart hit, the seminal "Part Time Punks", written while Treacy was 17 years and living in a high-rise building on King's Road.

Ball was amazed at the quality of Tracey's writing, admitted that he "couldn't believe the lyrics. My best friend was coming out with these amazing songs." With the financial backing of his mother, Tracey hand-pressed 500 copies of "'Where's Bill Grundy Now?", each with a photocopied sleeve, which he sent to various record companies and radio DJs. The track was picked up by BBC's John Peel. Treacy said "Peel loved it, but my mum was hassling me to pay back the money."The song title and resulting media attention brought the band to the notice of the music press and rock establishment royalty they were parodying. Treacy said: "Jimmy Page came in one day when I was reading an interview I'd done, I told him I had a record out. So he walks me upstairs to a wardrobe brimming with guitars, hands me one and five minutes I was jamming with Jimmy Page, he was good, but he weren't as good as me." The promotion of the "14th Floor" single was supported by Joe Strummer, they became a foundational band for Alan McGee when he began to form Creation Records.

In the middle of 1980, the Television Personalities made their live debut following the recruitment of Joe Foster on bass and Mark Sheppard on drums. This line-up was short-lived due to differences in opinion between Foster and Sheppard, leading to Joe's departure. Prior to this and Mark helped out with Joe's solo project, the Missing Scientists, which included Mute Records head Daniel Miller; the Television Personalities' first album... And Don't The Kids Just Love It was released in 1981, it set the template for their subsequent career: neo-psychedelia married to an obsession with youth culture of the 1960s. Their second album Mummy Your Not Watching Me demonstrated increased psychedelic influences, their third album, entitled They Could Have Been Bigger Than The Beatles showed Treacy's sense of humour. The first three albums featured schoolmate Ed Ball. According to critic Ira Robbins, with their 1984 album The Painted Word the TVPs "have drifted off into spare, droning psychedelia and ultra-restrained rock that's hauntingly beautiful, like the most delicate moments of The Velvet Underground."

In 1983 The band comprised Dan, Dave Musker on keyboards, Joe Foster on guitar and Mark Flunder on Bass. Jeffrey Bloom joined on drums at a gig in Alan McGee's Living room club and shortly afterwards Stephen Bird, AKA Jowe Head, replaced Mark Flunder on Bass; this line up went on the band's first tour of Europe but shortly afterwards Joe and Dace left. This left the band as a guitar and drums threesome and Dan and Jeff would continue as the TVPs for the next 14 years; the band were regulars on the London gig scene and did several tours of the UK, the U. S. and Japan. The Chocolate Art and Camping ion France live. Dan was prolific and some singles were recorded like the classic Love the Bomb, but with him now running his Wham record label the TVPs did not record another album until after signing with Fire; that album was Privilege, a more mature, more wistful collection of songs than on previous albums, A trip


Aaron was a prophet, high priest, the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions. Knowledge of Aaron, along with his brother Moses, comes from religious texts, such as the Bible and Quran; the Hebrew Bible relates that, unlike Moses, who grew up in the Egyptian royal court and his elder sister Miriam remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt. When Moses first confronted the Egyptian king about the Israelites, Aaron served as his brother's spokesman to the Pharaoh. Part of the Law that Moses received from God at Sinai granted Aaron the priesthood for himself and his male descendants, he became the first High Priest of the Israelites. Aaron died before the Israelites crossed the North Jordan river and he was buried on Mount Hor. Aaron is mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible. According to the Book of Exodus, Aaron first functioned as Moses' assistant; because Moses complained that he could not speak well, God appointed Aaron as Moses' "prophet". At the command of Moses, he let his rod turn into a snake.

He stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first three plagues. After that, Moses tended to speak for himself. During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron was not always active. At the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the "rod of God"; when the revelation was given to Moses at biblical Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit. While Joshua went with Moses to the top, however and Hur remained below to look after the people. From here on in Exodus and Numbers, Joshua appears in the role of Moses' assistant while Aaron functions instead as the first high priest; the books of Exodus and Numbers maintain that Aaron received from God a monopoly over the priesthood for himself and his male descendants. The family of Aaron had the exclusive right and responsibility to make offerings on the altar to Yahweh; the rest of his tribe, the Levites, were given subordinate responsibilities within the sanctuary.

Moses anointed and consecrated Aaron and his sons to the priesthood, arrayed them in the robes of office. He related to them God's detailed instructions for performing their duties while the rest of the Israelites listened. Aaron and his successors as high priest were given control over the Urim and Thummim by which the will of God could be determined. God commissioned the Aaronide priests to distinguish the holy from the common and the clean from the unclean, to teach the divine laws to the Israelites; the priests were commissioned to bless the people. When Aaron completed the altar offerings for the first time and, with Moses, "blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people: And there came a fire out from before the LORD, consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat when all the people saw, they shouted, fell on their faces". In this way, the institution of the Aaronide priesthood was established. In books of the Hebrew Bible and his kin are not mentioned often except in literature dating to the Babylonian captivity and later.

The books of Judges and Kings mention priests and Levites, but do not mention the Aaronides in particular. The Book of Ezekiel, which devotes much attention to priestly matters, calls the priestly upper class the Zadokites after one of King David's priests, it does reflect a two-tier priesthood with the Levites in subordinate position. A two-tier hierarchy of Aaronides and Levites appears in Ezra and Chronicles; as a result, many historians think that Aaronide families did not control the priesthood in pre-exilic Israel. What is clear is that high priests claiming Aaronide descent dominated the Second Temple period. Most scholars think the Torah reached its final form early in this period, which may account for Aaron's prominence in Exodus and Numbers. Aaron plays a leading role in several stories of conflicts during Israel's wilderness wanderings. During the prolonged absence of Moses on Mount Sinai, the people provoked Aaron to make a golden calf.. This incident nearly caused God to destroy the Israelites.

Moses intervened, but led the loyal Levites in executing many of the culprits. Aaron, escaped punishment for his role in the affair, because of the intercession of Moses according to Deuteronomy 9:20. Retellings of this story always excuse Aaron for his role. For example, in rabbinic sources and in the Quran, Aaron was not the idol-maker and upon Moses' return begged his pardon because he felt mortally threatened by the Israelites. On the day of Aaron's consecration, his oldest sons and Abihu, were burned up by divine fire because they offered "strange" incense. Most interpreters think this story reflects a conflict between priestly families some time in Israel's past. Others argue that the story shows what can happen if the priests do not follow God's instructions given through Moses; the Torah depicts the siblings, Moses and Miriam, as the leaders of Israel after the Exodus, a view reflected in the biblical Book of Micah. Numbers 12, reports that on one occasion and Miriam complained about Moses' exclusive claim to be the LORD's prophet.

Their presumption was rebuffed by God who affirmed Moses' uniqueness as t


The Daciad was a multi-sport competition held every two years in the Socialist Republic of Romania meant to encourage mass participation in amateur sports. Only six editions were held, the first being held in 1977-1978; the last Daciad was the Winter Daciad of 1989. Created at the initiative of president Nicolae Ceaușescu, the name refers to the ancient province of Dacia, being part of the nationalist ideology promoted by the state in the 1970s and 1980s.. The competitions were organized starting 1977 in all companies, universities, military units, communes and counties, in two editions: summer and winter, with finals every two years; the Daciad promoted sports at a school level and the organization of competitions for all age categories, which encouraged school-children to practice sports and become part of the selection pool for various sports. Under the name of the Daciad, the state built gyms, sport venues, as well as company and county-level clubs. Today, many of the sport venues and sports complexes in use in Romania date from that period.

A number of Romanian champions and Olympic medal winners, including Nicu Vlad, Traian Cihărean, Maricica Puică, Ella Kovacs, Alina Astafei, Paula Ivan, Sanda Toma, Vasile Pușcașu first competed and were discovered during the Daciads. In 2013, Minister of Youth and Sports Nicolae Bănicioiu announced that he intends to revive the Daciad to encourage young people to practice sports

Rock County Courthouse (Nebraska)

The Rock County Courthouse, located on State St. between Caroline and Bertha Sts. in Bassett, was built in 1939. It is an Art Deco style building designed by E. B. Watson, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990. The listing included two contributing buildings, it was deemed significant for its architecture and association with politics and government in Rock County. It is one of seven Nebraska county courthouses built under federal work programs of the Great Depression. Architecturally, its NRHP nomination finds it to be "a good example of the County Citadel Property Type" and "contains design features and facilities distinctive to its design and use, a rectangular shape, centered entrance, Art Deco stylistic influence, permanent materials. Elements of the design combine to convey the impression of a government building representing modernity and simplicity features of the County citadel." More photos of the Rock County Courthouse at Wikimedia Commons