Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. At 1.28 million km2, Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, the third largest in South America. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization starting in 3500 BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.

The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American territories, with its capital in Lima. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru completed its independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018.

The sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent, it is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other indigenous languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music.

The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence.

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 12,500 BC in the Huaca Prieta settlement. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money; the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru; the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre i

Misha Frid

Misha Frid is a Russian-born American sculptor, graphic designer, filmmaker who lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. Frid immigrated to the US in 1972 with his wife and their two sons, his works are housed in private and corporate collections and galleries and museums around the world. Frid was born in 1938 to a Jewish family in Moscow, his father was from Lithuania, his mother was from Belarus. When he was five, his father took him to a music school to study the violin. Five years he switched from his music school to art school to study graphic arts and sculpture. Frid graduated from high school in 1955 with honors, he graduated with honors from Moscow State Art College in 1967 and the University of Fine Arts in the city, studied film directing at the Russian State University of Cinematography in Moscow in 1972. In 1964, he had an exhibition at the Pushkin Museum in Moscow with other young artists. Russian culture and literature influence Frid's artistry. A love for Russian composers and Russian ballet inspired him, he sees ballet as sculpture in motion.

A hot summer in 1972 resulted in crop failure and famine, led to an appeal from Russia for help from the UN. The US agreed to help the USSR in exchange for 150 refuseniks to be allowed out of the Soviet Union, Leonid Brezhnev agreed. At the time Frid was a member of the Sculptor Society of Russia, his work was on exhibit in museums, his art was screened through official channels. The "Jackson Amendment" benefited Frid's family, he received a letter permitting him to leave Russia within 14 days with $80 per person. Frid, his wife and two sons emigrated to the United States. In 1978, Frid became a US citizen, he developed a working relationship with the artist and designer Erté, 80 years old: "I felt like a young writer, having the incredible fortune to know Shakespeare". Wentworth Publishing Corporation represented Frid from 1990 to 2011, selling over 5,000 of his sculptures. In 1984, he and his family moved to Toronto. Frid has exhibited his art at New York's International ArtExpo, he exhibited his art at the International ArtExpo in Los Angeles in 1989 and 1990, at the Tokyo International Art Show in 1990, 1991, 1993 and 1994.

Frid won a 1991 Toronto public-art competition with The Lady of the Lily, a 10-foot bronze sculpture. As part of SIART’93, a 1993 cultural-exchange program, he exhibited his art in Seoul. Frid was chosen as a sculptor by the United States Olympic Committee, created Equestrian and Stadium Jumper for the centennial 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, he presented his sculpture for the first time in a collection of drawings at the 2000 International ArtExpo in New York. Frid exhibited his work at the 2004 Toronto ArtExpos. In 2006, he and his family returned to the US. Two years the American Sport Art Museum and Archives in Alabama added Equestrian and Stadium Jumper to its permanent collection. Frid contributed ikebana to the Exquisite Harmony East West exhibition, which featured Western sculpture and traditional Japanese ikebana flower arrangements uniting Eastern and Western culture, at the Art People Gallery in San Francisco that year, he received a certificate of recognition from Japanese consul general Yasumasa Nagamine and a commendation from California Assemblyman Mark Leno.

In 2008, Frid's The Centaur was found among thousands of stolen bicycles and quantities of marijuana and cocaine. Frid created the Freedom of Expression Award for the best director at the Jewish Film Festival in San Francisco, symbolizing "the never extinguished flame of Jewish daring and creativity, from 2008 to 2012." Among the directors to receive the bronze award was 95-year-old Kirk Douglas, before the screening of Spartacus in 2011. Frid donated his Swan Lake to the Saint Petersburg Conservatory for its 150th anniversary, he and Wayne Schotten produced the 2013 documentary film, Swan Lake in Bronze, which received the Best Cinematography for Documentary award at the 2014 Downtown Film Festival in Los Angeles. Frid created two bronze sculptures for the 20th anniversary of the Vladimir Spivakov International Charity Foundation in Moscow in 2014; the following year, Spivakov awarded Frid's Mercy to actor Yevgeny Mironov. Frid has donated his sculptures and drawings to Okizu, the San Francisco Symphony, the Art Deco Society of Los Angeles, the American-Russian Cultural Cooperation Foundation.

Misha Frid, "6th Exhibition of Young Moscow Artists", Moscow, USSR, p. 64, 1961 Catalog "Exhibition of Moscow Region Artists", USSR, p. 26, 1961 Photos of Misha Frid's art, USSR Journal Soviet Woman No.6, p. 2, 1963 Article "Steps to the World of Art", USSR Newspaper Evening Moscow, p. 2, Apr. 12, 1966 Two full pages "Mein Kindergarten" about Misha Frid's art, German Magazine Freie Welt, p. 36, Dec. 01, 1966 Full page about Misha Frid, Polish Magazine Kraj Rad, p. 29, Dec. 04, 1966 Article about a group of artists in newspaper "Russian Jews speak at Westside Center" by Betty Nutkiewicz, The JCA News, Jewish Centers Association of Los Angeles, p. 13, Winter, 1975 Article about Misha Frid's collection, "The passion reined", SunStorm Arts Magazine, p. 4, Apr. 1987 Article "Exhibition "ArtExpo-87" by Lana Mack, Russian Newspaper Novoye Russkoye Slovo, 1987 The Toronto Star Newspaper, p. G3, Nov. 19, 1988, article about Misha Fri

Jean-Christophe Bouvet

Jean-Christophe Bouvet is a French actor, film director and writer. 1977: La Machine directed by Paul Vecchiali 1977: Le théâtre des matières directed by Jean-Claude Biette 1987: Sous le soleil de Satan directed by Maurice Pialat 1991: J'embrasse pas directed by André Téchiné 1992: Savage Nights directed by Cyril Collard 1994: La Cité de la peur directed by Alain Berbérian 1994: L'Eau froide directed by Olivier Assayas 1996: Le complexe de Toulon directed by Jean-Claude Biette 1997: Vicious Circles directed by Sandy Whitelaw 1998: Taxi directed by Gérard Pirès 1999: Gloria directed by Manuela Viegas 1999: Les passagers directed by Jean-Claude Guiguet 2000: Taxi 2 directed by Gérard Krawczyk 2000: Lise et André directed by Denis Dercourt 2001: La boîte directed by Claude Zidi 2002: Jojo la frite directed by Nicolas Cuche 2002: Les naufragés de la D17 directed by Luc Moullet 2002: The Red Siren directed by Olivier Megaton 2003: Saltimbank directed by Jean-Claude Biette 2003: Taxi 3 directed by Gérard Krawczyk 2004: Notre musique directed by Jean-Luc Godard 2004: Mensonges et trahisons et plus si affinités... directed by Laurent Tirard 2005: Il sera une fois directed by Sandrine Veysset 2005: La vie privée directed by Mehdi Ben Attia et Zina Modiano 2005: L'Ivresse du pouvoir directed by Claude Chabrol 2006: Les Brigades du Tigre directed by Jérôme Cornuau 2006: Marie-Antoinette directed by Sofia Coppola 2006: Chacun sa nuit directed by Pascal Arnold et Jean-Marc Barr 2006: Lisa et le pilote d'avion directed by Philippe Barassat 2007: Taxi 4 2007: L'Auberge rouge 2009: The Beast 2010: Black Venus 2013: Gare du Nord 2013: Honey Killer directed by Antony Hickling 2015: Where Horses Go To Die de Antony Hickling Jean-Christophe Bouvet on IMDb