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Denethor II, son of Ecthelion II, is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Return of the King, the third and final part of his novel The Lord of the Rings, he is the last Ruling Steward of Gondor. Denethor is depicted as despairing as the forces of Mordor close in on Gondor. Critics have noted the contrast between Denethor and both Theoden, the good king of Rohan, Aragorn, the true king of Gondor. In Tolkien's Middle-earth, Denethor was the first son and third child of Ecthelion II, a Steward of Gondor, he married daughter of Prince Adrahil of Dol Amroth. She gave birth to two sons and Faramir, but died when they were ten and five years old, respectively. Denethor never remarried, became grimmer and more silent than before, he was a man of great will and strength, but overconfident. Gandalf described him as "proud and subtle, a man of far greater lineage and power, though he is not called a king." Gandalf further commented: He is not as other men of this time…by some chance the blood of Westernesse runs nearly true in him, as it does in his other son and yet did not in Boromir.

He has long sight. He can perceive, if he bends his will thither, much of what is passing in the minds of men of those that dwell far off, it is difficult to deceive him, dangerous to try. Unlike Saruman, Denethor was too strong to be corrupted directly by Sauron, he began secretly using a palantír to probe Sauron's strength, incorrectly insisting he could control it. The effort aged him and the impression of Sauron's overwhelming force that he gained from the palantír depressed him as Sauron biased what he saw. Boromir's death depressed Denethor further, he became more grim. Nonetheless he continued to fight Sauron until the forces of Mordor arrived at the gates of Minas Tirith, at which point he lost all hope. In the published essay on the palantíri, Tolkien wrote: He must have guessed that the Ithil-stone was in evil hands, risked contact with it, trusting his strength, his trust was not unjustified. Sauron could only influence him by deceits. Saruman fell under the domination of Sauron... Denethor remained steadfast in his rejection of Sauron, but was made to believe that his defeat was inevitable, so fell into despair.

The reasons for this difference were no doubt that in the first place Denethor was a man of great strength of will and maintained the integrity of his personality until the final blow of the mortal wound of his only surviving son. As invasion became certain, Denethor ordered the warning beacons of Gondor to be lit, summoned forces from Gondor's provinces and from Rohan, while the people of Minas Tirith were sent away to safety. Denethor ordered his son Faramir to take his men to defend the river crossing at Osgiliath and the great wall of the Rammas Echor. Faramir was wounded mortally. Denethor, grief-struck by the apparent loss of his son, ordered his servants to burn him alive on a funeral pyre prepared for himself and Faramir in Rath Dínen, he broke the white rod of his office over his knee. He so died, clasping the palantír in his hands. Faramir was saved from the flames by Gandalf; the Tolkien scholar Jane Chance contrasts Denethor both with another "Germanic king", with the "true king" of Gondor, Aragorn.

In Chance's view, Theoden represents good, Denethor evil. Chance writes that Tolkien further sets both Theoden and Denethor against the "Christian lord" Aragorn. In her opinion, Denethor "fails as a father, a master, a steward, a rational man," giving in to despair, whereas Aragorn is brave in battle and gentle with his people, has the Christlike attribute of healing. Denethor's madness and despair has been compared to that of Shakespeare's King Lear. Both men are first outraged when their children refuse to aid them, but grieve upon their children's death –, only perceived in case of Faramir. According to Michael D. C. Drout, both Denethor and Lear "despair of God's mercy" dangerous in a leader who has to defend his realm. Alex Davis, in the J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia, writes that many critics have examined his fall and corrupted leadership, whereas Richard Purtill identifies Denethor's pride and egoism, a man who considers Gondor his property; the medievalist Elizabeth Solopova comments that unlike Aragorn, Denethor is incapable of displaying what Tolkien in Beowulf: the Monsters and the Critics called "northern courage", the spirit to carry on in the face of certain defeat and death.

Denethor was voiced by William Conrad in Rankin/Bass's 1980 animated adaptation of The Return of the King, by Peter Vaughan in BBC Radio's 1981 serialization. Denethor is played by John Noble in Peter Jackson's film The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King; the film portrays Denethor more negatively than the novel. Tolkien calls Denethor a masterful man, both wise and learned beyond the measure of those days, strong willed, confident in his own powers, dauntless, he was proud, but this was by no means personal: he loved Gondor and its people, deemed himself appointed by destiny to lead them in this desperate time. In contrast, Jackson portrays him as a cowardly and weak ruler who works against his kingdom's defence. Daniel Timmons writes in the J. R. R. Tolkien Encyclopedia that Jackson "dramatiz

Sanjak of Novi Pazar

The Sanjak of Novi Pazar was an Ottoman sanjak, created in 1865. It was reorganized in 1880 and 1902; the Ottoman rule in the region lasted until the First Balkan War. The Sanjak of Novi Pazar included territories of present-day northeastern Montenegro and southwestern Serbia including some northern parts of Kosovo; the region is known as Raška, called Sandžak. During the Middle Ages, Raška was one of the central regions of Medieval Serbia. Incursions by Ottoman Turks began in late 14th century, following the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 and the creation of the Turkish frontier march of Skopje in 1392; the final conquest of the Raška region occurred in 1455, when Isa-Beg Isaković, the Ottoman Bosnian governor of Skopje, captured the south-western parts of the Serbian Despotate. At first, Raška was included in the frontier march of Skopje, the governor of which, Isa-Beg Isaković, decided to create a new stronghold near the old market site of Staro Trgovište; the new site was therefore called Novi Pazar.

Isaković built a mosque here, a public bath, a hostel, a compound. Novi Pazar belonged to the Jeleč vilayet of the Skopsko Krajište. Other vilayets were Sjenica. By 1463, the region had been incorporated into the newly created Sanjak of Bosnia; the seat of the kadı was subsequently transferred from Jeleč to Novi Pazar not long before 1485, from that time the city became the most important centre in the southeastern parts of the Bosnian Sanjak. The region of Novi Pazar remained part of the Sanjak of Bosnia until 1864. Following the promulgation in 1864 of the Vilayet Law and the reorganization of the Eyalet of Bosnia in 1865, the region of Novi Pazar became a separate sanjak with its administrative seat in the city of Novi Pazar, it comprised the kazas of Yenivaroş, Mitroviça, Trgovište, Kolaşin, Taşlıca. The Sanjak of Novi Pazar belonged to the Vilayet of Bosnia, prior to becoming a part of the newly established Kosovo Vilayet in 1878, it included most of the present day Sandžak region – known as Raška – as well as northeastern parts of Montenegro and some northern parts of Kosovo.

At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Andrássy obtained, in addition to the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the right to station garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, which remained under Ottoman administration. The Sanjak continued to separate Serbia from Montenegro, it was envisaged that the Austro-Hungarian garrisons there would open the way for a dash to Salonika aimed at "bring the western half of the Balkans under permanent Austrian influence." "High military authorities desired immediate major expedition with Salonika as its objective." On 28 September 1878 the Finance Minister, Koloman von Zell, threatened to resign if the army, behind which stood the Archduke Albert, were allowed to advance to Salonika. In the session of the Hungarian Parliament held on 5 November 1878 the Opposition proposed that the Foreign Minister should be impeached for violating the constitution by his policy during the Near East Crisis and by the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.

The motion was lost by 179 to 95. The gravest accusations were raised against Andrassy were file. On 10 October 1878 the French diplomat Melchior de Vogüé described the situation as follows: Particularly in Hungary the dissatisfaction caused by this "adventure" has reached the gravest proportions, prompted by that strong conservative instinct which animates the Magyar race and is the secret of its destinies; this vigorous and exclusive instinct explains the historical phenomenon of an isolated group, small in numbers yet dominating a country inhabited by a majority of peoples of different races and conflicting aspirations, playing a role in European affairs out of all proportions to its numerical importance or intellectual culture. This instinct is to-day awakened and gives warning that it feels the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to be a menace which, by introducing fresh Slav elements into the Hungarian political organism and providing a wider field and further recruitment of the Croat opposition, would upset the unstable equilibrium in which the Magyar domination is poised.

This Austro-Hungarian expansion southward at the expense of the Ottoman Empire was designed to prevent the extension of Russian influence and the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In order to counter the Austro-Hungarian influence in the region of Raška, the Ottoman government made a new administrative change: the Sanjak of Novi Pazar was removed from the Bosnia Vilayet and attached to the Kosovo Vilayet, established in 1877. Further administrative changes soon followed. In 1880, the entire western part of Novi Pazar Sanjak was reorganized and a separate Sanjak of Pljevlja was established there, which included the kazas of Pljevlja and the mundirate in Priboj. Another important administrative change was made in 1902, when the kaza of Novi Pazar was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Sanjak of Priština, the rest of Novi Pazar Sanjak was reorganized as the Sanjak of Sjenica, which included the districts of Sjenica, Nova Varoš, Bijelo Polje, Lower Kolašin (part of modern Bijelo Polje

Particle-induced X-ray emission

Particle-induced X-ray emission or proton-induced X-ray emission is a technique used in the determining of the elemental make-up of a material or sample. When a material is exposed to an ion beam, atomic interactions occur that give off EM radiation of wavelengths in the x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum specific to an element. PIXE is a powerful yet non-destructive elemental analysis technique now used by geologists, art conservators and others to help answer questions of provenance and authenticity; the technique was first proposed in 1970 by Sven Johansson of Lund University and developed over the next few years with his colleagues Roland Akselsson and Thomas B Johansson. Recent extensions of PIXE using focused beams gives the additional capability of microscopic analysis; this technique, called microPIXE, can be used to determine the distribution of trace elements in a wide range of samples. A related technique, particle-induced gamma-ray emission can be used to detect some light elements.

Three types of spectra can be collected from a PIXE experiment: X-ray emission spectrum. Rutherford backscattering spectrum. Proton transmission spectrum. Quantum theory states that orbiting electrons of an atom must occupy discrete energy levels in order to be stable. Bombardment with ions of sufficient energy produced by an ion accelerator, will cause inner shell ionization of atoms in a specimen. Outer shell electrons drop down to replace inner shell vacancies, however only certain transitions are allowed. X-rays of a characteristic energy of the element are emitted. An energy dispersive detector is used to measure these X-rays. Only elements heavier than fluorine can be detected; the lower detection limit for a PIXE beam is given by the ability of the X-rays to pass through the window between the chamber and the X-ray detector. The upper limit is given by the ionisation cross section, the probability of the K electron shell ionisation, this is maximal when the velocity of the proton matches the velocity of the electron, therefore 3 MeV proton beams are optimal.

Protons can interact with the nucleus of the atoms in the sample through elastic collisions, Rutherford backscattering repelling the proton at angles close to 180 degrees. The backscatter give information on the sample composition; the bulk sample properties allow for the correction of X-ray photon loss within the sample. The transmission of protons through a sample can be used to get information about the sample. Channeling is one of processes. Protein analysis using microPIXE allow for the determination of the elemental composition of liquid and crystalline proteins. MicroPIXE can quantify the metal content of protein molecules with a relative accuracy of between 10% and 20%; the advantage of microPIXE is that given a protein of known sequence, the X-ray emission from sulfur can be used as an internal standard to calculate the number of metal atoms per protein monomer. Because only relative concentrations are calculated there are only minimal systematic errors, the results are internally consistent.

The relative concentrations of DNA to protein can be measured using the phosphate groups of the bases as an internal calibration. Analysis of the data collected can be performed by the programs Dan32, the front end to gupix. In order to get a meaningful sulfur signal from the analysis, the buffer should not contain sulfur. Excessive amounts of chlorine in the buffer should be avoided, since this will overlap with the sulfur peak. There are many advantages to using a proton beam over an electron beam. There is less crystal charging from Bremsstrahlung radiation, although there is some from the emission of Auger electrons, there is less than if the primary beam was itself an electron beam; because of the higher mass of protons relative to electrons, there is less lateral deflection of the beam. Two-dimensional maps of elemental compositions can be generated by scanning the microPIXE beam across the target. Whole cell and tissue analysis is possible using a microPIXE beam, this method is referred to as nuclear microscopy.

MicroPIXE is a useful technique for the non-destructive analysis of antiques. Although it provides only an elemental analysis, it can be used to distinguish and measure layers within the thickness of an artifact. Proton beams can be used for writing through either the hardening of a polymer, or through the degradation of a proton sensitive material; this may have important effects in the field of nanotechnology. Examination of Leonardo da Vinci's Madonna of the Yarnwinder using PIXE Application of PIXE to the study of Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry

Japhetic theory

In linguistics, the Japhetic theory of Soviet linguist Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr postulated that the Kartvelian languages of the Caucasus area are related to the Semitic languages of the Middle East. The theory gained favor among Soviet linguists for ideological reasons, as it was thought to represent "proletarian science" as opposed to "bourgeois science". Marr adopted the term "Japhetic" from Japheth, the name of one of the sons of Noah, in order to characterise his theory that the Kartvelian languages of the Caucasus area were related to the Semitic languages of the Middle East. Marr postulated a common origin of Caucasian, Semitic-Hamitic, Basque languages; this initial theory pre-dated the October Revolution. In 1917, Marr enthusiastically endorsed the revolution, offered his services to the new Soviet regime, he was soon accepted as the country's leading linguist. Under the Soviet government, Marr developed his theory to claim that Japhetic languages had existed across Europe before the advent of the Indo-European languages.

They could still be recognised as a substratum over which the Indo-European languages had imposed themselves. Using this model, Marr attempted to apply the Marxist theory of class struggle to linguistics, arguing that these different strata of language corresponded to different social classes, he claimed that the same social classes in different countries spoke versions of their own languages that were linguistically closer to one another than to the speech of other classes who spoke “the same” language. This aspect of Marr’s thinking was an attempt to extend the Marxist theory of international class consciousness far beyond its original meaning, by trying to apply it to language. Marr insisted that the notion that a people are united by common language was nothing more than false consciousness created by “bourgeois nationalism”. To draw support for his speculative doctrine, Marr elaborated a Marxist footing for it, he hypothesized that modern languages tend to fuse into a single language of communist society.

This theory was the basis for a Soviet mass campaign in the 1920s and 1930s introducing Latin alphabets for smaller ethnicities of the country, including replacement of the existing Cyrillic alphabets. Obtaining recognition of his theory from Soviet officials, Marr was permitted to manage the National Library of Russia from 1926 until 1930 and the Japhetic Institute of the Academy of Sciences from 1921 until his death in 1934, he was elected Vice-President of the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1930. In 1950, sixteen years after Marr’s death, an anti-Marrist article signed by Joseph Stalin was published in major Soviet periodicals under the title "Marxism and Problems of Linguistics"; the author wrote that “N. Ya. Marr introduced into linguistics another and incorrect and non-Marxist formula, regarding the ‘class character’ of language, got himself into a muddle and put linguistics into a muddle. Soviet linguistics cannot be advanced on the basis of an incorrect formula, contrary to the whole course of the history of peoples and languages."

Since the Japhetic theory has been seen as flawed, both inside and outside the former Soviet Union, but some of Marr’s surviving students continued to defend and develop it into the late 1960s. Georgy Danilov Dené-Caucasian languages Khazar theory Lemurian Tamil Lysenkoism Proto-language Sun Language Theory

Saturday Night Live (season 31)

The thirty-first season of Saturday Night Live, an American sketch comedy series aired in the United States on NBC between October 1, 2005, May 20, 2006. 19 episodes were produced due to the 2006 Winter Olympic Games and network budget cuts. This season is notable for the people. Julia Louis-Dreyfus, an SNL cast member from 1982 to 1985 under Dick Ebersol, became the first former female cast member to come back and host the show. Gilda Radner was supposed to host in 1988, but could not due to the Writer's Guild of America Strike and Radner's death the following year; this season is known for the return of such frequent hosts as Alec Baldwin, Tom Hanks, Steve Martin. This season saw the seventh death of a former cast member when Charles Rocket committed suicide in 2005. Rocket's suicide is the first death of an SNL cast member who never worked under Lorne Michaels and is the first death of a Weekend Update anchor; this season was the first to broadcast in high-definition, after 30 years of broadcasting in standard definition.

A 30th anniversary special for the show scrapped due to budget cuts. Before the start of the season, featured player Rob Riggle was let go from the show. Finesse Mitchell and Kenan Thompson were both promoted to repertory status, while Jason Sudeikis stayed a featured player; the show added three new cast members: Los Angeles-based sketch comedian Bill Hader, Andy Samberg and Kristen Wiig of The Groundlings. Wiig debuted on the show in November, in the episode hosted by Jason Lee. Samberg and Taccone would be a notable force for creating SNL Digital Shorts. One such short was "Lazy Sunday". Tina Fey and Maya Rudolph missed episodes due to maternity leave. Fey's place on Weekend Update was taken over by Horatio Sanz until her return in the episode hosted by Catherine Zeta-Jones. Fey returned to the show. Maya Rudolph, appeared on the first episode of the new season, went on maternity leave and returned in February, in the episode hosted by Steve Martin; this would be the final season for cast members Rachel Dratch, Tina Fey, Finesse Mitchell, Chris Parnell and Horatio Sanz, as well as the last season for longtime director Beth McCarthy-Miller.

Dratch and Fey both left the show to focus on 30 Rock and McCarthy-Miller left the show on her own terms. Parnell and Sanz were let go due to NBC budget cuts. Bold denotes Weekend Update anchor There were three head writers for the 31st season: Andrew Steel, Tina Fey, Seth Meyers. Future cast member Colin Jost joined the writing staff this season

Ángel Velarte

Ángel Ricardo Velarte Rosando is an Argentine sport shooter. He won a gold medal in air rifle shooting at the 2003 Pan American Games in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, was selected to compete for Argentina in two editions of the Olympic Games. Having started shooting at the age of fifteen, Velarte served most of his sporting career as a full-time member of the La Rioja Shooting Federation in his native Buenos Aires under head coaches Julio Escalante and Ariel Martínez. Velarte's Olympic debut came at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, where he wound up a thirty-eighth spot in the 10 m air rifle, edged out his compatriot Ricardo Rusticucci by a three-point advantage to take the forty-fourth position in the 50 m rifle 3 positions, accumulating a tally of 577 and 1,142 points, respectively. Despite missing out his 2000 Olympic bid, Velarte reached the peak of his shooting career by claiming the first gold medal for Argentina in the men's air rifle at the 2003 Pan American Games in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic with a total score of 692.5 points.

Because of his remarkable victory, Velarte had guaranteed a place on the Argentine team and attained a mandatory minimum score to compete for the Olympics, signifying his return from an eight-year absence. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Velarte qualified for his second Argentine squad in rifle shooting. In the 10 m air rifle, Velarte shot 586 out of 600 to finish in a two-way tie with Serbia and Montenegro's Stevan Pletikosić for thirty-ninth place. Four days in the 50 m rifle prone, Velarte scored 584 points to grab the penultimate position in a field of forty-six shooters, betraying a three-point gap from Cuba's Reinier Estpinan in the prelims. In his third and last event, 50 m rifle 3 positions, Velarte fired 394 in the prone position, 368 in the standing, 380 in the kneeling to accumulate an overall record of 1,137 points, leaving him in thirty-sixth place along with Mexico's Roberto José Elias. ISSF Profile