Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Kariya is a city in central Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015, the city had an estimated population of 149,030 and a population density of 2,960 persons per km2; the total area was 50.45 square kilometres. Kariya is situated in central Aichi Prefecture. Aichi Prefecture Toyota Ōbu Anjō Chiryū Takahama Toyoake Miyoshi Tōgō Higashiura Kariya was a castle town in the Sengoku period, in an area contested between the Imagawa clan, Oda clan and various local warlords, including the Mizuno clan and Matsudaira clan. Tokugawa Ieyasu’s maternal grandfather Mizuno Tadamasa rebuilt Kariya Castle in the mid-16th century; the Mizuno clan shifted allegiances adroitly between the Imagawa clan to Oda Nobunaga and to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who relocated the clan to Ise Province. However, Mizuno Katsunari, the grandson of Tadamasa was allowed to return to the clan’s ancestral territories by Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara as daimyō of Kariya Domain a feudal han under the Tokugawa shogunate; the domain was reassigned to numerous clans during the Edo period, but was retained by the Doi clan from 1734 until the Meiji Restoration.
After the Meiji Restoration, Kariya Town was created within Hekikai District, Aichi Prefecture on October 1, 1889. The town prospered as a center for commerce, sake production and ceramics due to its location on the main railway routes; the Yosami Transmitting Station, located in Kariya, was Japan's tallest structure when completed in 1929. Kariya achieved city status on April 1, 1950; the city expanded by annexation of neighboring Fujimatsu and most of Yosami villages on April 1, 1955. Control of the Yosami Transmitting Station was returned to Japan from the United States Navy in 1994, the former facility is now a city park; the economy of Kariya is dominated by companies related to Toyota Motor Corporation, including Toyota Industries Corporation, Aisin Seiki and Denso Corporation. Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, was the original company of Toyota Motor Corporation, became a subsidiary of that firm; because the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works was so profitable, board members decided to reinvest much of the profits into the growing automobile manufacturing business JR Central – Tōkaidō Main Line Higashi-Kariya • Noda-Shimmachi • Kariya • Aizuma Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line Hitotsugi • Fujimatsu Meitetsu – Mikawa Line Kariya • Kariyashi • Ogakie HighwaysIsewangan Expressway National Route 1 National Route 23 National Route 155 National Route 419 UniversityAichi University of EducationSchoolKariya has 15 elementary schools, six middle schools and five high schoolsInternational SchoolThe Colégio Pitágoras Brasil, a Brazilian school was located in Kariya.
The city is home to the SeaHorses Mikawa, 5-time champion of Japan's top professional basketball league. – Mississauga, Canada since 1981 Kijo Park Mando Matsuri Norihiro Akahoshi – professional baseball player On Kawara – artist Koji Kondo – professional soccer player Nobuyuki Sato – marathon runner Mitsunori Yoshida – professional soccer player Official website Kariya City official website Mississauga Sister City Site
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
QR code is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan. A barcode is a machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which it is attached. In practice, QR codes contain data for a locator, identifier, or tracker that points to a website or application. A QR code uses four standardized encoding modes to store data efficiently; the Quick Response system became popular outside the automotive industry due to its fast readability and greater storage capacity compared to standard UPC barcodes. Applications include product tracking, item identification, time tracking, document management, general marketing. A QR code consists of black squares arranged in a square grid on a white background, which can be read by an imaging device such as a camera, processed using Reed–Solomon error correction until the image can be appropriately interpreted; the required data is extracted from patterns that are present in both horizontal and vertical components of the image.
The QR code system was invented in 1994 by the Japanese company Denso Wave. Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacturing. QR codes are now used in a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenience-oriented applications aimed at mobile-phone users. QR codes may be used to display text to the user, to add a vCard contact to the user's device, to open a Uniform Resource Identifier, to connect to a wireless network, or to compose an email or text message. There are a great many QR code generators available as online tools; the QR code has become one of the most-used types of two-dimensional code. There are several standards that cover the encoding of data as QR codes: October 1997 – AIM International January 1999 – JIS X 0510 June 2000 – ISO/IEC 18004:2000 Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – Bar code symbology – QR code Defines QR code models 1 and 2 symbols. 1 September 2006 – ISO/IEC 18004:2006 Information technology – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – QR code 2005 bar code symbology specification Defines QR code 2005 symbols, an extension of QR code model 2.
Does not specify how to read QR code model 1 symbols, or require this for compliance. 1 February 2015 – ISO/IEC 18004:2015 Information – Automatic identification and data capture techniques – QR Code barcode symbology specification Renames the QR Code 2005 symbol to QR Code and adds clarification to some procedures and minor corrections. At the application layer, there is some variation between most of the implementations. Japan's NTT DoCoMo has established de facto standards for the encoding of URLs, contact information, several other data types; the open-source "ZXing" project maintains a list of QR code data types. QR codes have become common in consumer advertising. A smartphone is used as a QR code scanner, displaying the code and converting it to some useful form. QR code has become a focus of advertising strategy, since it provides a way to access a brand's website more than by manually entering a URL. Beyond mere convenience to the consumer, the importance of this capability is that it increases the conversion rate: the chance that contact with the advertisement will convert to a sale.
It coaxes interested prospects further down the conversion funnel with little delay or effort, bringing the viewer to the advertiser's website where a longer and more targeted sales pitch may lose the viewer's interest. Although used to track parts in vehicle manufacturing, QR codes are used over a much wider range of applications; these include commercial tracking and transport ticketing and loyalty marketing and in-store product labeling. Examples of marketing include where a company's discounted and percent discount can be captured using a QR code decoder, a mobile app, or storing a company's information such as address and related information alongside its alpha-numeric text data as can be seen in Yellow Pages directory, they can be used in storing personal information for use by organizations. An example of this is Philippines National Bureau of Investigation where NBI clearances now come with a QR code. Many of these applications target mobile-phone users. Users may receive text, add a vCard contact to their device, open a URI, or compose an e-mail or text message after scanning QR codes.
They can generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several pay or free QR code-generating sites or apps. Google had an API, now deprecated, to generate QR codes, apps for scanning QR codes can be found on nearly all smartphone devices. QR codes storing addresses and URLs may appear in magazines, on signs, on buses, on business cards, or on any object about which users might want information. Users with a camera phone equipped with the correct reader application can scan the image of the QR code to display text, contact information, connect to a wireless network, or open a web page in the telephone's browser; this act of linking from physical world objects is termed object hyperlinking. QR codes may be linked to a location to track where a code has been scanned. Either the application that scans the QR code retrieves the geo information by using GPS and cell tower triangulation
John Deere is the brand name of Deere & Company, an American corporation that manufactures agricultural and forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains used in heavy equipment, lawn care equipment. In 2018, it was listed as 102nd in the Fortune 500 America's ranking and was ranked 394th in the global ranking; the company provides financial services and other related activities. Deere & Company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol DE; the company's slogan is "Nothing Runs Like a Deere", its logo is a leaping deer, with the words'JOHN DEERE' under it. Various logos incorporating a leaping deer have been used by the company for over 155 years. Deere & Company began when John Deere, born in Rutland, Vermont, USA on February 7, 1804, moved to Grand Detour, Illinois in 1836 to escape bankruptcy in Vermont. An established blacksmith, Deere opened a 1,378-square-foot shop in Grand Detour in 1837, which allowed him to serve as a general repairman in the village, as well as a manufacturer of large tools such as pitchforks and shovels.
Small tools production was just a start. Prior to Deere's steel plow, most farmers used iron or wooden plows to which the rich Midwestern soil stuck, so they had to be cleaned frequently; the smooth-sided steel plow solved this problem, aided migration into the American Great Plains in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The traditional way of doing business was to make the product as and when it was ordered; this style was slow, As Deere realized that this was not going to be a viable business model, he increased the rate of production by manufacturing plows before putting them up for sale. Word of his products began to spread quickly. In 1842, Deere entered a business partnership with Leonard Andrus and purchased land for the construction of a new, two-story factory along the Rock River in Illinois; this factory, named the "L. Andrus Plough Manufacturer", produced about 100 plows in 1842 and around 400 plows during the next year. Deere's partnership with Andrus ended in 1848, Deere relocated to Moline, Illinois, to have access to the railroad and the Mississippi River.
There, Deere formed a partnership with Robert Tate and John Gould and built a 1,440-square-foot factory the same year. Production rose and by 1849, the Deere, Tate & Gould Company was producing over 200 plows a month. A two-story addition to the plant was built. Deere bought out Tate and Gould's interests in the company in 1853, was joined in the business by his son Charles Deere. At that time, the company was manufacturing a variety of farm equipment products in addition to plows, including wagons, corn planters, cultivators. In 1857, the company's production totals reached 1,120 implements per month. In 1858, a nationwide financial recession took a toll on the company. To prevent bankruptcy, the company was reorganized and Deere sold his interests in the business to his son-in-law, Christopher Webber, his son, Charles Deere, who would take on most of his father's managerial roles. John Deere served as president of the company until 1886; the company was reorganized again in 1868, when it was incorporated as Company.
While the company's original stockholders were Charles Deere, Stephen Velie, George Vinton, John Deere, Charles ran the company. In 1869, Charles began to introduce marketing centers and independent retail dealers to advance the company's sales nationwide; this same year, Deere & Company won "Best and Greatest Display of Plows in Variety" at the 17th Annual Illinois State Fair, for which it won $10 and a Silver Medal. The core focus remained on the agricultural implements, but John Deere made a few bicycles in the 1890s. Increased competition during the early 1900s from the new International Harvester Company led the company to expand its offerings in the implement business, but the production of gasoline tractors came to define Deere & Company's operations during the 20th century. In 1912, Deere & Company president William Butterworth, who had replaced Charles Deere after his death in 1907, began the company's expansion into the tractor business. Deere & Company experimented with its own tractor models, the most successful of, the Dain All-Wheel-Drive, but in the end decided to continue its foray into the tractor business by purchasing the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company in 1918, which manufactured the popular Waterloo Boy tractor at its facilities in Waterloo, Iowa.
Deere & Company continued to sell tractors under the Waterloo Boy name until 1923, when the John Deere Model D was introduced. The company continues to manufacture a large percentage of its tractors in Waterloo, namely the 7R, 8R, 9R series; the company produced the John Deere No. 2, in 1927. A year this innovation was followed up by the introduction of John Deere No. 1, a smaller machine, more popular with customers. By 1929, the No. 1 and No. 2 were replaced by newer, lighter-weight harvesters. In the 1930s, John Deere and other farm equipment manufacturers began developing hillside harvesting technology. Harvesters now had the ability to use their combines to harvest grain on hillsides with up to a 50% slope gradient. On an episode of the Travel Channel series Made in America that profiled Deere & Company, host John Ratzenberger stated that the company never repossessed any equipment from American farmers du
Toyota Racing Development
Toyota Racing Development is the in-house tuning shop for all Toyota and Scion cars. TRD is responsible both for improving street cars for more performance and supporting Toyota's racing interests around the world. TRD produces various tuning products and accessories, including performance suspension components and wheels. TRD parts are available through Toyota dealers, are available as accessories on brand-new Toyotas and Scions. Performance parts for Lexus vehicles are now labeled as F-Sport and performance Lexus models are labeled F to distinguish Lexus's F division from TRD; as of June 2013 there are two official branches of TRD: TRD Japan and TRD USA. Each of these branches has both a race division. TRD Japan's Race Division concentrates on the Super GT Series, All-Japan Formula Three Championship Series, ESSO Formula Toyota Series, Netz Cup races. TRD USA's Race Division, known as'Toyota Racing', competes in NASCAR, NHRA Top Fuel and Funny car, IMSA GT Daytona, Pirelli World Challenge TCA, Formula Drift, TORC, USAC, Lucas Oil Off Road Racing Series.
Former competitions include Grand-Am, CART/Champ Car and the Indy Racing League. In association with All American Racers, TRD USA was responsible for developing engines for the Eagle HF89/90 and Eagle MkIII Grand Touring Prototypes. TRD is not to be confused with Toyota Motorsport GmbH, located in Cologne and operates Toyota's FIA World Endurance Championship factory team under the name Toyota Gazoo Racing. Within Toyota, TMG is a separate entity from, therefore not under the control of, TRD. Former TMG activities include operating the Toyota Formula One Team, which competed in the FIA Formula One World Championship. TMG competed in the FIA World Rally Championship as Toyota Team Europe with the famous Celica GT-Four and rally versions of the Corolla, two attempts at the 24 Hours of Le Mans with the GT-One. Toyota Australia introduced a TRD division in August 2007, with the supercharged Aurion V6, followed by a high-performance variant of the 4WD Hilux in April 2008. Speculation suggested a third model was to be a RAV4.
TRD was aimed to compete with local in-house tuning shops Holden Special Vehicles and Ford Performance Vehicles. However, in December 2008 Toyota Australia announced it would be ceasing production of its TRD range; the decision took effect on 31 March 2009. TRD offers bolt-on headers, sport mufflers, cat-back exhausts that are 50 state emission legal. Cold air intakes are sold but not always emission legal. Suspension equipment includes coilovers, springs and struts, suspension tower braces, sway bars, wheel upgrades as well. Braking hardware includes full brake kits including calipers and stainless steel braided brake lines. Separate performance brake pads are sold. Oil and air filters are offered. Engine head gaskets and camshafts are sold as well. A number of cosmetic modifications are available among other performance equipment; when install is performed by a Toyota dealer, the 3/36,000 mile warranty extends to the supercharger, otherwise the vehicle retains the factory warranties and the supercharger is covered by a 12 month/unlimited mileage warranty.
As of 2015 all TRD Superchargers have been discontinued and ceased production, but all warranties will still be acknowledged. 2003–04 Matrix 2003–04 Corolla 2003–04 Pontiac Vibe 2005–2011 Scion tC 2008–2009 Scion xB 1994–96 Camry Requires minor modification. 1997–00 Camry 1998–00 Sienna 1999–00 Solara 1995–04 Tacoma 1997–98 T100 2000–03 Tundra 1996–02 4Runner 2008– TRD Aurion 2005–2015 Tacoma 2007–09 FJ Cruiser 2003-09 4Runner 1995–97 Landcruiser 2000–09 Tundra 2003 GX 470 2003–09 4Runner 2007– Tundra 2008– Sequoia Toyota 4Runner TRD Pro Toyota 4Runner TRD Off-Road Toyota 4Runner TRD Off-Road Premium Toyota Tacoma TRD Sport Toyota Tacoma TRD Off-Road Toyota Tacoma TRD Pro Toyota Tundra SR5, Platinum, or 1794 Edition with TRD Sport package Toyota Tundra SR5, Platinum, or 1794 Edition with TRD Off-Road package Toyota Tundra TRD Pro Toyota Sequoia TRD Sport Toyota Sequoia TRD Pro Toyota 86 TRD Toyota FJ Cruiser TRD Toyota Rush TRD Sportivo Toyota RAV4 TRD Off-Road Toyota Vios TRD Sportivo Toyota Agya TRD S Toyota Yaris TRD Sportivo Toyota Hilux TRD Toyota Fortuner TRD Sportivo Toyota Camry TRD Toyota Avalon TRD Toyota 86 TRD Toyota Celica TRD Lexus F division Toyota in motorsports Toyota Racing Official website Official website Official website Official website Toyota Technocraft Toyota Motorsport GmbH Toyota Motorsports
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal