Embd is a municipality in the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Embd is first mentioned in 1250 as Emeda, in 1330 it was mentioned as Embda and Emda. Embd has an area, as of 2011, of 13.4 square kilometers, of this area,24. 6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 15. 2% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 58. 7% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district, on the steep, left side of the Nikolai valley. It consists of a number of scattered settlements including the hamlet of Flue, which serves as the central settlement, Embd has a population of 302. As of 2008,0. 3% of the population are resident foreign nationals, over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -13. 6%. It has changed at a rate of -11. 7% due to migration, most of the population speaks German as their first language, French is the second most common and Serbo-Croatian is the third. There is 1 person who speaks Italian, as of 2008, the population was 49. 8% male and 50. 2% female.
The population was made up of 161 Swiss men and 1 non-Swiss men, there were 162 Swiss women and 1 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality,279 or about 79. 0% were born in Embd and lived there in 2000. There were 33 or 9. 3% who were born in the canton, while 24 or 6. 8% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 23. 2% of the population, while adults make up 58. 6%, as of 2000, there were 146 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 194 married individuals,13 widows or widowers and individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 123 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.7 persons per household. There were 26 households that consist of one person and 9 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 118 apartments were permanently occupied, the vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 5. 91%. The historical population is given in the chart, In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 71. 88% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the SP and the FDP, in the federal election, a total of 137 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 51. 5%. In the 2009 Conseil dEtat/Staatsrat election a total of 181 votes were cast, the voter participation was 73. 0%, which is much more than the cantonal average of 54. 67%
Zmutt is a small village in the municipality of Zermatt, Switzerland, situated at 1936 m in the Zmutt Valley west of Zermatt. The village chapel is dedicated to Saint Catherine of Alexandria, patroness of the Valais, the valley passes the northern slope of the Matterhorn and terminates in the Zmutt Glacier on the border to Italys Aosta Valley. The Zmutt dam at 46°0′28″N 7°42′34″E, constructed in 1964, has a height of 74 m and this dam is fed by waters from the Bis and Gorner Glacier
The Aosta Valley is a mountainous semi-autonomous region in northwestern Italy. It is bordered by Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France to the west, Switzerland to the north, covering an area of 3,263 km2 and with a population of about 128,000 it is the smallest, least populous, and least densely populated region of Italy. It is the only Italian region that is not sub-divided into provinces, provincial administrative functions are provided by the regional government. The region is divided into 74 comuni, the Aosta Valley is an Alpine valley which with its tributary valleys includes the Italian slopes of Mont Blanc, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso and the Matterhorn, its highest peak is Mont Blanc. The region is cold in the winter, especially when compared with other places in the Western Alps. Winter temperatures average around −3 °C or −4 °C, and summers between 13 °C and 15 °C, the snow season starts in November and lasts until March. Mist is common during the morning from April until October, the main communities in this area are Gressoney-Saint-Jean and Gressoney-La-Trinité.
The valleys above 1600 metres usually have a Cold Continental Climate, in this climate the snow season is very long, as long as 8 or 9 months at the highest points. During the summer, mist occurs almost every day and these areas are the wettest in the western Alps. Temperatures are low, between −7 °C and −3 °C in January, and in July between 10 °C and 13 °C. In this area is the town of Rhêmes-Notre-Dame. which may be the coldest town in the Western Alps, areas between 2000 metres and 3500 metres usually have a Tundra Climate, where every month has an average temperature below 10 °C. Temperature averages in Pian Rosà, at 3400 metres high, are −11.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July and it is the coldest place in Italy where the climate is verifiable. In the past, above 3500 metres, all months were having a temperature below freezing. In recent years there was a rise in temperatures. See as an example the data for Pian Rosà, the first inhabitants of the Aosta Valley were Celts and Ligures, whose language heritage remains in some local placenames.
Thus, the name Valle dAosta literally means Valley of Augustus, saint Anselm of Canterbury was born in Aosta in 1033 or 1034. In the mid-13th century Emperor Frederick II made the County of Aosta a duchy, the region remained part of Savoy lands, with the exceptions of French occupations from 1539 to 1563, in 1691, between 1704 and 1706. As part of the Kingdom of Sardinia it joined the new Kingdom of Italy in 1861 and it was ruled by the First French Empire between 1800 and 1814
St. Niklaus, Switzerland
St. Niklaus is a village and a municipality in the Mattertal, part of the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. St. Niklaus is first mentioned in 1233 as chousun, in 1272 it was mentioned as ecclesia Sancti Nicholai de Chouson, Gebreitun de Gazun,1388 in villa sti nicolai de chosun, niu a fr Saint-Nicolas. Josef Marie Lochmatter, his best friend Peter Knubel, his brother-in-law Alois Pollinger, and Josef Imboden and they had a monopoly on Matterhorn ascents. Moreover, as the first Swiss guide, Peter Knubel climbed a mountain outside the Alps in 1874, Alois Pollinger invented the double-rope system of descent with. He used this technique with success at the Ridge of Ferpècle, Josef Imboden was the first Swiss to ascend a 6,000 meter-high in the Himalayas in 1883, where we find the highest mountains in the world. The fathers trained the sons early in their expeditions. The initiators of the new school came out of their ranks for the time, a fact that gave a new input to alpinism.
They werent satisfied to climb a mountain, but they always chose more and more difficult routes. They were the first ski-guides and were pioneers overseas, the mountain guides of St. Niklaus have effected about 300 first ascents a little bit everywhere in the world. In 1995 a monument for all guides of St. Niklaus was built, moreover, in 2000 a museum of the mountain guides was opened in St. Niklaus. St. Niklaus has an area, as of 2011, of 89.3 square kilometers, of this area,9. 8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 21. 5% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1. 5% is settled and 67. 2% is unproductive land, the municipality is located in the Visp district. It is the settlement in the Matter valley. It consists of the settlements of Riedmatten, Stalu, Ze Schwidernu, Herbriggen, Breitmatten on the valley floor and the alpine settlement of Gasenried on the eastern slope. St Niklaus sits in the Mattertal, the valley that runs from Stalden to Zermatt. There are several footpath nets for Alpine hikers leading up on the mountains, the closest hut is the Topali hut at the west side of the village.
The Bordier hut at the east side can be accessed easily from St Niklaus, the highest mountain close to St Niklaus is Brunegghorn, reaching almost 4,000 m. In 1866 the municipality was created through the merger of St. Niklaus Dorf, the municipality is a stop on section of the Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn between Visp railway station and Zermatt railway station
Breuil-Cervinia is an alpine resort in the Aosta Valley region of northwest Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Valtournenche, cervinia lies at 2,006 m above sea level, at the foot of the Matterhorn, in a valley surrounded by high, glaciated mountains and the sheer rock face of the Jumeaux. It shares a ski area with Zermatt in Switzerland, connected through the Plateau Rosa glacier, some of the runs are very long, the longest stretches 22 km from the Klein Matterhorn in Switzerland down to Valtournenche in Italy. Cervinia being one of Europes highest ski resorts means low temperatures and good consistent snow fall, temperatures get very cold through the winter months with daily averages being around -5 - -10 for the winter months and only about 8-10c in the summer months. This maintains the snow in great shape throughout the winter season, december usually averages round 40-50cm in resort and 140-160cm on the mountain, January approx 80cm and 200cm, February approx 90cm and 220cm, march 100cm and 240cm, April 60cm - 200cm.
The town hosted the FIBT World Championships in 1971,1975, official website, & Breuil-Cervinia Downhill Snow Report from Aosta valley official website, &
Cartography of Switzerland
Switzerland has had its current boundaries since 1815, but maps of the Old Swiss Confederacy were drawn since the 16th century. The first topographical survey on a federal level began in 1809, from 1869 to 1901, this map was replaced by the Topographic Atlas of Switzerland or Siegfried Map. From 1901, the Topographical Survey of Switzerland is an independent division within the military, the office is renamed as the Swiss Federal Office of Topography in 1979, with the swisstopo. ch website online since 1997. The first systematic description of Switzerland is the Superioris Germaniae Confoederationis descriptio by Albert von Bonstetten. The oldest map Old Swiss Confederacy is the one by Konrad Türst, physician in Zürich from 1489, trüsts map shows most of the territory of modern Switzerland. On the margins is a grid in Arabic numerals, using Ptolemys prime meridian of 20°W. The first printed map of Switzerland is Tabula Nova Heremi Helvetiorum, numerous maps followed in the 16th century, notably those by Aegidius Tschudi, Johannes Stumpf, Sebastian Münster and Abraham Ortelius.
Most of these maps were oriented towards either the south or the east. The convention of orienting maps towards the north was gradually introduced beginning in the mid 16th-century, Tschudi gave his scale in the miliaria Helvetica, corresponding eight Italian miles. In the 17th century, cartography progressed to the production of essentially modern topographic maps, Hans Conrad Gyger by commission of the government of Zürich produced a detailed map of the canton of Zürich in an effort spanning four decades. Gyger published a map of Switzerland in 1657. In 1809, still under the Napoleonic Act of Mediation, the first topographical surveys of Switzerland took place on a confederate and they took place in the north-eastern area and were led by Hans Conrad Finsler. Measurements in the region started in the period of Restauration, in 1825. This work would be finished in 1837 by Johannes Eschmann, directly hereafter, at New Year 1838, the Topographical Bureau is founded in Carouge, Geneve by Guillaume Henri Dufour.
This bureau publishes its first map the same year, the Carte topographique du Canton de Genève, Topographic surveys start in the alpine regions of Switzerland. This has its first results in 1845, a than planned. This is the start of the so-called Dufour Map, the topographic surveys finish in 1862. To honour Dufour, the Swiss government decides to rename the highest peak on the Dufour Map from Höchste Spitze to Dufourspitze, in 1863, the SAC published a 1,50.000 map of the region Tödi, based on unpublished survey material
The Pennine Alps, known as the Valais Alps, and formerly called Alpes Poeninae, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. They are located in Switzerland and Italy, the Italian side is drained by the rivers Dora Baltea and Toce, tributaries of the Po. The Swiss side is drained by the Rhône, the Great St Bernard Tunnel, under the Great St Bernard Pass, leads from Martigny, Switzerland to Aosta. The main chain runs from west to east on the border between Italy and Switzerland, from Mont Vélan, the first high summit east of St Bernard Pass, the chain rarely goes below 3000 metres and contains many four-thousanders such as Matterhorn or Monte Rosa. Unlike many other ranges, the higher peaks are often located outside the main chain