Sir Zelman Cowen, AK, GCMG, GCVO, QC was an Australian legal scholar and academic administrator. He was the 19th Governor-General of Australia, Cowen was born in Melbourne in 1919 to a Jewish family named Cohen. The name was changed to Cowen when he was a young boy. He was educated at St Kilda Park State School, Scotch College, from 1947 to 1950 he was a fellow of Oriel College and was a consultant on legal matters to the British Military Government in Allied-occupied Germany. In 1951 Cowen returned to Australia and became Dean of the Law Faculty at the University of Melbourne, a post he held until 1966 where he appointed, and worked with Francis Patrick Donovan. During these years he was frequently a visiting professor at American universities, including the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois and he advised the British Colonial Office on constitutional matters and advised the governments of Ghana and Hong Kong on legal issues. Among many other works, he published a biography of Sir Isaac Isaacs, Cowen was appointed Vice-Chancellor of the University of New England in Armidale, New South Wales, in 1966.
The following year, he produced for ABC television the Yes case for the Australian referendum,1967, from 1970 to 1977 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Queensland in Brisbane. In 1977 Ray Crooke painted Portrait of Professor Emeritus Sir Zelman Cowen which is part of the University of Queensland collection, by this time he was regarded as one of the leading constitutional lawyers in the English-speaking world. He was Emeritus Professor of Law at Melbourne and the Tagore Professor of Law at the University of Calcutta, during his time in Queensland he handled disturbances at the university, resulting from protests against the Vietnam War, with diplomatic skill. When Sir John Kerrs turbulent period of office as Governor-General ended with his resignation in 1977. He was in ways a perfect choice. He was a distinguished Australian with a reputation, his knowledge of the Constitution and the law were beyond dispute. The fact that Cowen was Jewish gave his appointment a multicultural aspect in keeping with contemporary Australian sentiment and he served four and a half years as Governor-General, from December 1977 to July 1982.
From 1982 to 1990 Cowen was Provost of Oriel College, after his retirement he returned to Australia and became active in Jewish community affairs in Melbourne. He pursued a range of interests, including serving for five years on the board of Fairfax Newspapers during a turbulent period for the company. During the lead-up to the 1999 Australian republic referendum, he supported a moderate republican position, Cowen had four children, Yosef and Ben. His son, Rabbi Shimon Cowen, is Director of the Institute for Judaism, Cowen suffered from Parkinsons disease for at least the last 15 years of his life
Southbank is an inner urban neighbourhood of Melbourne, Australia,1 km south of Melbournes central business district. Its local government area are the Cities of Melbourne and Port Phillip, at the 2011 Census, Southbank had a population of 11,235. Its northernmost area is considered part of the Central Business District, Southbank is bordered to the north by the Yarra River, and to the east by St Kilda Road. Southbanks southern and western borders are bounded by Dorcas Street, Kings Way, Southbank was formerly an industrial area and part of South Melbourne. It was transformed into a populated district of high rise apartment and office buildings beginning in the early 1990s. With the exceptions of the precinct along St Kilda Road. Today, Southbank is dominated by high-rise development and it is one of the most densely populated areas of Melbourne, with a large cluster of apartment towers, including Australias tallest tower measured to its highest floor, the Eureka Tower. Southbank Promenade and Southgate Restaurant and Shopping Precinct, on the bank of the Yarra River.
Southgates landmark Ophelia sculpture by Deborah Halpern has been used to represent Melbourne in tourism campaigns, before European settlement, the area now called South Melbourne was a series of low lying swamps inhabited by Aboriginal tribes. The Arts Centre precinct opened in the 1980s on former parkland, the area was the subject of urban renewal in the 1980s and early 1990s. In part, this was aimed at stimulating development in a period when Melbourne was experiencing an economic downturn during the global recession on 1991–92. Denton Corker Marshall designed and oversaw the original Southbank Promenade in 1990, at the eastern end of the area is the Victorian Arts Centre. Since then, the pylon underneath the award winning Southbank Pedestrian Bridge has been utilised and is now home to Ponyfish Island, further buildings including the Esso headquarters were built between 1992 and 1995. Development expanded along the Yarra westward, with the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre in 1996 and Crown Casino in 1997, Clarendon Towers attracted the owner occupiers.
Beginning with Southbank Towers in 1997, Central Equity began a swathe of apartment towers, in 2002 the neighbouring Yarras Edge precinct of the new Melbourne Docklands began to kick off. The arts precinct was extended with the construction of the award winning buildings for the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art in 2002, at around the same time a new headquarters for the State Emergency Service was built. Central Equity apartments are aimed at both the owner occupier and rental market with management provided by Melbourne Inner City Management, an owned subsidiary of Central Equity. With a boom in apartment building and the success of the Melburnian, the 91 floor Eureka Tower was begun in 2002, aimed at being the tallest residential tower in the world and was completed in 2006
Australian Institute of Architects
The Australian Institute of Architects, formally the Royal Australian Institute of Architects, is a professional body for architects in Australia. The Australian Institute was formed in 1930, when state architectural institutes combined to form a national association. A chapter is now maintained in each state and territory, though full federation did not come about immediately, the RVIA was the last to join, in 1968. The Institute is represented on national and state industry and government bodies. The AIA Gold Medal is the highest award of the Australian Institute of Architects awarded annually since 1960, the National Architecture Awards have been presented since 1981. H. M
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
Tokyo, officially Tokyo Metropolis, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government, Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868, Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. The Tokyo metropolitan government administers the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo, the metropolitan government administers 39 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains. The population of the wards is over 9 million people. The prefecture is part of the worlds most populous metropolitan area with upwards of 37.8 million people, the city hosts 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world.
Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit, the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo ranked first in the Global Economic Power Index and fourth in the Global Cities Index. The city is considered a world city – as listed by the GaWCs 2008 inventory – and in 2014. In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle, the Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo ranked first in the world in the Safe Cities Index, the 2016 edition of QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, Tokyo was originally known as Edo, which means estuary. During the early Meiji period, the city was called Tōkei, some surviving official English documents use the spelling Tokei.
However, this pronunciation is now obsolete, the name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the twelfth century
Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the worlds most populous island of Java, Jakarta is the economic and political centre. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, the city has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the countrys independence was declared in 1945. Jakarta is listed as a city in the 2012 Globalization and World Cities Study Group. Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution, in 2014, Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their names, Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Djakarta. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta, the origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language.
Jayakarta translates as victorious deed, complete act, or complete victory, Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York. In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten, initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavias canals, mansions. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, many green spaces. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality.
The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles, the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, in 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre, through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Companys first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682
Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre
The Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre is the name given to two adjacent buildings next to the Yarra River in South Wharf, an inner-city suburb of Melbourne, Australia. The venues are owned and operated by the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Trust, the Melbourne Exhibition Centre Trust was created in August 1994 with the responsibility of overseeing the construction and development of the Melbourne Exhibition Centre. In August 1997, the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Trust became owner, the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Trust is responsible for managing and promoting the use of the Royal Exhibition Building in the Carlton Gardens. As a government-owned trust, The Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Trust is responsible to the Minister for Tourism, the Melbourne Exhibition Centre was opened on 14 February 1996 and is known colloquially as Jeffs Shed after the Victorian Premier, Jeff Kennett. In 1998 a covered footbridge was erected between the Exhibition and Convention centres, parallel to the Spencer Street Bridge, the building resembles a long shed with separated operable walls.
This allows the space to be split from a maximum of 30,000 square metres of 360 metres long by 84 metres wide into a minimum of 3,000 square metre spaces. The single volume with a proportion of length to width of approximately 2.5,1 was chosen, other than the exhibition space, the building has a basement that is able to hold 1,000 cars. From the main entrance, visitors would be able to see the 450 metres southward vista of the concourse as well as the mezzanine balconies. On the first floor of the pavilion and extending along the mezzanine platform, there are meeting and function rooms which separates the double-height hall. Some have large windows overlooking the exhibition, the Melbourne Exhibition Centre was to be built larger than the Sydney Exhibition Building while still costing the same. The site for the Exhibition Centre was previously the site for Daryl Jackson’s Museum of Victoria, the brief required DCM to work with the partially built concrete structure. Another relation to the Russian Constructivist is the cantilevered structure supported by yellow steel props as well as the metal letters arranged over the top of the entrance.
The building consists of two different roof designs which are angled at different directions and this was due to the intention to create two different successful spaces which is the exhibition space and the public space. By this method, the architects manage to create two different environments, one which is an exhibition space and another is the concourse which is open to the public. Due to the brief that required the building to be constructed in an amount of time and save cost. On top of that, the trusses have to be solid in order to provide isolation from one hall to the next. At the same time, in order to reduce the span, and to stiffen them laterally, the two rows of columns that are located in the verandah are intended to give a subtle separation of the interior and exterior of the building. The blades which are located along the concourse are coloured in a series of Francis-Bacon-inspired colours and this serves as a double purpose of punctuating the linear volume and labelling the halls
Governor Phillip Tower
Completed in 1994, the property development complex occupies an elevated site in the north-east area of the central business district. The complex incorporates the site of the first Government House, one of Australia’s earliest and most significant sites of European heritage, the address is 1 Farrer Place, Sydney. Integral to the development was the conservation of the remains and their incorporation into the Museum of Sydney. With construction starting only months after the arrival of the British First Fleet in 1788 and it was the first substantial building to be constructed in Australia. The elevated site was prominent, overlooking Sydney Cove, and the building was at the centre of its colonial government and it was demolished in 1845 although significant foundation remains have now been conserved and interpreted. The First Government House site is one of six sites in the Sydney area listed on the Australian Department of the Environment National Heritage List, the northern Bridge Street end of the site remained vacant for 50 years.
In 1982 a development application for a high office building was approved. The Government of New South Wales found a solution by transferring floor space from, what had become a holy site. Space owned by developer Sid Londish was used, who masterminded the amalgamation of the whole site, the resultant site covers a whole block bound by Bridge, Bent and Young Streets. Governor Phillip Tower dominates the site and it sits 10 floors above street level on a series of large zinc-plated transfer beams atop a 4-level sandstone-clad podium. This maximises views, and hence rentals, for all levels, however, is mixed on how well this massive 10-storey base contributes to the building’s relationship with the street. The façade is of granite and glass used to achieve an expensive. The steel-bladed roof features have been dubbed the milk-crate, at 227m to the roof, it is the 3rd tallest building in the city by roof height, although the taller MLC Centre and World Tower are both only fractionally taller with a 228m roof height.
It is arguably the most visually dominating building on the Sydney CBD skyline, from many prominent angles, and significantly from most Sydney Harbour viewpoints, it appears as the tallest building on the skyline by a large margin, this is perspective illusion. Governor Macquarie Tower stands at 41 storeys and is adjacent and south of Governor Phillip Tower and it has identical façade treatments but its form and massing are significantly different with no dramatic roof structure, and it has staggered, rather than sheer lines. The primary tenant is the New South Wales Government including the Premier’s Office and it occupies the site of the former Legal & General building which at the time was the tallest building to have been demolished in Sydney. The main entry to buildings is from Farrer Place. They share what is arguably Sydney’s most impressive and grandiose foyer, First Government House Plaza is an open-air public space and part of Museum of Sydney, situated at Bridge Street end of the site
In social science, the term built environment refers to the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks. It has been defined as the space in which people live, work. The built environment encompasses places and spaces created or modified by people including buildings, parks, in recent years, public health research has expanded the definition of built environment to include healthy food access, community gardens, mental health and bikeability. The effort was in partnership with others who believed that beautifying American cities would improve the moral compass of the cities and this beautification process included parks and architectural design. For example, community forest user group in Nepal is multidimensional institution, in public health, built environment refers to physical environments that are designed with health and wellness as integral parts of the communities. Research has indicated that the way neighborhoods are created can affect both the activity and mental health of the communities’ residents.
Studies have shown that built environments that were designed to improve physical activity are linked to higher rates of physical activity. Neighborhoods with more walkability had lower rates of obesity as well as increased physical activity among its residents and they had lower rates of depression, higher social capital, and less alcohol abuse. Walkability features in these neighborhoods include safety, sidewalk construction, as well as destinations in which to walk, in addition, the perception of a walkable neighborhood, one that is perceived to have good sidewalks and connectivity, is correlated with higher rates of physical activity. Assessments of walkability have been completed through the use of GIS programs and this example of a walkability assessment tool determines distances to grocery stores and other amenities, as well as connectivity and intersection frequency using specific addresses. Assessments such as the Street Smart Walk Score can be utilized by city, public health addresses additional components of built environments including “bikeability” and healthy food access such as proximity to grocery stores and community gardens.
Bikeability refers to the access that an area has granted to safe biking through multiple bike paths, both walkability and bikeability have been cited as determinants of physical activity. Access to healthy food is an important component of the built environment, a higher density of convenience stores has been associated with obesity in children. In contrast, improved access to community supermarkets and farmer’s markets is correlated with lower overweight status, specifically in low income neighborhoods, the presence of a local grocery store is correlated with lower BMI/overweight risk. Community gardens are considered a part of the built environment. The intersection of health with other disciplines is evident in the design process of built environments which includes environmental planning, policy development. Research suggests that people are active in mixed-use communities or those that incorporate retail and residential. Those who preferred to walk and live in walkable environments often have lower obesity rates, in landscape architecture, the built environment is understood to mean a human-made landscape, as distinguished from the natural environment, for example, a city park is a built environment