Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people. It is used in this regard to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants; the terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D. C. in 2001. There are different definitions of terrorism. Terrorism is a charged term, it is used with the connotation of something, "morally wrong". Governments and non-state groups denounce opposing groups. Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives; these organizations include right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups and ruling governments.
Legislation declaring terrorism a crime has been adopted in many states. There is no consensus as to; the Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths between 2000 and 2014. Etmologically, the word terror is derived from the Latin verb Tersere, which becomes Terrere; the latter form appears in European languages as early as the 12th century. By 1356 the word terreur is in use. Terreur is the origin of the Middle English term terrour, which becomes the modern word "terror"; the term terroriste, meaning "terrorist", is first used in 1794 by the French philosopher François-Noël Babeuf, who denounces Maximilien Robespierre's Jacobin regime as a dictatorship. In the years leading up to the Reign of Terror, the Brunswick Manifesto threatened Paris with an "exemplary, never to be forgotten vengeance: the city would be subjected to military punishment and total destruction" if the royal family was harmed, but this only increased the Revolution's will to abolish the monarchy.
Some writers attitudes about French Revolution grew less favorable after the French monarchy was abolished in 1792. During the Reign of Terror, which began in July 1793 and lasted thirteen months, Paris was governed by the Committee of Public safety who oversaw a regime of mass executions and public purges. Prior to the French Revolution, ancient philosophers wrote about tyrannicide, as tyranny was seen as the greatest political threat to Greco-Roman civilization. Medieval philosophers were occupied with the concept of tyranny, though the analysis of some theologians like Thomas Aquinas drew a distinction between usurpers, who could be killed by anyone, legitimate rulers who abused their power – the latter, in Aquinas' view, could only be punished by a public authority. John of Salisbury was the first medieval Christian scholar. Most scholars today trace the origins of the modern tactic of terrorism to the Jewish Sicarii Zealots who attacked Romans and Jews in 1st century Palestine, they follow its development from the Persian Order of Assassins through to 19th-century anarchists.
The "Reign of Terror" is regarded as an issue of etymology. The term terrorism has been used to describe violence by non-state actors rather than government violence since the 19th-century Anarchist Movement. In December 1795, Edmund Burke used the word "Terrorists" in a description of the new French government called'Directory': At length, after a terrible struggle, the Troops prevailed over the Citizens To secure them further, they have a strong corps of irregulars, ready armed. Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people; the terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" gained renewed currency in the 1970s as a result of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Northern Ireland conflict, the Basque conflict, the operations of groups such as the Red Army Faction. Leila Khaled was described as a terrorist in a 1970 number of Life magazine. A number of books on terrorism were published in the 1970s.
The topic came further to the fore after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the 2001 September 11 attacks and the 2002 Bali bombings. There are over 109 different definitions of terrorism. American political philosopher Michael Walzer in 2002 wrote: "Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders". Bruce Hoffman, an American scholar, has noted that It is not only individual agencies within the same governmental apparatus that cannot agree on a single definition of terrorism. Experts and other long-established scholars in the field are incapable of reaching a consensus. C. A. J. Coady has written that the question of how to define terrorism is "irresolvable" because "its natural home is in polemical and propagandist contexts". French historian Sophie Wahnich distinguishes between the revolutionary terror of the French Revolution and the terrorists of the September 11 attacks: Revolutionary terror is not terrorism.
To make a moral equivalence between the Revolution's year II and September 2001 is historical and philosophical nonsense... The violence exercised on 11 September 2001 aimed neither at liberty. Nor did the preventive war announced by the president of the United States. Experts
The Parinacochas Province is a province located in the Ayacucho Region of Peru. It is one of the eleven; the province has a population of 24,028 inhabitants as of 2002. The capital of the province is Coracora. North: Apurímac Region East: Paucar del Sara Sara Province South: Arequipa Region West: Lucanas Province The highest mountain in the province is Sara Sara at 5,505 m on the border to the Paucar del Sara Sara Province. Other mountains are listed below: The province extends over an area of 5,968.32 square kilometres and is divided into eight districts: Coracora Chumpi Coronel Castañeda Pacapausa Pullo Puyusca San Francisco de Ravacayco Upahuacho The people in the province are indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. Quechua is the language which the majority of the population learnt to speak in childhood, 44.60% of the residents started speaking using the Spanish language. Inka Wasi Parinaqucha Parququcha Tipiqucha
Department of Ica
Ica is a department in Peru. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west, its capital is the city of Ica. The Department of Ica has a remarkable geography, it is the only region of the southern coast formed by plains called coast plains, since the Andean Cordillera rise up inland. Some geological folds have determined the formation of dunes moving toward the sea, which form much of the Paracas Peninsula; some isolated formations located at the southern part created the Marcona complex, with the biggest deposits of iron in the Pacific coast. Ica's configuration is due to the geomorphology of its two big and unique fluvial watersheds: the Pasco and Ica rivers, it has a waterway called the Rio Grande, although its waters do not reach the ocean. Some waters are diverted for irrigation and agriculture in the provinces of Pampa and Ingenio. There are extensive deserts such as the Lancha Pampas. Pozo Santo and Villacuri pampas are hot areas. Strong and persistent winds called paracas stir up large sandstorms.
Ica has a rich history. The first settlers are from 10,000 years ago, from which the Wari, Nazca and Paracas cultures developed, the latter being the most important; the Paracas culture developed from the seventh through the 2nd century BC. It is distinguished by its matchless textile skills and the art of mummifying their dead; the Nazca culture, on the contrary, well known for its artistic pottery, in which colorful designs and representations excel over the form, the same as their famous lines and figures that have undergone implausible interpretations. This culture expanded from the 2nd century BC through the 7th century AD, they have left us their wonderful aqueducts that made good use of underground water, of rivers and rain, showing a great knowledge of hydraulic engineering. In the 15th century, during the Inca empire, Pachacuti incorporated the territories of Ica and the Chincha valley. Years in 1563, with the arrival of the Spanish, Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera founded the Villa de Valverde del Valle de Ica.
Since the area became an important vineyard and cotton center. During the independence war, General José de San Martín landed in Paracas and fixed his headquarters in Pisco, to start the fight for the independence of Peru; the region is divided into five provinces. The provinces, with their capitals in parentheses, are: Chincha Ica Nazca Palpa Pisco Capital of the Ica Department. A modern clean city that has popular Peruvian street markets, many old churches and landmarks, modern malls, coffee shops and hotels as well. Located on the west side of the city of Ica, capital of the Ica Department. One of the most popular places to visit in Ica is La Huacachina; the famous desert oasis is located 5 km from Ica. It is a small lake with medicinal water, lying in the middle of a spectacular sand desert. Pisco is the most important port in a litoral province; the most important attractions within this province are Paracas, Paracas Bay and the Paracas National Reserve. Pisco was home of an ancient pre-Hispanic culture, who are known for their exquisite textiles.
Paracas is a small town catering to tourism. It serves as the jumping point for tours to Paracas National Reservation; the beautiful Paracas Bay protected by Paracas Peninsula gives these shallow, warmer waters break from ocean waves permitting life to flourish near its south western edge encompassed within Paracas National Reserve. The Paracas Museum found just near the south western edge of Paracas Bay, provides excellent information about Paracas culture and the many unique species, in particular, the birds of Paracas; the Ica-Nazca culture flourished along the southern coast of Peru from around 200 BC to 600 AD. This area is dry; the Nazca developed extensive irrigation systems, including underground canals, that allowed them to farm the land. The Nazca are known for their beautiful textiles and pottery which feature images of animals and mythological beings, they are more famous, for an extraordinary but puzzling set of creations known as the Nazca Lines, which are geoglyphs and geometric line clearings in the Atacama desert, in the district of Nazca.
On a large, rock-strewn plain, the Nazca made huge drawings by scraping away stones to reveal the lighter soil underneath. The drawings depict various plants and animals, including humans, a monkey and other creatures, as well as lines and geometric shapes; these drawings are so huge, that they can be seen only from the sky. Scientists believe; the area of the Nazca lines is called the Pampa Colorada. A small village near Ica, Cachiche is well known for its history of witches. Doña Julia, Cachiche's first witch, was known to practice "good magic," curing and helping villagers with her spells. Near the entrance to the town, a carving from a single huarango tree depicts this first "bruja de Cachiche". Ica has significant wine and pisco industries, annual fiestas, a museum and historic colonial churches; the climate is sunny and dry due to its elevation above coastal fog and mist. 2007 Peru earthquake "Ica, a government department of Peru". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Paucar del Sara Sara Province
Paucar del Sara Sara Province is a province located in the south-eastern corner of the Ayacucho Region of Peru. It is one of eleven provinces; the province has a population of 10,610 inhabitants 2005 census. It is bounded to the north and west by the Parinacochas Province and to the south and east by the Arequipa Region; the capital of this province is the city of Pausa. The highest mountain in the province is Sara Sara at 5,505 m on the border to the Parinacochas Province. Other mountains are listed below: The province extends over an area of 2,096.92 square kilometres and is divided into ten districts. The districts, with their capitals in parenthesis, are: Colta Corculla Lampa Marcabamba Oyolo Pararca Pausa San Javier de Alpabamba San José de Ushua Sara Sara District The people in the province are indigenous citizens of Quechua descent. Quechua is the language which the majority of the population learnt to speak in childhood, 49.36 % of the residents started speaking using the Spanish language.
Ccotapampa Hatun Tipiqucha Huch'uy Tipiqucha Kunturqucha
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
2007 Peru Census
The 2007 Peru Census was a detailed enumeration of the Peruvian population. It was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática on Sunday, October 21, 2007, its full name in Spanish is XI Censo de Población y VI de Vivienda. The previous census performed in Peru was the 2005 Census, the following census was the 2017 Peru Census. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática Official website