Franz Marc was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement. He was a member of Der Blaue Reiter, a journal whose name became synonymous with the circle of artists collaborating in it. Franz Marc was born in 1880 in Munich, the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria and his father, Wilhelm Marc, was a professional landscape painter, his mother, was a homemaker and a devout, socially liberal Calvinist. In 1900 Marc began to study at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich, in 1903 and 1907, he spent time in France, particularly in Paris, visiting the museums in the city and copying many paintings, a traditional way for artists to study and develop technique. In Paris, Marc frequented artistic circles, meeting numerous artists and he discovered a strong affinity for the work of painter Vincent van Gogh. In 1906, Marc traveled with his elder brother Paul, a Byzantine expert, to Thessaloniki, Mount Athos, a few years later, in 1910, Marc developed an important friendship with the artist August Macke.
In 1910 Marc painted Nude with Cat and Grazing Horses, Marc showed several of his works in the first Der Blaue Reiter exhibition at the Thannhauser Galleries in Munich between December 1911 and January 1912. As it was the apex of the German expressionist movement, the exhibit showed in Berlin, Hagen and he painted The Tiger and Red Deer in 1912 and The Tower of Blue Horses and Fate of the Animals in 1913. With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Marc was drafted into the German Army as a cavalryman, by February 1916, as shown in a letter to his wife, he had gravitated to military camouflage. His technique for hiding artillery from aerial observation was to paint canvas covers in broadly pointillist style, after mobilization of the German Army, the government identified notable artists to be withdrawn from combat for their own safety. Marc was on the list but was struck in the head, Marc made some sixty prints in woodcut and lithography. Most of his mature work portrays animals, usually in natural settings and his work is characterized by bright primary color, an almost cubist portrayal of animals, stark simplicity and a profound sense of emotion.
Even in his own time, his work attracted notice in influential circles. ”One of Marcs best-known paintings is Tierschicksale, Marc had completed the work in 1913, when the tension of impending cataclysm had pervaded society, as one art historian noted. On the rear of the canvas, Marc wrote, Und Alles Sein ist flammend Leid, serving in World War I, Marc wrote to his wife about the painting, is like a premonition of this war—horrible and shattering. I can hardly conceive that I painted it and his family house in Munich is marked with a historical plaque. In October 1998, several of Marcs paintings garnered record prices at Christies art auction house in London, including Rote Rehe I, in October 1999, his Der Wasserfall was sold by Sothebys in London to a private collector for $5. 06m. This price set a record for both Franz Marcs work, and twentieth-century German painting, during his twenties, Marc was involved in a number of stormy relationships, including an affair lasting for many years with Annette Von Eckardt, a married antique dealer nine years his senior.
He married twice, first to Marie Schnür, to Maria Franck, both were artists
Munich is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps. Munich is the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, the Munich Metropolitan Region is home to 5.8 million people. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning by the monks. It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who ran a monastery at the place that was to become the Old Town of Munich, Munich was first mentioned in 1158. From 1255 the city was seat of the Bavarian Dukes and gold—the colours of the Holy Roman Empire—have been the citys official colours since the time of Ludwig the Bavarian, when it was an imperial residence. Following a final reunification of the Wittelsbachian Duchy of Bavaria, previously divided and sub-divided for more than 200 years, like wide parts of the Holy Roman Empire, the area recovered slowly economically.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich. In the 1920s, Munich became home to political factions, among them the NSDAP. During World War II, Munich was heavily bombed and more than 50% of the entire city, the postwar period was characterised by American occupation until 1949 and a strong increase of population and economic power during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder after 1949. The city is home to corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE as well as many small. Munich is home to national and international authorities, major universities, major museums. Its numerous architectural attractions, international events and conferences. Munich is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany and it is a top-ranked destination for migration and expatriate location, despite being the municipality with the highest density of population in Germany. Munich nowadays hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background, the year 1158 is assumed to be the foundation date, which is the earliest date the city is mentioned in a document.
The document was signed in Augsburg, by that time the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a bridge over the river Isar next to a settlement of Benedictine monks—this was on the Old Salt Route and a toll bridge. In 1175, Munich was officially granted city status and received fortification, in 1180, with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria and Munich was handed over to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328. He strengthened the position by granting it the salt monopoly
Alban Maria Johannes Berg was an Austrian composer of the Second Viennese School. His compositional style combined Romantic lyricism with twelve-tone technique, Berg was born in Vienna, the third of four children of Johanna and Conrad Berg. His family lived comfortably until the death of his father in 1900 and he was more interested in literature than music as a child and did not begin to compose until he was fifteen, when he started to teach himself music. In late February or early March 1902 he fathered a child with Marie Scheuchl and his daughter, was born on December 4,1902. Berg had little formal education before he became a student of Arnold Schoenberg in October 1904. With Schoenberg he studied counterpoint, music theory, and harmony, by 1906, he was studying music full-time, by 1907, he began composition lessons. His student compositions included five drafts for piano sonatas and he wrote songs, including his Seven Early Songs, three of which were Bergs first publicly performed work in a concert that featured the music of Schoenbergs pupils in Vienna that year.
The early sonata sketches eventually culminated in Bergs Piano Sonata, Op.1, Berg studied with Schoenberg for six years until 1911. Berg admired him as a composer and mentor, and they remained lifelong friends. Among Schoenbergs teaching was the idea that the unity of a musical composition depends upon all its aspects being derived from a basic idea. The Piano Sonata is a whole composition is derived from the works opening quartal gesture. Berg was a part of Viennas cultural elite during the fin de siècle period. His circle included the musicians Alexander von Zemlinsky and Franz Schreker, the painter Gustav Klimt, the writer and satirist Karl Kraus, the architect Adolf Loos, and the poet Peter Altenberg. In 1906, Berg met the singer Helene Nahowski, daughter of a family, despite the outward hostility of her family. In 1913, two of Bergs Five Songs on Picture Postcard Texts by Peter Altenberg were premièred in Vienna, settings of aphoristic poetic utterances, the songs are accompanied by a very large orchestra.
The performance caused a riot, and had to be halted, the full score remained unpublished until 1966. From 1915 to 1918, Berg served in the Austro-Hungarian Army and during a period of leave in 1917 he accelerated work on his first opera, after the end of World War I, he settled again in Vienna, where he taught private pupils. Berg had a particular interest in the number 23, using it to several works
Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople. In contrast to fine art, folk art is primarily utilitarian, Folk Art is characterized by a naïve style, in which traditional rules of proportion and perspective are not employed. The varied geographical and temporal prevalence and diversity of folk art make it difficult to describe as a whole, though some patterns have been demonstrated. On the other hand, many 18th- and 19th-century American folk art painters made their living by their work, including itinerant portrait painters, some of whom produced large bodies of work. Terms that might overlap with folk art are naïve art, tribal art, primitive art, popular art, outsider art, traditional art, tramp art and working-class art/blue-collar art. As one might expect, these terms can have multiple and even controversial connotations but are used interchangeably with the term folk art. Folk art expresses cultural identity by conveying shared community values and aesthetics and it encompasses a range of utilitarian and decorative media, including cloth, paper, clay and more.
If traditional materials are inaccessible, new materials are often substituted, Folk art reflects traditional art forms of diverse community groups — ethnic, religious, geographical, age- or gender-based — who identify with each other and society at large. Folk artists traditionally learn skills and techniques through apprenticeships in informal community settings, antique folk art is distinguished from traditional art in that, while collected today based mostly on its artistic merit, it was never intended to be art for art’s sake at the time of its creation. Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, and decoy carving continue to thrive, contemporary folk artists are frequently self-taught as their work is often developed in isolation or in small communities across the country. Folk artworks and motifs have inspired various artists, for example, Pablo Picasso was inspired by African tribal sculptures and masks, while Natalia Goncharova and others were inspired by traditional Russian popular prints called luboks.
In music, Igor Stravinskys seminal The Rite of Spring was inspired by religious rites. CIOFF, International Council of Organizations of Folklore Festivals and Folk Arts
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War and it remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, literature, dance, film. The term is sometimes suggestive of angst, in a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco are sometimes termed expressionist, though in practice the term is applied mainly to 20th-century works. The Expressionist emphasis on individual perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism, though an alternate view is that the term was coined by the Czech art historian Antonin Matějček in 1910, as the opposite of impressionism, An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself.
Immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures, in 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke in the city of Dresden. This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, a few years later, in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter in Munich. The name came from Wassily Kandinskys Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903, among their members were Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, and Auguste Macke. However, the term Expressionism did not firmly establish itself until 1913, though mainly a German artistic movement initially and most predominant in painting and the theatre between 1910–30, most precursors of the movement were not German. Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it overlapped with other major isms of the modernist period, with Futurism, Cubism, more explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism. The term refers to a style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions.
It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there are examples of art production in Europe from the 15th century onward which emphasize extreme emotion. Expressionism has been likened to Baroque by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon, according to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that Expressionism doesnt shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque does. Expressionism throws some terrific fuck yous, Baroque doesnt, Anita Malfatti, Cândido Portinari, Di Cavalcanti, Iberê Camargo and Lasar Segall. Estonia, Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt Finland, Tyko Sallinen, Alvar Cawén, Juho Mäkelä, there were a number of groups of expressionist painters, including Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. Der Blaue Reiter was based in Munich and Die Brücke was based originally in Dresden, Die Brücke was active for a longer period than Der Blaue Reiter, which was only together for a year. The Expressionists had many influences, among them Edvard Munch, Vincent van Gogh and they were aware of the work being done by the Fauves in Paris, who influenced Expressionisms tendency toward arbitrary colours and jarring compositions
The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa. It includes major art movements and periods and regional art, revivals, the crafts. Art historians attempt to classify medieval art into major periods and styles, in addition each region, mostly during the period in the process of becoming nations or cultures, had its own distinct artistic style, such as Anglo-Saxon art or Norse art. Medieval art in Europe grew out of the heritage of the Roman Empire. These sources were mixed with the vigorous barbarian artistic culture of Northern Europe to produce an artistic legacy. Indeed, the history of art can be seen as the history of the interplay between the elements of classical, early Christian and barbarian art. The period ended with the self-perceived Renaissance recovery of the skills and values of art. Since a revival of interest and understanding in the 19th century it has seen as a period of enormous achievement that underlies the development of Western art.
Many regions did not regain their population levels until the 17th century. The population of Europe is estimated to have reached a low point of about 18 million in 650, doubling by 1000, in 1450 it was still only 50 million. To these figures, Northern Europe, especially Britain, contributed a lower proportion than today, and Southern Europe, including France, the increase in prosperity, for those who survived, was much less affected by the Black Death. Until about the 11th century most of Europe was short of labour, with large amounts of unused land. The medieval period saw the falling away of the invasions and incursions from outside the area that characterized the first millennium. The impression may be left by the works that almost all medieval art was religious. Most churches have been rebuilt, often times, but medieval palaces and large houses have been lost at a far greater rate. The situation is similar in most of Europe, though the 14th century Palais des Papes in Avignon survives largely intact.
Paper became available in the last centuries of the period, but was extremely expensive by todays standards. Art in the Middle Ages is a subject and art historians traditionally divide it in several large-scale phases, styles or periods
Anton Friedrich Wilhelm von Webern was an Austrian composer and conductor. As an exponent of atonality and twelve-tone technique, Webern exerted influence on contemporaries Luigi Dallapiccola, Křenek, Weberns music was among the most radical of its milieu, both in its concision and in its rigorous and resolute apprehension of twelve-tone technique. Webern was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, as Anton Friedrich Wilhelm von Webern and he was the only surviving son of Carl von Webern, a civil servant, and Amelie who was a competent pianist and accomplished singer—possibly the only obvious source of the future composers talent. He never used his middle names and dropped the von in 1918 as directed by the Austrian governments reforms after World War I and he lived in Graz and Klagenfurt for much of his youth. Webern memorialized the Preglhof in a diary poem An der Preglhof and in the tone poem Im Sommerwind, once Weberns father sold the estate in 1912, Webern referred to it nostalgically as a lost paradise.
Art historian Ernst Dietz, Weberns cousin and at time a student at Graz, may have introduced Webern to the work of Arnold Böcklin and Giovanni Segantini. Segantinis work was an inspiration for Weberns 1905 single-movement string quartet. In 1902 Webern began attending classes at Vienna University, there he studied musicology with Guido Adler, writing his thesis on the Choralis Constantinus of Heinrich Isaac. He studied composition under Arnold Schoenberg, writing his Passacaglia, op.1 as his piece in 1908. He met Alban Berg, who was a pupil of Schoenberg and these two relationships would be the most important in his life in shaping his own musical direction. After graduating, he took a series of conducting posts at theatres in Ischl, Danzig, there he helped run Schoenbergs Society for Private Musical Performances from 1918 through 1922 and conducted the Vienna Workers Symphony Orchestra from 1922 to 1934. Letters document their correspondence in many subsequent years, and she would in turn provide him with facilities to private lessons as a convenience to Webern, his family.
As early as 1933, an Austrian gauleiter on Bayerischer Rundfunk mistakenly and his familys financial situation deteriorated until, by August 1940, his personal records reflected no monthly income. It was thanks to the Swiss philanthropist Werner Reinhart that Webern was able to attend the premiere of his Variations for Orchestra, op.30 in Winterthur. Reinhart invested all the financial and diplomatic means at his disposal to enable Webern to travel to Switzerland, in return for this support, Webern dedicated the work to him. On the other, some private correspondence attests to his Nazi sympathies, Weberns patriotism led him to endorse the Nazi regime in a series of letters to Joseph Hueber, who was serving in the army and himself held such views. Webern described Hitler on May 2,1940 as this man who created the new state of Germany. Only did Krasner himself realize how self-admittedly foolhardy he had been and in danger he had placed himself
The Russian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Russians. The Russian speaking diaspora are the people for whom Russian language is the language, regardless of whether they are ethnic Russians or, for example, Tatars. The largest overseas community is found in the United States, estimated at some 3 million people, in addition, in Canada, Brazil and Venezuela, several hundred thousand citizens each identify as being of at least partial Russian descent. A significant ethnic Russian emigration took place in the wake of the Old Believer schism in the 17th century, ethnic Russian communities, such as the Doukhobors, emigrated as religious dissidents fleeing centrist authority. Emigration from the USSR is often broken down into three waves of emigration, a sizable wave of ethnic Russians emigrated in the wake of the October Revolution of 1917 and Civil War of 1917-1922. They became known collectively as the White émigrés, a smaller group of Russians, often referred to by Russians as the second wave of Russian emigration, left during World War II.
In the immediate period, the largest Russian communities in the emigration settled in Germany, Canada. Emigres who left after the death of Stalin, but before perestroika, are grouped into a third wave. These emigres were mostly Jews, Armenians and other peoples who resided outside the borders of the Russian Empire. This majority of this wave left during the 1970s, at the beginning of the 1990s, Russia experienced one of the most dramatic periods in its history, as a result, the former administrative SFSR of the Soviet Union became a separate sovereign state. The collapse of the USSR resulted in an upsurge of international migrations to Russia, some 20 to 40 million ethnic Russians are estimated to live outside the bounds of the Russian Federation. Official census data often only considers nationality, the number of native speakers of the Russian language who reside outside of the Russian Federation is estimated as close to 30 million by SIL Ethnologue. The situation faced by ethnic Russian diasporas varied widely, in Belarus there was no perceivable change in status.
Russians are one of the 56 ethnic groups recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. There are approximately 15,600, living mostly in northern Xinjiang, in the 1920s Harbin was flooded with 100,000 to 200,000 Russian White émigrés fleeing from Russia. Some Harbin Russians moved to cities such as Shanghai, Beijing. By the 1930s, Shanghais Russian community had grown to more than 25,000, there are smaller numbers of Russians in Japan and in Korea. The Japanese government disputes Russias claim to the Kuril Islands, which were annexed by the USSR in 1945 after Japans surrender in World War II, the Red Army expelled all Japanese from the island chain, which was resettled by Russians and other Soviet nationalities