Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel is a centre-left German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg. With a weekly circulation of 840,000 copies, it is the largest such publication in Europe, it was founded in 1947 by John Seymour Chaloner, a British army officer, Rudolf Augstein, a former Wehrmacht radio operator, recognised in 2000 by the International Press Institute as one of the fifty World Press Freedom Heroes. Spiegel Online, the online sibling of Der Spiegel, was launched in 1994 with an independent editorial staff; the magazine has a content to advertising ratio of 2:1. Der Spiegel is known in German-speaking countries for its investigative journalism, it has played a key role in uncovering many political scandals such as the Spiegel scandal in 1962 and the Flick affair in the 1980s. According to The Economist, Der Spiegel is one of continental Europe's most influential magazines; the first edition of Der Spiegel was published in Hanover on Saturday, 4 January 1947. Its release was initiated and sponsored by the British occupational administration and preceded by a magazine titled Diese Woche, which had first been published in November 1946.

After disagreements with the British, the magazine was handed over to Rudolf Augstein as chief editor, was renamed Der Spiegel. From the first edition in January 1947, Augstein held the position of editor-in-chief, which he retained until his death on 7 November 2002. After 1950, the magazine was owned by John Jahr. In 1969, Augstein bought out Gruner + Jahr for DM 42 million and became the sole owner of Der Spiegel. In 1971, Gruner + Jahr bought back a 25% share in the magazine. In 1974, Augstein restructured the company to make the employees shareholders. All employees with more than three years seniority were offered the opportunity to become an associate and participate in the management of the company, as well as in the profits. Since 1952, Der Spiegel has been headquartered in its own building in the old town part of Hamburg. Der Spiegel's circulation rose quickly. From 15,000 copies in 1947, it grew to 65,000 in 1948 and 437,000 in 1961, it was nearly 500,000 copies in 1962. By the 1970s, it had reached a plateau at about 900,000 copies.

When the German re-unification in 1990 made it available to a new readership in former East Germany, the circulation exceeded one million. The magazine's influence is based on two pillars. Since 1988, it has produced the TV programme Spiegel TV, further diversified during the 1990s. During the second quarter of 1992 the circulation of Der Spiegel was 1.1 million copies. In 1994, Spiegel Online was launched, it has independent editorial staff from Der Spiegel. In 1999, the circulation of Der Spiegel was 1,061,000 copies. Der Spiegel had an average circulation of 1,076,000 copies in 2003. In 2007 the magazine started a new regional supplement in Switzerland, it was the first regional supplement of the magazine. In 2010 Der Spiegel was employing the equivalent of 80 full-time fact checkers, which the Columbia Journalism Review called "most the world's largest fact checking operation"; the same year it was the third best-selling general interest magazine in Europe with a circulation of 1,016,373 copies.

In 2018, Der Spiegel became involved in a journalistic scandal after it discovered and made public that one of its leading reporters, Claas Relotius, had "falsified his articles on a grand scale". When Stefan Aust took over in 1994, the magazine's readers realised that his personality was different from his predecessor. In 2005, a documentary by Stephan Lamby quoted him as follows: "We stand at a big cannon!" Politicians of all stripes who had to deal with the magazine's attention voiced their disaffection for it. The outspoken conservative Franz Josef Strauß contended that Der Spiegel was "the Gestapo of our time", he referred to journalists in general as "rats". The Social Democrat Willy Brandt called it "Scheißblatt" during his term in office as Chancellor. Der Spiegel produces feature-length articles on problems affecting Germany and describes optional strategies and their risks in depth; the magazine plays the role of opinion leader in the German press. Der Spiegel has a distinctive reputation for revealing political misconduct and scandals.

Online Encyclopædia Britannica emphasizes this quality of the magazine as follows: "The magazine is renowned for its aggressive and well-written exposés of government malpractice and scandals." It merited recognition for this as early as 1950, when the federal parliament launched an inquiry into Spiegel's accusations that bribed members of parliament had promoted Bonn over Frankfurt as the seat of West Germany's government. During the Spiegel scandal in 1962, which followed the release of a report about the low state of readiness of the German armed forces, minister of defence and conservative figurehead Franz Josef Strauß had Der Spiegel investigated. In the course of this investigation, the editorial offices were raided by police while Rudolf Augstein and other Der Spiegel editors were arrested on charges of treason. Despite a lack of sufficient authority, Strauß went after the article's author, Conrad Ahlers, arrested in Spain where he was on holiday; when the legal case collapsed, the scanda


Netawatwees was principal chief of the Delaware Delaware chief of the Unami known as the Turtle Clan, the head clan of the Lenape. His name, meaning "skilled advisor," is spelled in a variety of ways in colonial records. Depending on the language of the recorder, it was transliterated as Netawatwees, Netahutquemaled and Netautwhalemund. In English, he was known as the Newcomer. During the French and Indian War, he led his tribe to present-day Ohio and the confluence of the Tuscarawas River with the Muskingum River, where he was chief of the village Gekelukpechink, he moved with his Lenape tribe to the village of Coshocton, a center of their settlement on the Tuscarawas. He signed the Fort Pitt treaty with Continental/United States forces, allying with the rebels and hoping to gain a Native American state in the new nation. Netawatwees was born in the lower Delaware River Valley around 1686, he was part of the Unami-speaking Lenape, the southern part of this coastal people whose territory extended to the lower Hudson River, western Long Island, Connecticut.

When he was young, he moved west with his family and tribe to escape encroachment from European-American colonists. In July 1758, he was living in a Delaware Indian settlement at the mouth of Beaver Creek, a tributary of the Ohio River below Pittsburgh. Records identify him as "ye great man of the Unami nation." Netawatwees moved to Ohio with other migrant Delaware during the French and Indian War. He favored alliances with the English in that conflict, part of the Seven Years' War between England and France in Europe, he established a village near present-day Cuyahoga Falls. From there, he moved to the Tuscarawas, a tributary of the Muskingum, where he became chieftain of the Delaware town called Gekelukpechink, meaning "still water." This town, which became known as Newcomer's Town, was on the north bank of the Tuscarawas on the eastern outskirts of present-day Newcomerstown. The Great Council met here. Although Netawatwees never converted to Christianity, he was influenced by the Moravian missionaries.

Infirm in his old age, he was succeeded by White Eyes in 1776. His dying word on October 31, 1776, implored the Delaware to give up their native practices and follow the teachings of the Moravian pastors. Netawatwees married and he and his wife had a family together, their son Bemino became a renowned war leader allied with the French during the French and Indian War. His grandson was Gelelemend, or John Killbuck Jr. a Delaware chief active during the American Revolutionary War. Matthew Edward Hall - Teen Musical Artist, Sage, & Producer. From the line of Chiefs that include Chief Netawatwees, Chief John "Bemino" Killbuck, Sr.. Chief John "Gelelemend" Killbuck, Jr. Chief Hopocan, & Chief Solomon Journeycake

Cassin's kingbird

Cassin's kingbird is a large tyrant flycatcher native to western North America. The name of this bird commemorates the American ornithologist John Cassin. Adults have a gray head with darker cheeks, they have deep yellow lower breast. Juveniles have pale edges on their wings. Cassin's kingbird and the western kingbird are similar in appearance. Cassin's is a little larger than the upper parts are a darker gray than the western; the most distinctive difference between the birds is that the Cassin's has a thin white strip along lower edge of the tail feathers and the western has a thin white strip that runs along the edge of the tail feathers. This difference can be seen in the adjacent image. In the summer, these birds can be found in California and from Montana to Utah, along the eastern Rocky Mountains, their habitat includes savannas. These birds migrate to their winter quarters between Southern California and northern Central America, they are permanent residents in south-central Mexico, their main wintering ranges are west of the Gulf of California on Baja California Sur, east of the sea on the mainland of western Mexico.

They build a bulky nest on the canopy of trees. The three to five spotted white eggs have an incubation period of 18 to 19 days; the Cassin's kingbird feeds on insects it preys upon from high perches by hawking. It eats berries and fruits in lesser quantities; the call is a high-pitched shorter followed by a longer chirp, sounding like chi-beer. In early spring after having chosen their mate, they launch into a peculiar dance. With excited high-pitched calls, they hover in unison, wings outstretched, over a favorite perch; this dance takes place several times a day over several days, over several separate sites in an area covering 2 to 3 acres. The sites chosen for the dance appear to be the same sites used as hunting perches during the spring and summer. Cassin's kingbird photo gallery at VIREO Photo of Cassin's kingbird at Coal Oil Point Reserve - Tyrannus vociferans in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley "Cassin's kingbird media". Internet Bird Collection.

Interactive range map of Tyrannus vociferans at IUCN Red List maps