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Derbent

Derbent romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, located on the Caspian Sea. It is the southernmost city in Russia, it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. Population: 119,200 . Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times among the Persian, Mongol, Timurid and Iranian kingdoms. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813. Derbent is derived from Persian "Darband"." It is identified with the Gates of Alexander, a legendary barrier built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians.

The geographical treatise Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr written in Middle Persian mentions the old name of the fortress – Wērōy-pahr: "šahrestan kūmīs panj-burg až-i dahāg pad šabestān kard. māniš *pārsīgān ānōh būd. padxwadayīh yazdgird ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr an ālag.". "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband. A similar name meaning "Iron Gate", was used by Turkic peoples, in the form of "Demirkapi". Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region; this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. A traditionally and Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC; until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania, a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital.

The modern name is a Persian word meaning "gateway", which came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, Derbent was already into the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban; the 20-meter-high walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who directed the construction of Derbent's fortress. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward; some say that the level of the Caspian was higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea."

Derbent became harbour of the Sassanid Empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus. During periods when the Sasanians were distracted by war with the Byzantines or protracted battles with the Hephthalites in the eastern provinces, the northern tribes succeeded in advancing into the Caucasus; the first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627, his successor, Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent during the Sassanian era, many remain current.

In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid s

Ichnite

An ichnite is a fossilised footprint. This is a type of trace fossil. Over the years, many ichnites have been found, around the world, giving important clues about the behaviour of the animals that made them. For instance, multiple ichnites of a single species, close together, suggest'herd' or'pack' behaviour of that species. Combinations of footprints of different species provide clues about the interactions of those species. A set of footprints of a single animal gives important clues, as to whether it was bipedal or quadrupedal. In this way, it has been suggested that some pterosaurs, when on the ground, used their forelimbs in an unexpected quadrupedal action. Special conditions are required. A possible scenario is a sea or lake shore that became dried out to a firm mud in hot, dry conditions, received the footprints and became silted over in a flash storm; the first ichnite found was in 1800 in Massachusetts, USA, by a farmer named Pliny Moody, who found 1-foot long fossilized footprints. They were thought by Harvard and Yale scholars to be from "Noah's Raven."

A famous group of ichnites was found in a limestone quarry at Ardley, 20 km Northeast of Oxford, England, in 1997. They were thought to have been made by Megalosaurus and Cetiosaurus. There are replicas of some of these footprints, set across the lawn of Oxford University Museum of Natural History. A creature named Cheirotherium was, for a long time and still may be, only known from its fossilised trail, its footprints were first found in 1834, in Thuringia, dating from the Late Triassic Period. The largest known dinosaur footprints, belonging to sauropods and dating from the early Cretaceous were found to the north of Broome on the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia, with some footprints measuring 1.7 m. The 3D digital documentation of tracks has the benefit of being able to examine ichnite in detail remotely and distribute the data to colleagues and other interested personnel. Ichnites, a type of ichnite Texts on natural casts of dinosaur tracks found in Utah coal mines "Fossil Footprints".

The American Cyclopædia. 1879

Find (SS501 EP)

Find is South Korean boy band SS501's fourth Korean mini-album. It was released after their Japanese maxi single, "Lucky Days; the album consists of three songs, instrumental versions of the two songs, an intro. In addition, the album includes the original and acoustic version of Kim Hyun-joong's first solo track, "Thank You". Two songs in the album, "You are my heaven" and "Thank You", became theme songs of MBC's reality TV show, We Got Married, in which Kim Hyun-joong was part of the show with Hwangbo. "Find" "You Are My Heaven" "SS501 Official Website - Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. October 13, 2005. Archived from the original on October 13, 2005. Retrieved 2013-06-26. Official website DSP Media's channel on YouTube