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Derby

Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which it was traditionally the county town. Derby gained city status in 1977, by the 2011 census its population was 248,700. Derby was settled by Romans – who established the town of DerventioSaxons and Vikings, who made Derby one of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw. A market town, Derby grew in the industrial era. Home to Lombe's Mill, an early British factory, Derby has a claim to be one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution, it contains the southern part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site. With the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, Derby became a centre of the British rail industry. Derby is a centre for advanced transport manufacturing, home to the world's second largest aero-engine manufacturer, Rolls-Royce. Bombardier Transportation are based at the Derby Litchurch Lane Works and were for many years the UK's only train manufacturer.

Toyota Manufacturing UK's automobile headquarters is south west of the city at Burnaston. To the east lies Nottingham, separated by the M1 motorway; the Roman camp of'Derventio' is considered to have been located at Little Chester/Chester Green, the site of the old Roman fort. The town was one of the'Five Boroughs' of the Danelaw, until it was captured by Lady Aethelflaed of Mercia in July 917, subsequent to which the town was annexed into the Kingdom of Mercia; the Viking name Djúra-bý, recorded in Old English as Deoraby, means "Village of the Deer". However, the origin of the name'Derby' has had multiple influences; the town name does appear as'Darbye' in early maps, such as that of John Speed, 1610. Modern research into the history and archaeology of Derby has provided evidence that the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons would have co-existed, occupying two areas of land surrounded by water; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "Derby is divided by water". These areas of land were known as Norþworþig and Deoraby, were at the "Irongate" side of Derby.

During the Civil War of 1642–1646, Derby was garrisoned by Parliamentary troops commanded by Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, appointed Governor of Derby in 1643. These troops took part in the defence of nearby Nottingham, the Siege of Lichfield, the Battle of Hopton Heath and many other engagements in Nottinghamshire and Cheshire, as well as defending Derbyshire against Royalist armies. A hundred years Bonnie Prince Charlie set up camp at Derby on 4 December 1745, whilst on his way south to seize the British crown; the prince called at The George Inn on Irongate, where the Duke of Devonshire had set up his headquarters, demanded billets for his 9,000 troops. He stayed at Exeter House, Full Street where he held his "council of war". A replica of the room is on display at Derby Museum in the city centre, he had received misleading information about an army coming to meet him south of Derby. Although he wished to continue with his quest, he was over-ruled by his fellow officers, he abandoned his invasion at Swarkestone Bridge on the River Trent just a few miles south of Derby.

As a testament to his belief in his cause, the prince – who on the march from Scotland had walked at the front of the column – made the return journey on horseback at the rear of the bedraggled and tired army. Derby and Derbyshire were among the centres of Britain's Industrial Revolution. In 1717, Derby was the site of the first water-powered silk mill in Britain, built by John Lombe and George Sorocold, after Lombe had reputedly stolen the secrets of silk-throwing from Piedmont in Italy. In 1759, Jedediah Strutt patented and built a machine called the Derby Rib Attachment that revolutionised the manufacture of hose; this attachment was used on the Rev. Lee's Framework Knitting Machine; the partners were William Woollatt. The patent was obtained in January 1759. After three years and Stafford were paid off, Samuel Need – a hosier of Nottingham – joined the partnership; the firm was known as Need and Woollatt. The patent expired in 1773. Messrs Wright, the bankers of Nottingham, recommended that Richard Arkwright apply to Strutt and Need for finance for his cotton spinning mill.

The first mill was driven by horses. In 1771 Richard Arkwright, Samuel Need and Jedediah Strutt built the world's first commercially successful water-powered cotton spinning mill at Cromford, developing a form of power, to be a catalyst for the Industrial Revolution; this was followed in Derbyshire by Jedediah Strutt's cotton spinning mills at Belper. They were: South Mill, the first, 1775; the Belper and Milford mills were not built in partnership with

Captive elephants

Elephants in captivity are elephants kept in a confining area, such as a zoo, circus, or camp, where they are fed and cared for by humans and exhibited for entertainment or educational purposes. Most captive elephants are taken from the wild; the low rate of captive births cannot balance out captive mortality. Selective breeding of elephants is impractical due to their long reproductive cycle, so there are no domesticated breeds. Most captives are endangered Asian elephants. African bush elephants and African forest elephants are less amenable to training. Animal rights organizations estimate. For comparison, the International Union for Conservation of Nature estimates the total population of Asian elephants in the wild to be 40,000 to 50,000, that of African elephants in the wild to be 400,000 to 600,000. Tame elephants have been recorded since the Indus Valley civilization around 2,000 BCE. With mahouts, they have been used as working animals in forestry, as war elephants, for cultural and ceremonial use, as a method of execution, for public displays such as circus elephants, in elephant polo and in zoological gardens.

The expression white elephant derives from a white elephant being considered sacred and therefore disqualified from useful work, yet posing a large ownership cost. The origin of the expression is from the story that the kings of Siam gave white elephants as a gift to courtiers they disliked, in order to ruin the recipient by the great expense incurred in maintaining the animal. Elephants have the largest brains of all land animals, since the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, have been renowned for their cognitive skills, with behavioural patterns shared with humans. Pliny the Elder described the animal as being closest to a human in sensibilities, they have a longer lifespan than most livestock. Elephants exhibit a wide variety of behaviors, including those associated with grief, allomothering, play, use of tools, cooperation, self-awareness and language; the adult male elephant goes through a musth period, making him dangerously aggressive. Successful hand-rearing of orphaned calves depends critically on the milk formula used.

Human infant formula is used, but requires to be supplemented with bovine colostrum, lactobacillus to protect the gastrointestinal tract. To provide additional fat, desiccated coconut and butterfat are added, with vitamin and mineral supplements, in particular vitamin E, vitamin B, calcium. Rice water strained from cooked rice and glutinous rice broth are useful and are added to the formula to combat diarrhea. Rice cereal, milled whole barley or oatmeal, desiccated coconut, other ground solid foods are added to the milk of older calves to ease the transition to solid foods. Professor Niels Bolwig at Ibadan University, Nigeria in 1963 reared an orphaned infant elephant from a few days old by developing his own rich milk formula consisting of cows' milk and butter fat; this is believed to be the first successful rearing. Until most rearing attempts had been unsuccessful due to diet intolerance. Animal welfare researchers have raised concern about the physical and mental health of elephants in captivity at zoos in the UK and the US.

According to a report published by the Center for Disease Control, in North America 2% of African, 12% of Asian captive elephants are thought to be infected with tuberculosis. In 2012, two elephants in Tete d’Or Zoo, were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Due to the threat of transmitting tuberculosis to other animals or visitors to the zoo, their euthanasia was ordered by city authorities but a court overturned this decision. At an elephant sanctuary in Tennessee, a quarantined 54-year-old African elephant being treated for tuberculosis was considered to be the source of latent tuberculosis infections in eight workers. An Apology to Elephants Khedda Thai Elephant Orchestra

Keynes: The Return of the Master

Keynes: The Return of the Master is a 2009 book by economic historian Robert Skidelsky. The work discusses the economic theories and philosophy of John Maynard Keynes, argues about their relevance to the world following the Financial crisis of 2007–2010. In contrast to the 30 years he needed to write his prize winning biography on Keynes, the author was able to write this 240 page book in only three months; the book is divided into a preface, an introduction and three main parts which include a total of eight chapters. The preface introduces Skidelsky's broad themes. In addition to the relevance of Keynes's economics due to the crisis, the author talks about the newly energised questioning concerning wider issues such as the role of morality in 21st-century life and on how Keynes's philosophy and ethics might offer an answer; the introduction maps out the ground the book will cover - the rise of Keynesianism from the late 1930s. Chapter 1 includes a thumbnail sketch of the unfolding events that comprise the 2007-2009 crises, a brief discussion of the government response and an outline of the various causes, along with a summary of how they have been covered in the media.

The crises is described as the deflation of the asset bubble once confidence was undermined in key underlying factors: American house prices and the credit worthiness of sub-prime mortgages. Following on from this was the liquidity crunch in the world of finance, with the knock-on effect on the real economy. Lord Skidelsky divides his discussion of the response into two sections, covering the bail-outs and the stimulus packages, he identifies the follow possible causes: financial innovation. He finishes by asserting that all these actors are influenced by economic theories, that it is recent trends in economics that are the real cause of the crises. Chapter 2 is about economics as it has been practised in the years leading up to 2009; the author refers to Keynes's view that an over-reliance on maths is a mistake, because mathematical models will always depend on the validity of their underlying assumptions. Skidelsky says that modern mainstream macroeconomics has become integrated with maths, at the expense of other disciplines such as political economy and history, that this is why it became so unreliable at making accurate predictions or offering good advice.

Various schools of thought within modern economics are discussed, such as rational expectations, real business cycle theory and efficient market theory. Chapter 3 has a brief biographical sketch of Keynes's life as it relates to his economics. Attention is paid to Keynes's direct involvement with the markets as a private investor and consultant for others, his involvement with academic economics and his dealings with government policy-makers. Chapter 4 focuses on Keynes's economics, in particular in the evolution of his thinking and how he challenged mainstream thinking. There is emphasis on the high importance Keynes placed on the role of uncertainty. Chapter 5 begins with a discussion of the displacement of Keynesian economics by rival theories promoted by Milton Friedman and others; the chapter goes on to compare the Golden Age of Capitalism, where Keynesian policy was followed by the world's governments, with the Washington Consensus period. Skidelsky finds that the golden age benefited from higher economic growth, lower unemployment and inequality, without higher inflation.

The author discusses various arguments concerning to what extent the exceptional global conditions of the golden age were due to Keynes's influence, concludes that to a large degree the "old coach" was responsible. Chapter 6 concerns Keynes's philosophical and ethical views, how they relate to our current conception and practice of capitalism. Skidelsky asserts that central to current thinking and praxis is Negative liberty - the idea that society and those who govern it ought not to make any judgement about what is desirable for people, but just leave individuals as free as possible to pursue their own aims, what those may be. With relation to the economy, the current mainstream view sees capitalism as an end in itself, the expression of a population's will relayed via the market; this is contrasted with Keynes's view that capitalism is a means rather than an end, ought to aim at allowing populations the leisure to pursue the "good life" chiefly living ethically, having time for the appreciation of beauty and the pleasures of human intercourse.

Chapter 7 is about Keynes's political thinking. In particular it focuses on his doctrine of prudence, which follows on from Keynes's views on uncertainty. Keynes held that, as the long-term future is hard to predict, it is rarely justified for politicians to implement policies that cause short-term pain to their populations for possible long-term gains. Chapter 8 sums up Keynes's relevance to the current age as of 2009; the author suggests that Keynes would advise us to rethink macroeconomic policy, with a greater emphasis on balanced growth and with a somewhat large role for government in ensuring there is a smooth flow of investment to hel