Desegregation in the United States

Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups referring to races. Desegregation is measured by the index of dissimilarity allowing researchers to determine whether desegregation efforts are having impact on the settlement patterns of various groups; this is most used in reference to the United States. Desegregation was long a focus of the Civil Rights Movement, both before and after the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education desegregation of the school systems and the military. Racial integration of society was a related goal. Starting with King Philip's War in the 17th century, blacks served alongside whites in an integrated environment in the North American colonies, they continued to fight in every American war integrated with whites up until the War of 1812. They would not fight in integrated units again until the Korean War. Thousands of black men fought on the side of rebellious colonists in the American Revolutionary War, many in the new Continental Navy.

Their names, accomplishments or total numbers are unknown because of poor record keeping. During the American Civil War, Blacks enlisted in large numbers, they were enslaved blacks who escaped in the South, although there were many northern black Unionists as well. More than 180,000 blacks served with the Union Army and Navy during the Civil War, in segregated units known as the United States Colored Troops, under the command of white officers, they are part of the National Park Service's Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System. Around 18,000 black people joined the Union Navy as sailors, they are part of the National Park Service's War Soldiers & Sailors System. While a handful of Blacks were commissioned as officers in World War I, blacks were underrepresented throughout the conflict, though the NAACP lobbied for the commission of greater numbers of black officers. Upon entering office, President Woodrow Wilson segregated the United States Navy. S. Navy had never been segregated. During World War II, most officers were white and most black troops still served only as truck drivers and as stevedores.

The Red Ball Express, instrumental in facilitating the rapid advance of Allied forces across France after D-Day, was operated exclusively by African-American truck drivers. In the midst of the Battle of the Bulge in late 1944, General Dwight D. Eisenhower was short of replacement troops for existing military units—all of which were white in composition, so he made the decision to allow African-American soldiers to join the white military units to fight in combat for the first time—the first step toward a desegregated United States military. Eisenhower's decision in this case was opposed by his own army chief of staff, Lieutenant General Walter Bedell Smith, outraged by the decision and said that the American public would take offense with the integration of the military units. For the Army Air Corps see the Tuskegee Airmen. For the U. S. Army see the 761st Tank Battalion. In World War II, the U. S. Navy first experimented with integration aboard USCGC Sea Cloud later on USS Mason, a ship with black crew members and commanded by white officers.

Some called it "Eleanor's folly", after President Franklin Roosevelt's wife. Mason's purpose had been to allow black sailors to serve in the full range of billets rather than being restricted to stewards and messmen, as they were on most ships; the Navy was pressured to train black sailors for billets by Eleanor Roosevelt, who insisted that they be given the jobs they had trained for. The U. S. Navy's newest component, the Seabees, had the same ingrained attitudes and approaches but ended up at the forefront of change. In February 1942 CNO Admiral Harold Rainsford Stark recommended African Americans for ratings in the construction trades. In April the Navy announced. So, those men were put into segregated units, the 34th and 80th Naval Construction Battalions. Both had black enlisted. Both battalions experienced problems with that arrangement that led to the replacement of the officers. In addition, many of the stevedore battalions were segregated. However, by wars end many of those Special Construction Battalions were the first integrated units in the U.

S. Navy; the wars end brought the decommissioning of every one of those units. In 1948, President Harry S. Truman's Executive Order 9981 ordered the integration of the armed forces following World War II, a major advance in civil rights. Using the Executive Order meant that Truman could bypass Congress. Representatives of the Solid South, all white Democrats, would have stonewalled related legislation. For instance, in May 1948, Richard B. Russell, Democratic Senator from Georgia, attached an amendment granting draftees and new inductees the opportunity to choose whether or not they wanted to serve in segregated military units to the Selective Service Act, being debated in Congress, but it was defeated in committee. Truman signed Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948. In June 1950 when the Selective Services Law came up for renewal, Russell unsuccessfully tried again to attach his segregation amendment. At the end of June 1950, the Korean War broke out; the U. S. Army had accomplished little desegregation in peacetime and sent the segregated Eighth Army to defend South Korea.

Most black soldiers served in segregated support units in the rear. The remainder served in segregated combat units, most notably the 24th Infantry Regiment. The

Film scanner

A film scanner is a device made for scanning photographic film directly into a computer without the use of any intermediate printmaking. It provides several benefits over using a flatbed scanner to scan in a print of any size: the photographer has direct control over cropping and aspect ratio from the original, unmolested image on film. Film scanners can accept either strips of 35 mm or 120 film. Low-end scanners only take 35mm film strips, while medium- and high-end film scanners have interchangeable film loaders; this allows the one scanning platform to be used for different sizes and packaging. For example, some allow microscope slides to be loaded for scanning, while mechanised slide loaders allow many individual slides to be batch scanned unattended. Dust and scratches on the film can be a big problem for scanning; because of their reduced size, the scanners are capable of resolutions much higher than a regular flatbed scanner. At these resolutions dust and scratches take on gigantic proportions.

Small specks of dust, invisible to the naked eye, can obscure a cluster of several pixels. For this reason, techniques have been developed to remove their appearance from a scan, see film restoration; the simplest is the median filter called despeckle in many graphic manipulation programs, e.g. in Adobe Photoshop and the GIMP. It works by examining a pixel in relation to the pixels surrounding it; this and other methods can be quite effective but have the disadvantage that the filter cannot know what is dust or noise. It will degrade fine detail in the scan. Infrared cleaning works by collecting an infrared channel from the scan at the same time as the visible colour channels; this is done by using a light source that produces infrared radiation, having a fourth row of sensors on the linear CCD sensor. Photographic film is transparent to infrared radiation but dust and scratches aren't, so they show up in the IR channel; this information can be used to automatically remove the appearance of dust and scratches in the visible channels and replace them with something similar to their surroundings.

A major limitation of this technique is. Scanner manufacturers have their own name attached to this technique. Kodak developed Digital ICE at their Austin development centre, is licensed by Epson, Konica Minolta, Minolta and some others. Canon developed its own FARE system. LaserSoft Imaging developed the iSRD dust and scratch removal, on which among others Plustek is relying. Image scanner Motion picture film scanner A full array of image correction features for a variety of documents, archived from the original on 23 October 2010 "Kodak Digital ICE", Products, ASF. "iSRD", SilverFast

Oklahoma Sooners women's gymnastics

The Oklahoma Sooners women's gymnastics team represents the University of Oklahoma in NCAA competition and competes in the Big 12 Conference. The Sooners have won thirteen Big 12 titles, 7 NCAA Regional championships, have appeared in 15 NCAA National Championships. In 2014, the Sooners won the program's first-ever team national title in the first-ever NCAA gymnastics championships tie, tying with Florida with a score of 198.175. The Sooners have had five individual national champions, 86 NCAA All-Americans, two Honda Awards; the Sooners gymnastics team was founded in 1981 under head coach Paul Ziert, who led the Sooners to three regional championships and two NCAA tournament appearances. The Sooners won their first five conference titles beginning in 1984 under coach Becky Switzer. Steve Nunno added another Big 12 title in 2004. Current head coach K. J. Kindler took over the program before the 2007 season. In 2014, Oklahoma became the sixth school to win an NCAA gymnastics team title; the 2014 Super Six final was the first to end in a tie, giving Oklahoma their first title and Florida their second straight.

Cael Bixler Audrey Davis Julianne Fehring - 2019 Women's Junior Olympic National Championships: 3rd-AA. J. Kindler Assistant Coach: Lou Ball Assistant Coach: Tom Haley