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Desktop environment

In computing, a desktop environment is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface, sometimes described as a graphical shell. The desktop environment was seen on personal computers until the rise of mobile computing. Desktop GUIs help the user to access and edit files, while they do not provide access to all of the features found in the underlying operating system. Instead, the traditional command-line interface is still used when full control over the operating system is required. A desktop environment consists of icons, toolbars, folders and desktop widgets. A GUI might provide drag and drop functionality and other features that make the desktop metaphor more complete. A desktop environment aims to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows.

While the term desktop environment described a style of user interfaces following the desktop metaphor, it has come to describe the programs that realize the metaphor itself. This usage has been popularized by projects such as the Common Desktop Environment, K Desktop Environment, GNOME. On a system that offers a desktop environment, a window manager in conjunction with applications written using a widget toolkit are responsible for most of what the user sees; the window manager supports the user interactions with the environment, while the toolkit provides developers a software library for applications with a unified look and behavior. A windowing system of some sort interfaces directly with the underlying operating system and libraries; this provides support for graphical hardware, pointing devices, keyboards. The window manager runs on top of this windowing system. While the windowing system may provide some window management functionality, this functionality is still considered to be part of the window manager, which happens to have been provided by the windowing system.

Applications that are created with a particular window manager in mind make use of a windowing toolkit provided with the operating system or window manager. A windowing toolkit gives applications access to widgets that allow the user to interact graphically with the application in a consistent way; the first desktop environment was sold with the Xerox Alto in the 1970s. The Alto was considered by Xerox to be a personal office computer. With the Lisa, Apple introduced a desktop environment on an affordable personal computer, which failed in the market; the desktop metaphor was popularized on commercial personal computers by the original Macintosh from Apple in 1984, was popularized further by Windows from Microsoft since the 1990s. As of 2014, the most popular desktop environments are descendants of these earlier environments, including the Aero environment used in Windows Vista and Windows 7, the Aqua environment used in macOS; when compared with the X-based desktop environments available for Unix-like operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD, the proprietary desktop environments included with Windows and macOS have fixed layouts and static features, with integrated "seamless" designs that aim to provide consistent customer experiences across installations.

Microsoft Windows dominates in marketshare among personal computers with a desktop environment. Computers using Unix-like operating systems such as macOS, Chrome OS, Linux, BSD or Solaris are much less common. Among the more popular of these are Google's Chromebooks and Chromeboxes, Intel's NUC, the Raspberry Pi, etc. On tablets and smartphones, the situation is the opposite, with Unix-like operating systems dominating the market, including the iOS, Tizen and Ubuntu. Microsoft's Windows phone, Windows RT and Windows 10 are used on a much smaller number of tablets and smartphones. However, the majority of Unix-like operating systems dominant on handheld devices do not use the X11 desktop environments used by other Unix-like operating systems, relying instead on interfaces based on other technologies. On systems running the X Window System, desktop environments are much more dynamic and customizable to meet user needs. In this context, a desktop environment consists of several separate components, including a window manager, a file manager, a set of graphical themes, together with toolkits and libraries for managing the desktop.

All these individual modules can be exchanged and independently configured to suit users, but most desktop environments provide a default configuration that works with minimal user setup. Some window managers‍—‌such as IceWM, Openbox, ROX Desktop and Window Maker‍—‌contain sparse desktop environment elements, such as an integrated spatial file manager, while others like evilwm and wmii do not provide such elements. Not all of the program code, part of a desktop environment has effects which are directly visible to the user; some of it may be low-level code. KDE, for example, provides so-called KIO slaves which give the user access to a wide range of virtual devices; these I/O slaves are not av


Haustor was a Yugoslav rock band from Zagreb, SR Croatia, a member of the new wave movement, an important act of the former Yugoslav rock scene. The basis of the band was formed in 1977, when singer and occasional guitarist Darko Rundek met bassist Srđan Sacher. Two years they formed Haustor, together with Ozren Štiglić and Boris Leiner, who played in another prominent Yugoslav rock band Azra. During 1980 they added a brass section; the group was influenced by Caribbean music. Haustor released its self-titled debut album in 1981. All of the songs were written by either Rundek. Sacher's reggae song "Moja prva ljubav" became a hit, it still remains popular in the former Yugoslav countries. After a pause, caused by the members' conscription in the former Yugoslav People's Army, their second album, titled Treći svijet, was released in 1984. However, soon afterwards Sacher left the band, leaving Rundek as the sole composer and lyricist of the band. Haustor released two more albums and Tajni grad, before breaking up in 1990.

The group gathered again during the 1990s for a temporary reunion and finally disbanded. The group is featured in the 2003 Croatian rockumentary Sretno dijete along several other eminent former Yugoslav new wave artists. A cover version of their song "Moja prva ljubav" in Polish language is included in the 2001 tribute album Yugoton. Haustor Treći svijet Bolero Tajni grad 1981. 1984. 1985. 1988. Platinum Collection The Ultimate Collection The Ultimate Haustor Collection Ulje je na vodi "Moja prva ljubav / Pogled u BB" "Radio / Crni žbir" "Zima / Majmuni i mjesec / Capri" "Ena" / "Take the Money and Run" Svi marš na ples! Vrući dani i vrele noći EX YU ROCK enciklopedija 1960-2006, Janjatović Petar.

Wade's Causeway

Wade's Causeway is a sinuous, linear monument up to 6,000 years old in the North York Moors national park in North Yorkshire, England. The name may refer to either scheduled ancient monument number 1004876—a length of stone course just over 1 mile long on Wheeldale Moor, or to a postulated extension of this structure, incorporating ancient monuments numbers 1004108 and 1004104 extending to the north and south for up to 25 miles; the visible course on Wheeldale Moor consists of an embankment of soil, peat and loose pebbles 0.7 metres in height and 4 to 7 metres in width. The cambered embankment is capped with unmortared and loosely abutted flagstones, its original form is uncertain since it has been subjected to human damage. The structure has been the subject of folklore in the surrounding area for several hundred years and more than a millennium, its construction was attributed to a giant known as Wade, a figure from Germanic or Norse mythology. In the 1720s the causeway became known outside the local area.

Within a few years it became of interest to antiquarians who visited the site and exchanged commentary on its probable historicity. They interpreted the structure as a causeway across marshy ground, attributing its construction to the Roman military, an explanation unchallenged throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; the stretch of causeway on Wheeldale Moor was cleared of vegetation and excavated in the early twentieth century by a local gamekeeper with an interest in archaeology. Historian Ivan Margary agreed with its identification as a Roman road, assigned it the catalogue number 81b in the first edition of his Roman Roads In Britain; the causeway was further excavated and studied by archaeologist Raymond Hayes in the 1950s and 1960s funded by the Council for British Archaeology. The results of his investigation, which concluded that the structure was a Roman road, were published in 1964 by the Scarborough Archaeological and Historical Society. In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, its identification as a Roman road has been questioned by academics, alternative interpretations suggested for its purpose and date of construction.

The monument's co-manager, English Heritage, in 2012 proposed several avenues of research that might be used to settle some of the questions that have arisen regarding its origins and usage. The area through which the Wheeldale structure runs is predominantly uncultivated heather moorland. Hayes believes its appearance has remained fundamentally unchanged since the Bronze Age when its forest cover was removed to permit cultivation and grazing. Wheeldale Moor is poorly drained in places making it susceptible to flooding in both the ancient and modern eras; the underlying geology consists of patches of sand and gravel on top of mixed sandstone and oolitic limestone, known as Ravenscar Group strata. The causeway's visible section on Wheeldale Moor shows the remains of a continuous surface metalled with fitted slabs of sandstone with flat upper surfaces; the average size of a slab is 45 centimetres square. The purpose of a central ridge along one section of the causeway, described in two independent excavations, is unknown.

The stone flags are seated on a cambered base of mixed gravel and either rubble, peat or soil, that forms a raised embankment. The embankment is from 3.6 to 7 metres wide at its raised surface. Its width in some sections is increased by 1 metre of ditch to either side, which may or may not be associated with its original construction, making an uniform total width of 5 to 8 metres, its height above surrounding soil level is 0.4 metres. Hayes and Rutter state that the primary purpose of such an embankment would have been to provide good drainage for a road surface. Archaeologist David E Johnston states that the structure is crossed by numerous perpendicular drainage culverts with small becks trickling through them since the ground is boggy; this could suggest a reason for the embankment, its early attribution as a causeway—a route across wetland supported on earth or stone in the form of a raised embankment. Nineteenth-century antiquarian Thomas Codrington argued that Roman roads in Britain were built on embankments regardless of the underlying ground's drainage.

He states that the common appellation of "causeway" in the names of Roman roads may, relate to their embankments rather than indicate that the ground on which they were constructed was ill-drained. Some historians translate Livy's phrase for Roman military construction of roads, via munire, as "making a causeway". Johnston, historian Nikolaus Pevsner and landscape historian Richard Muir all agree that an original gravel surface dressing was once present on top of the stone of the Wheeldale structure. Whereas Johnston and Pevsner believe that the gravel was washed away through weathering, Muir states that human agents were responsible for its removal. Both agree. Statements by the eighteenth-century antiquary Francis Drake and nineteenth-century topographer Samuel Lewis that the writers found it to be "paved with a flint pebble" may support this theory, although Hayes and Rutter cast doubt on the accuracy of Drake's reports. Codrington states that in 1817 the causeway consisted of a "strong pavement of stones... above these another stratum of gravel...", Hayes and Rutter state that "traces of a surface layer of gravel and small stones" remained visible in the 1960s, professor of structural en

Alex Mintz

Professor Alex Mintz, is Provost of IDC Herzliya, a professor for decision-making in politics and government, former President of the Israeli Political Science Association. Recipient of the Distinguished Scholar Award of the Foreign-Policy section of the International Studies Association, the Karl Deutsch Award of the International Studies Association for most significant contribution to the field of International Relations by a scholar younger than 40, his book on decision-making in the American government was published in 2016 by the prestigious Stanford University Press and received the 2017 Alexander George Best Book Award of the International Society for Political Psychology. Professor Mintz has served on the editorial boards of 11 international journals, including the American Political Science Review, International Studies Quarterly, Foreign Policy Analysis, International Studies Perspective, Open Political Science Journal, Advances in Political Psychology, Research and Politics, he served as editor-in-chief of the international journal, Political Psychology, as Associate Editor of the Yale-based Journal of Conflict Resolution, as editor of the University of Chicago Press book series in Leadership and Decision Making in the International Arena.

Professor Mintz is Director of the Program in Political Psychology and Decision Making and the Digital Decision-Making Laboratory at the IDC. He served as a co-Chair of the steering committee for the project "Israeli Hope: Toward a New Israeli Order", with the blessings of the President of Israel, he served as Chair of the Herzliya Conference series and as Director of the Institute for Policy and Strategy from 2013-2016 and as Dean of the Lauder School of Government and Strategy at IDC from 2008-2014. Mintz received his B. A. from Tel Aviv University in political science with a minor in mathematics. He went on to receive an M. A. from Northwestern University in political science before pursuing his PhD at Northwestern. His research interests focus on political decision making, political marketing, behavioral political science, political psychology and research methods. Mintz was an instructor at Northwestern University and a lecturer and senior lecturer with tenure at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

He taught at Texas A&M University from 1986-2005. In 1993, he became the Founding Director of the Program in Foreign Policy Decision Making at Texas A&M University and remained there as the Cullen-McFadden Professor of Political Science until 2005, he was a visiting professor at Yale, Columbia University, the Lyndon Johnson School at the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Haifa, Tel Aviv University. He moved to IDC Herzliya in Israel in 2006 as a professor, before becoming the dean of the Lauder School of Government and Strategy in 2008. In 2017, Mintz was appointed as Provost of IDC Herzliya. Mintz is the developer of the Decision Board, a decision-making simulator leveraging process tracing and decision science algorithms to uncover biases, decision codes, information acquisition patterns; the platform has been used for training decision makers in both public and private organizations and has appeared in several academic researches as a methodological tool. 2017- Recipient of the Alexander George Best Book Award of the ISPP.

2015 - Elected as Chairman of the Israeli Political Science Association. 2005 – Recipient of the Distinguished Scholar Award of the Foreign Policy section of the International Studies Association. 2005 – Named to the Advisory Board of the Center for Conflict Prevention and Management at the University of Sydney. 1993 – Recipient of the Karl Deutsch Award of the International Studies Association. The Polythink Syndrome: U. S. Foreign Policy Decisions on 9/11, Iraq, Syria and ISIS. 2016.. Stanford University Press; the Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Political Science, Oxford University Press, forthcoming. Behavioral Political Science, Forthcoming. Cambridge University Press. Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making. Cambridge University Press, 2010 New Directions for International Relations: Confronting the Method-of-Analysis Problem, Lexington Books, February 2005 Multiple Paths to Knowledge: Methodology In Conflict Management and Conflict Resolution, Lexington, 2004 Integrating Cognitive and Rational Theories of Decision Making, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.

Decision Making on War and Peace: The Cognitive–Rational Debate. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1997; the Political Economy of Military Spending in the United States London: Routledge, 1992. Defense and Growth London: Routledge, 1992; the Politics of Resource Allocation in the U. S. Department of Defense: International Crises and Domestic Constraints. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1988. Resume Prof. page - IDC Herzliya Publications - IDC Herzliya


Samauga is a village on the central north coast of Savai'i island in Samoa. The village is in the electoral district of Gagaifomauga; the village population is about 330. There is a primary school, a church and several small local stores with the main road passing through the village. At the east end is the village of Safotu and on the west side, the road heads towards Lefagaoali'i and Safune. There is a turnoff in the village to the inland village of Paia. From 2006–2009, the women's committee in the village have been working with the Ministry of Agriculture, United Nations Development Programme and South Pacific Business Development towards improving agricultural methods in the village; the impact of land clearance for subsistence agriculture has resulted in soil salinity. A key project has been to phase out the use of pesticides while diversifying crops for organic gardening and traditional medicinal plants. Part of the community initiative includes the development of income-generating micro-schemes for women and the potential of sustainable cultural tourism

Blood // Water

"Blood // Water" is a single by Canadian musician Grandson. The single was released on 27 October 2017 through Fueled By Ramen; the song is the lead single off of Grandson's first extended play, A Modern Tragedy Vol. 1. The official audio video was released on Grandson's YouTube channel on October 27, 2017. Gil Kaufman described the song as a "pop-spiked take on Rage Against the Machine's activist rap-rock"; the song is performed in an F-sharp minor with an 11A Camelot mixing. The song has a tempo of 154 beats per minute. In a May 2019 interview with, Grandson described the lyrics of "Blood // Water" as "the first shot from a personal revolution, it has been growing since. In the grand raw tradition of activist rock, grandson cut through the chaotic culture, urging people to pay attention." On August 15, 2018, the first live television performance of "Blood // Water" aired on Late Night With Seth Meyers. Billboard magazine described the performance as an anti-capitalist anthem where "complacency is not an option".

The music video for "Blood // Water" was released on June 4, 2018 to coincide with the announcement of his debut extended play, A Modern Tragedy Vol. 1. Alex Darus of Alternative Press described the music video as " 1950s nuclear family idea and them with images of politicians profiting off problems such as prescription drug abuse." Nuclear family Blood // Water at Discogs