The Detroit Lions are a professional American football team based in Detroit. The Lions compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference North division. The team plays its games at Ford Field in Downtown Detroit. Originally based in Portsmouth and called the Portsmouth Spartans, despite success within the NFL, they could not survive in Portsmouth, the NFLs smallest city. The team was purchased and relocated to Detroit for the 1934 season and they are one of four current teams and the only NFC team to have not yet played in the Super Bowl. Aside from a change to maroon in 1948 instituted by head coach Bo McMillin. The design consists of silver helmets, silver pants, and either blue or white jerseys, the shade of blue used for Lions uniforms and logos is officially known as Honolulu blue, which is supposedly inspired by the color of the waves off the coast of Hawaii. The shade was chosen by Cy Huston in 1935, the Lions first vice president and general manager, said of the choice, They had me looking at so many blues I am blue in the face, Huston said about the selection.
But anyway, its the kind of blue, I am told, there have been minor changes to the uniform design throughout the years, such as changing the silver stripe patterns on the jersey sleeves, and changing the colors of the jersey numbers. White trim was added to the logo in 1970, in 1998, the team wore blue pants with their white jerseys along with grey socks but dropped that combination after the season. In 1999, the TV numbers on the sleeves were moved to the shoulders, in 1994, every NFL team wore throwback jerseys, and the Lions were similar to the jerseys used during their 1935 championship season. The helmets and pants were silver, the jerseys Honolulu blue with silver numbers. The team wore solid blue socks along with black shoes, the helmets did not have a logo, as helmets were simple leather back then. The Lions wore 50s-style jerseys during their traditional Thanksgiving Day games from 2001 to 2004 as the NFL encouraged teams to wear throwback jerseys on Thanksgiving Day, in 2003, the team added black trim to their logo and the jerseys.
The face masks on the changed from blue to black with the introduction of the new color. Additionally, a home field jersey which makes black the dominant color was introduced in 2005. For 2008, the dropped the black alternate jerseys in favor of a throwback uniform to commemorate the franchises 75th anniversary. The throwback uniform became the teams permanent alternate jersey in 2009, the Lions officially unveiled new logo designs and uniforms on April 20,2009
College Football All-America Team
The College Football All-America Team is an honor given annually to the best American college football players at their respective positions. Camp took over the responsibility for picking the All-America team and was recognized as the selector in the early years of the 20th century. com. As of 2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recognizes the All-America teams selected by the AP, AFCA, FWAA, Sporting News, if three of these organizations select a player to their first team, he automatically receives the consensus honor. If a player is named an All-American by all five organizations, depending upon the distribution of first team honors at any given position, it is possible to be consensus with fewer than three first-team selections. The University of Notre Dame has produced the most unanimous All Americans of any program, there have been 2,868 players from 156 colleges and universities since 1889 who were selected to at least one All-American first team. It has selected an All-America team since 1925, the American Football Coaches Association has selected an All-America team every year since 1945.
It is often referred to as the Coaches All-America Team, the Coaches’ All-America Team has been sponsored by various entities throughout the years but it is now under its own banner, the AFCA. These are the sponsors/publishers of the team throughout the years and it is sometimes referred to as the Writers All-America Team. The FWAA has selected an All-America team with the help of its members, the All-America team is selected by a committee of writers representing all conferences and regions of the NCAA. The Writers Team has been highlighted in various media forums, from 1946-70, Look published the FWAA team and brought players and selected writers to New York City for a celebration. During that 25-year period, the FWAA team was introduced on television shows by Bob Hope, Steve Allen, Perry Como. After Look folded, the FWAA started an association with NCAA Films. The team was part of ABC Televisions 1981 College Football Series, from 1983-90, the team was either on ABC or ESPN, and since 1991 has returned to the national spotlight on ABC.
The corporate sponsor for the Writers team is AT&T, after years of Cingular being the sponsor. Walter Camp, The Father of American Football, first selected an All-America team in 1889, the WCF claims an 80% participation rate in the voting for its All-America team. Sporting News, formerly known as The Sporting News and known colloquially as TSN, have teams college football editors and staff select teams, from that year through the 1962 season TSNs All-America team was picked by a poll of sportswriters. Beginning in 1964 the team was selected by professional scouts and observers, the Sporting News cited the advent of two-platoon football as the need to go to that system. United Press International is a organization that selected players in a national poll of sportswriters
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan, frequently referred to simply as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, United States. Founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania,20 years before the Michigan Territory became a state, in 1821, the university was officially renamed the University of Michigan. It moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of what is now known as Central Campus, the University was a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, Michigans body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Besides academic life, Michigans athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference, the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26,1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory.
Judge Augustus B. Woodward specifically invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, Monteith became its first President and held seven of the professorships, and Richard was Vice President and held the other six professorships. Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital, but when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason, the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen, eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment increased to 1,205 students, many of whom were Civil War veterans, Women were first admitted in 1870. U-M became the first American university to use the method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government.
In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed a committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives. The university became a choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s. Because of its standards, U-M gained the nickname Harvard of the West. During World War II, U-Ms research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, and radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded rapidly and by 1950, it reached 21,000, as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy
1996 NFL season
The 1996 NFL season was the 77th regular season of the National Football League and the season was marked by notable controversies from beginning to end. The season ended with Super Bowl XXXI when the Green Bay Packers defeated the New England Patriots 35-21 at the Louisiana Superdome, either way, the beloved Cleveland Browns would continue, while the Baltimore Ravens began their new history when the 1996 season started. The season was the season for the Houston Oilers before leaving Texas for Memphis for the following season. This move left Houston with no football team until the 2002 debut of the Texans. For that, and his excellent performance on kick-off and punt returns throughout the game, Howard was named Super Bowl MVP, the only time that a special teams player has earned that distinction. In the event, Parcells did not even return with the players, and telephone records showed he was talking to the Jets in the days before, New Orleans Saints – New numbers on uniforms. On home uniform old gold numbers with white trim, and road uniforms old gold numbers with black trim, similar to teams original jerseys worn from 1967–69, 30th anniversary patch worn on the left chest.
New uniforms, with green color. Dallas Cowboys – New color road uniforms, Baltimore Ravens – New team in new city. Purple jerseys with white numbers trimmed in black and gold at home, white jerseys with black numbers trimmed in purple, black pants worn with both jerseys. San Francisco 49ers – New uniforms, darker red, white pants, and updated team logo. Minnesota Vikings – Changes in uniforms, Vikings logo on sleeve ends of home uniforms. Arizona Cardinals - New road jerseys, black trim removed from numbers, logo removed from sleeves, and Arizona state flag moved above sleeve stripes. Arizona Cardinals - Vince Tobin new head coach, replaced Buddy Ryan, who was fired after the 1995 season. Tampa Bay Buccaneers – Tony Dungy new head coach, replaced Sam Wyche who was fired after the 1995 season. Miami Dolphins – Jimmy Johnson new head coach, replaced Don Shula who retired after the 1995 season. Indianapolis Colts – Lindy Infante new head coach, replaced Ted Marchibroda who was offered a job from the Baltimore Ravens.
Cincinnati Bengals – Dave Shula was fired by mid season and was replaced by head coach Bruce Coslet
The Heisman Memorial Trophy, is awarded annually to the most outstanding player in college football in the United States whose performance best exhibits the pursuit of excellence with integrity. Winners epitomize great ability combined with diligence and hard work and it is presented by the Heisman Trophy Trust in early December before the postseason bowl games. The award was created by the Downtown Athletic Club in 1935 to recognize the most valuable football player east of the Mississippi. After the death in October 1936 of the Clubs athletic director, John Heisman, Heisman had been active in college athletics as a football player, a head football and baseball coach, and an athletic director. It is the oldest of several awards in college football, including the Maxwell Award, Walter Camp Award. The most recent winner of the Heisman Trophy is University of Louisville quarterback Lamar Jackson, the trophy itself, designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu, is modeled after Ed Smith, a leading player in 1934 for the now-defunct New York University football team.
The trophy is made out of cast bronze, is 13.5 inches tall, Eliscu had asked Smith, his former George Washington High School classmate, to pose for a commissioned sculpture of a football player. Smith did not realize until 1982 that the sculpture had become the Heisman Trophy, the Downtown Athletic Club presented Smith with a Heisman Trophy of his own in 1985. From its inception in 1935, the statue was cast by Dieges & Clust in New York until 1980, for a time until at least 2008, the statues were cast by Roman Bronze Works in New York. There are 870 media voters,145 voters from each of six regions, according to Heisman. com there are currently 57 prior winners eligible to vote and, thus,57 potential votes. Fans, As the Premier Partner of the Heisman Trophy, Nissan has a vote, fan voting done through a survey collected by ESPN on NissanHeismanHouse. com. Each voter identifies three selections, ranking them in order, each first-place selection is awarded three points. Each second-place selection is awarded two points, each third-place selection is awarded one point.
Voters must make three selections and cannot duplicate a selection, else the ballot is invalid and none of the selections count, the accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for the tabulation of votes, which has moved almost exclusively to online voting since 2007. Larry Kelley and Clint Frank of Yale were the first teammates to win the Heisman Trophy, nile Kinnick of Iowa was the only Heisman Trophy winner to have a stadium named after him. In 1972, the University of Iowa renamed its football complex Kinnick Stadium, Kinnick is the only winner to die in military service of the United States, he went down piloting an F4F Wildcat from the deck of USS Lexington. His death in 1943 made him the first Heisman Trophy winner to die, Doc Blanchard was the first junior to win the Heisman Trophy when he led Army to the national title in 1945. Paul Hornung was the player to win the Heisman Trophy as a player for a losing team
College Football Hall of Fame
The College Football Hall of Fame is a hall of fame and museum devoted to college football. The National Football Foundation launched the Hall in 1951 to immortalize the players, from 1995 to 2012, the Hall was located in South Bend, Indiana. It was connected to a center and situated in the citys renovated downtown district,2 miles south of the University of Notre Dame campus. In August 2014, the College Football Hall of Fame and Chick-fil-A Fan Experience opened in downtown Atlanta, rutgers donated land near its football stadium, office space, and administrative support. In response, the Foundation moved its operations to New York City, when the New York Attorney Generals office began its own investigation, the foundation moved to Kings Mills, where a building finally was constructed adjacent to Kings Island in 1978. The Hall opened with good attendance figures early on, but visitation dwindled dramatically as time went on, nearby Galbreath Field remained open as the home of Moeller High School football until 2003.
A new building was opened in South Bend, Indiana on August 25,1995. Despite estimates that the South Bend location would more than 150,000 visitors a year, the Hall of Fame drew about 115,000 people the first year. In 2009, the National Football Foundation decided to move the College Football Hall of Fame to Atlanta, the possibility of moving the museum has been brought up in other cities, including Dallas, which had the financial backing of billionaire T. Boone Pickens. However, the National Football Foundation ultimately decided on Atlanta for the next site, the new $68.5 million museum opened on August 23,2014. It is located next to Centennial Olympic Park, which is near other attractions such as the Georgia Aquarium, the World of Coca-Cola, CNN Center, and the National Center for Civil and Human Rights. The Hall of Fame is located near the Georgia Institute of Technology of the ACC, the new building broke ground on January 28,2013. Sections of the architecture are reminiscent of a football in shape, the facility is 94,256 square feet and contains approximately 50,000 square feet of exhibit and event space, interactive displays and a 45-yard indoor football field.
Atlanta Hall Management operates the College Football Hall of Fame, as of 2017, there are 987 players and 214 coaches enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame, representing 306 schools. The National Football Foundation outlines specific criteria that may be used for evaluating a candidate for induction into the Hall of Fame. A player must have received major first team All-America recognition, a player becomes eligible for consideration 10 years after his last year of intercollegiate football played. Football achievements are considered first, but the record as a citizen is weighed. Players must have played their last year of football within the last 50 years
Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School
Villa Angela-St. Joseph High School is a private Roman Catholic college-preparatory high school located in Cleveland, Ohio. The schools name is commonly abbreviated VASJ and it was formed by the 1990 merger of Villa Angela Academy and St. Joseph High School. It is owned by the Catholic Diocese of Cleveland, the schools core values are grounded in those of the religious orders which had administered the two predecessor schools, the Society of Mary and the Ursulines. The school moved into a new building in 1972 and their athletic teams were nicknamed the Skylarks Villa Angela Academy had over 6,000 graduates. St. Joseph High School was opened in 1950 on the site of Boulevard Hospital, bishop Edward Francis Hoban had asked the Society of Mary from Dayton, Ohio to administer the school. The schools mascot was the Viking due to the proximity to Lake Erie. St. Joseph has over 10,000 graduates, in 1988, the Diocese announced plans to merge these two schools into a new co-educational school that would serve the needs of the east side of Cleveland.
The new school would keep both schools names and traditions and it would be named Villa Angela - St. Joseph High School and be located at the St. Joseph building. The mascot would remain the Viking, Joseph High School before merging with Villa Angela Academy. Eckart -1968 - SJHS News/Media Kelly ODonnell -1983 - VAA Law/Attorney Tim Misny -1973 - SJHS School Website
2002 NFL season
The 2002 NFL season was the 83rd regular season of the National Football League. The league went back to a number of teams, expanding to 32 teams with the addition of the Houston Texans. The clubs were realigned into eight divisions, four teams in each, the Chicago Bears played the 2002 season in Champaign, Illinois at Memorial Stadium because of the reconstruction of their home stadium Soldier Field. The NFL title was won by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers when they defeated the Oakland Raiders 48–21 in Super Bowl XXXVII, at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego. With the Houston Texans joining the NFL, the teams were realigned into eight divisions, four teams in each division. In creating the new divisions, the tried to maintain the historical rivalries from the old alignment. The major changes were, The Seattle Seahawks became the team to switch conferences twice. The Arizona Cardinals moved from the NFC East to the NFC West and they had originally played in Chicago and St. Louis before moving to Phoenix in 1988.
The Indianapolis Colts, the Jacksonville Jaguars, the Tennessee Titans, the Atlanta Falcons, the Carolina Panthers, the New Orleans Saints, and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers were placed into the newly formed NFC South. Both the AFC Central and the NFC Central were renamed AFC North and NFC North and they retained their team placement, minus the Titans and Buccaneers of their respective conferences. From 1999 to 2001, at least one team sat out each week because of an odd number of teams in the league. Under the new scheduling formula, only two of a teams games each season are based on the previous record, down from four under the previous system. All teams play four interconference games, an analysis of win percentages in 2008 showed a statistical trend upwards for top teams since this change, the top team each year averaged 14.2 wins, versus 13.4 previously. The playoff format was modified, four division winners and two wild cards from each conference now advance to the playoffs, instead of three division winners and three wild cards.
In each conference, the winners are now seeded 1 through 4. In the current system, the way a wild card team can host a playoff game is if both teams in the conferences championship game are wild cards. Since 1990, the number of teams is still 12. A player who touches a pylon remains in-bounds until any part of his body touches the ground out-of-bounds, continuing-action fouls now become dead-ball fouls and will result in the loss of down and distance
1994 NFL season
The 1994 NFL season was the 75th regular season of the National Football League. To honor the NFLs 75th season, a special logo was designed. Also, a committee of media and league personnel named a special NFL 75th Anniversary All-Time Team. The Phoenix Cardinals changed their name to Arizona Cardinals in an attempt to widen their appeal to the state of Arizona instead of just the Phoenix area. The name was initially resisted by Bill Bidwill, the Seattle Seahawks played their first three regular season home games at Husky Stadium because the Kingdome, the Seahawks regular home field, was undergoing repairs for damaged tiles on its roof. The Seahawks returned for the 2000 and 2001 seasons while their new stadium was under construction, the 1994 season marked the last one until 2016 that the city of Los Angeles had an NFL team and the last one until 2017 that the city had two. Both the Rams and the Raiders left the city following the season. The Rams moved east to St. Louis, after being in Los Angeles for 49 years, while the Raiders left Los Angeles after 12 years to return to their previous home in Oakland, California.
The Rams eventually returned to Los Angeles in 2016 after failing to reach an agreement with St. Louis on a new stadium and this was the first season that the then-fledgling Fox Network televised NFL games. Fox took over the National Football Conference package from CBS, who would return to televising the NFL in 1998, today the package remains exclusive to DirecTV. The season ended with Super Bowl XXIX when the San Francisco 49ers defeated the San Diego Chargers 49–26 at Joe Robbie Stadium, both teams had met that regular season, the second straight season that had happened, and ninth time overall. This was the first year of the current practice of whenever Christmas Day falls on a Sunday that most of that games were played on the Saturday afternoon of Christmas Eve. Every NFL season afterwards with Christmas Day on a Sunday has followed this same scheduling format, a package of changes were adopted to increase offensive production and scoring, The two-point conversion after touchdowns is adopted.
The spot of the kickoff is moved from the 35-yard line to the 30-yard line and this would remain intact through the 2010 season. The Neutral zone infraction foul is adopted, a play is automatically dead before the snap when a defensive player enters the neutral zone and causes an offensive player to react. After a field goal is missed, the team takes possession of the ball at the spot of the kick or the 30-yard line. During field goal attempts and extra point tries, players on the team cannot block below the waist. The league honored its 75th season by having each team wear throwback uniforms during selected games, all jerseys displayed the players last names on the back, though this practice did not become standard until 1970
American football positions
In American football, each team has 11 players on the field at one time. The specific role that a player takes on the field is called his position, under the modern rules of American football, teams are allowed unlimited substitutions, that is, teams may change any number of players after any play. This has resulted in the development of three platoons of players, the offense, the defense, and the special teams, within those platoons, various specific positions exist depending on what each players main job is. In American football, the offense is the side in which the players have possession of the ball and it is their job to advance the ball towards the opponents end zone to score points. The backs and receivers are known as skill position players or as eligible receivers. Offensive linemen are not usually eligible to advance the ball past the line of scrimmage during a play, the organization of the offense is strictly mandated by the rules, there must be at least seven players on the line of scrimmage and no more than four players behind it.
The only players eligible to handle the ball during a play are the backs. The remaining players are considered ineligible, and may only block, within these strictures, creative coaches have developed a wide array of offensive formations to take advantage of different player skills and game situations. The following positions are standard in every game, though different teams will use different arrangements of them. The offensive line is responsible for blocking. The offensive line consists of, Center The center is the player who begins the play from scrimmage by snapping the ball to the quarterback. As the name suggests, the center usually plays in the middle of the offensive line, like all offensive linemen, the center has the responsibility to block defensive players. The center often has the responsibility to call out blocking assignments, offensive guard Two guards line up directly on either side of the center. Like all interior linemen, their function is to block on both running and passing plays, in such cases, the guard is referred to as a pulling guard.
Guards are typically shorter builds than tackles but taller than centers, offensive tackle Two tackles play outside of the guards. Their role is primarily to block on both running and passing plays, the area from one tackle to the other is an area of close line play in which blocks from behind, which are prohibited elsewhere on the field, are allowed. For a right-handed quarterback, the tackle is charged with protecting the quarterback from being hit from behind. Like a guard, the tackle may have to pull, on a running play, the six backs and receivers are those that line up outside or behind the offensive line
The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders currently compete in the NFL as a club of the leagues American Football Conference West division. At the end of the NFLs 2015 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime record of 444 wins,397 losses. The Raiders plan to remain in Oakland through 2018 – and possibly 2019 –, the Raiders off-field fortunes have varied considerably over the years. The teams first three years of operation were marred by poor performance, financial difficulties, and spotty attendance. In 1963, the Raiders fortunes improved dramatically with the introduction of head coach Al Davis, in 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time. The team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year, in doing so, the Raiders advanced to Super Bowl II, the Raiders run of success intensified during the 1970s. From 1970 to 1977, the team won six division titles, in 1976, the team captured its first NFL Championship with a convincing victory over the Minnesota Vikings in Super Bowl XI.
In 1982, amidst much controversy, the Raiders relocated to Los Angeles, the team finished with the NFLs best regular season record that year, one year later, the Raiders beat the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XVIII to capture their third Super Bowl championship. The Raiders fortunes declined following the 1985 season, they would win just one division title. In 1995, the Raiders returned to Oakland, after several years of continued mediocrity, the team entered a brief period of pronounced success in the early 2000s. From 2000 to 2002, the Raiders won three division titles and four playoff games, their renaissance culminated with a lopsided 2002 loss to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in Super Bowl XXXVII. The Super Bowl loss marked the beginning of a period of futility for the Raiders, from 2003 through 2015. In 2016, the Raiders finally ended their postseason drought with a victory over the division rival San Diego Chargers. At the end of the 2016 NFL season, the finished with a 12–4 record. The Raiders are known for their fan base and distinctive team culture.
Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, fourteen former members of the team have been enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Having enjoyed a successful coaching career at Navy during the 1950s
The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League. The game is the culmination to a season that begins in the late summer of the previous calendar year. Normally, Roman numerals are used to each game, rather than the year in which it is held. For example, Super Bowl I was played on January 15,1967, the single exception to this rule is Super Bowl 50, which was played on February 7,2016, following the 2015 regular season. The next game, Super Bowl LII, scheduled for February 4,2018, the game was created as part of a merger agreement between the NFL and its then-rival league, the American Football League. It was agreed that the two champion teams would play in the AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger was to officially begin in 1970. After the merger, each league was redesignated as a conference, the National Football Conference leads the league with 26 wins to 25 wins for the American Football Conference. The Pittsburgh Steelers have the most Super Bowl championship titles, with six, the New England Patriots have the most Super Bowl appearances, with nine.
The day on which the Super Bowl is played, now considered by some as an unofficial American national holiday, is called Super Bowl Sunday and it is the second-largest day for U. S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl has frequently been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year, in 2015, Super Bowl XLIX became the most-watched American television program in history with an average audience of 114. The NFL restricts the use of its Super Bowl trademark, it is called the Big Game or other generic terms by non-sponsoring corporations. As a result and discussing the broadcasts commercials has become a significant aspect of the event, for four decades after its 1920 inception, the NFL successfully fended off several rival leagues. However, in 1960, it encountered its most serious competitor when the American Football League was formed. The AFL vied heavily with the NFL for both players and fans, but by the middle of the decade the strain of competition led to merger talks between the two leagues.
Prior to the 1966 season, the NFL and AFL reached an agreement that was to take effect for the 1970 season. As part of the merger, the champions of the two agreed to meet in a world championship game for professional American football until the merger was effected. A bowl game is a college football game. Exploiting the Rose Bowl Games popularity, post-season college football contests were created for Miami, New Orleans, and El Paso, Texas in 1935, by the time the first Super Bowl was played, the term bowl for any major American football game was well established