SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Determinism

Determinism is the philosophical belief that all events are determined by existing causes. Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations; the opposite of determinism is some kind of randomness. Determinism is contrasted with free will. Determinism is taken to mean causal determinism, which in physics is known as cause-and-effect, it is the concept that events within a given paradigm are bound by causality in such a way that any state is determined by prior states. This meaning can be distinguished from other varieties of determinism mentioned below. Other debates concern the scope of determined systems, with some maintaining that the entire universe is a single determinate system and others identifying other more limited determinate systems. Numerous historical debates involve many philosophical varieties of determinism, they include debates concerning determinism and free will, technically denoted as compatibilistic and incompatibilistic.

Determinism should not be confused with self-determination of human actions by reasons and desires. Determinism requires that perfect prediction be possible. "Determinism" may refer to any of the following viewpoints: Causal determinism is "the idea that every event is necessitated by antecedent events and conditions together with the laws of nature". However, causal determinism is a broad enough term to consider that "one's deliberations and actions will be necessary links in the causal chain that brings something about. In other words though our deliberations and actions are themselves determined like everything else, it is still the case, according to causal determinism, that the occurrence or existence of yet other things depends upon our deliberating and acting in a certain way". Causal determinism proposes that there is an unbroken chain of prior occurrences stretching back to the origin of the universe; the relation between events may not be the origin of that universe. Causal determinists believe that there is nothing in the universe, uncaused or self-caused.

Historical determinism can be synonymous with causal determinism. Causal determinism has been considered more as the idea that everything that happens or exists is caused by antecedent conditions. In the case of nomological determinism, these conditions are considered events implying that the future is determined by preceding events—a combination of prior states of the universe and the laws of nature, yet they can be considered metaphysical of origin. Nomological determinism is the most common form of causal determinism, it is the notion that the past and the present dictate the future and by rigid natural laws, that every occurrence results from prior events. Nomological determinism is sometimes illustrated by the thought experiment of Laplace's demon. Nomological determinism is sometimes called'scientific' determinism, although, a misnomer. Physical determinism is used synonymously with nomological determinism. Necessitarianism is related to the causal determinism described above, it is a metaphysical principle.

Leucippus claimed there were no uncaused events, that everything occurs for a reason and by necessity. Predeterminism is the idea; the concept of predeterminism is argued by invoking causal determinism, implying that there is an unbroken chain of prior occurrences stretching back to the origin of the universe. In the case of predeterminism, this chain of events has been pre-established, human actions cannot interfere with the outcomes of this pre-established chain. Predeterminism can be used to mean such pre-established causal determinism, in which case it is categorised as a specific type of determinism, it can be used interchangeably with causal determinism—in the context of its capacity to determine future events. Despite this, predeterminism is considered as independent of causal determinism; the term predeterminism is frequently used in the context of biology and heredity, in which case it represents a form of biological determinism. Fatalism is distinguished from "determinism", as a form of teleological determinism.

Fatalism is the idea that everything is fated to happen, so that humans have no control over their future. Fate has arbitrary power, need not follow any causal or otherwise deterministic laws. Types of fatalism include hard theological determinism and the idea of predestination, where there is a God who determines all that humans will do; this may be accomplished either by knowing their actions in advance, via some form of omniscience or by decreeing their actions in advance. Theological determinism is a form of determinism that holds that all events that happen are pre-ordained, or predestined to happen, by a monotheistic deity, or that they are destined to occur given its omniscience. Two forms of theological determinism exist, here referenced as strong and weak theological determinism; the first one, strong theological determinism, is based on the concept of a creator deity dictating all events in history: "everything that happens has been predestined to happen by an omniscient, omnipotent divinity".

The second form, weak theological determinism, is based on the con

Speedy Gonzales: Los Gatos Bandidos

Speedy Gonzales: Los Gatos Bandidos is a Super Nintendo Entertainment System video game, released in 1995 in North American audience. In a small Mexican village, all the mice are enjoying a fiesta until Los Gatos Bandidos, a group of cats and kidnap them. Only Slowpoke Rodriguez sends for his cousin, Speedy Gonzales. Speedy enters each level and tries to rescue as many mice as possible while chasing after cheese and avoiding natural hazards; the gameplay in Speedy Gonzales resembles the Sonic the Hedgehog series. Players can access a short-range kick for attacking and can pick up items for usage at a time in the game; the game is full of bottomless spikes, which kill players instantly. Getting locked up in a cage causes players to lose a life. Arch-enemies from the cartoon show such as Sylvester and Robocat appear in the game. In Stage 6-1, there is a specific button in one section on the level that used to lock up emulators, due to improper emulation on how the game executed code for the button.

Byuu, known for his emulator higan, documented on how it was fixed. Captain Squideo of GamePro gave the game a negative review focusing on the easy and rudimentary gameplay: "The game's colorful cartoon style is reminiscent of last year's Yogi Bear game, the simplistic run-n-jump gameplay will appeal only to young gamers.... The puzzles are remedial, enemies drop with one quick kick, abundant time bonuses help you beat the clock." However, he did praise the quality and charm of the music and sound effects. A reviewer for Next Generation criticized that the gameplay mechanics and level designs are shamelessly ripped off from the Sonic the Hedgehog series, handles them poorly with choppy animation and "a momentum that makes you feel as though you're controlling a large walrus, rather than a mouse." He gave it one out of five stars. Coincidentally, the game is well-known for being the basis of a pirate hack where Speedy Gonzales is replaced with Sonic, the caged mice that he saves are replaced with Mario

Huntington Lower Village Church

The Huntington Lower Village Church known as the Huntington Union Meeting House, is a historic church building at 2156 Main Road in Huntington, Vermont. Built in 1870, it is a fine late example of Greek Revival architecture, it now serves as a community center. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984; the former Huntington Lower Village Church building stands in the rural village center of Huntington, on the west side of Main Road north of its junction with Bridge Street. It is a single-story wood frame structure, with clapboarded exterior. A three-stage tower rises from the ridge line behind the front facade, its first stage is square, with small cornice and entablature. The second stage is octagonal, with blind louvered openings on four side; the third stage, which houses the belfry, is a reduced version of the second stage, is capped by a round cupola. The building's corners have paneled pilasters, which rise to a broad entablature that extends across the front and sides.

The main entrance is centered, with flanking paneled pilasters rising to an cornice. The gable above is pedimented, with an applied diamond form at its center; the church was built in 1870, on the site of an older church built in 1839 for the use of multiple religious organizations. The older building was moved a short distance to serve as town hall; the present building saw use by religious organizations into the 20th century, its usage declining. Its main hall has since been converted to house the town library, other spaces are available for community use. National Register of Historic Places listings in Chittenden County, Vermont Huntington Library web site