SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded. Free will is linked to the concepts of moral responsibility, guilt and other judgements which apply only to actions that are chosen, it is connected with the concepts of advice, persuasion and prohibition. Traditionally, only actions that are willed are seen as deserving credit or blame. There are numerous different concerns about threats to the possibility of free will, varying by how it is conceived, a matter of some debate; some conceive free will to be the capacity to make choices in which the outcome has not been determined by past events. Determinism suggests that only one course of events is possible, inconsistent with the existence of free will thus conceived. Ancient Greek philosophy identified this issue; the view that conceives free will as incompatible with determinism is called incompatibilism and encompasses both metaphysical libertarianism and hard determinism. Incompatibilism encompasses hard incompatibilism, which holds not only determinism but its negation to be incompatible with free will and thus free will to be impossible whatever the case may be regarding determinism.

In contrast, compatibilists hold. Some compatibilists hold that determinism is necessary for free will, arguing that choice involves preference for one course of action over another, requiring a sense of how choices will turn out. Compatibilists thus consider the debate between libertarians and hard determinists over free will vs determinism a false dilemma. Different compatibilists offer different definitions of what "free will" means and find different types of constraints to be relevant to the issue. Classical compatibilists considered free will nothing more than freedom of action, considering one free of will if, had one counterfactually wanted to do otherwise, one could have done otherwise without physical impediment. Contemporary compatibilists instead identify free will as a psychological capacity, such as to direct one's behavior in a way responsive to reason, there are still further different conceptions of free will, each with their own concerns, sharing only the common feature of not finding the possibility of determinism a threat to the possibility of free will.

The underlying questions are whether we have control over our actions, if so, what sort of control, to what extent. These questions predate the early Greek stoics, some modern philosophers lament the lack of progress over all these centuries. On one hand, humans have a strong sense of freedom, which leads us to believe that we have free will. On the other hand, an intuitive feeling of free will could be mistaken, it is difficult to reconcile the intuitive evidence that conscious decisions are causally effective with the view that the physical world can be explained by physical law. The conflict between intuitively felt freedom and natural law arises when either causal closure or physical determinism is asserted. With causal closure, no physical event has a cause outside the physical domain, with physical determinism, the future is determined by preceding events; the puzzle of reconciling'free will' with a deterministic universe is known as the problem of free will or sometimes referred to as the dilemma of determinism.

This dilemma leads to a moral dilemma as well: the question of how to assign responsibility for actions if they are caused by past events. Compatibilists maintain. Classical compatibilists have addressed the dilemma of free will by arguing that free will holds as long as we are not externally constrained or coerced. Modern compatibilists make a distinction between freedom of will and freedom of action, that is, separating freedom of choice from the freedom to enact it. Given that humans all experience a sense of free will, some modern compatibilists think it is necessary to accommodate this intuition. Compatibilists associate freedom of will with the ability to make rational decisions. A different approach to the dilemma is that of incompatibilists, that if the world is deterministic our feeling that we are free to choose an action is an illusion. Metaphysical libertarianism is the form of incompatibilism which posits that determinism is false and free will is possible; this view is associated with non-materialist constructions, including both traditional dualism, as well as models supporting more minimal criteria.

Yet with physical indeterminism, arguments have been made against libertarianism in that it is difficult to assign Origination. Free will here is predominantly treated with respect to physical determinism in the strict sense of nomological determinism, although other forms of determinism are relevant to free will. For example and theological determinism challenge metaphysical libertarianism with ideas of destiny and fate, biological and psychological determinism feed the development of compatibilist models. Separate classes of compatibilism and incompatibilism may be formed to represent these. Below are the classic arguments bearing upon its underpinnings. Incompatibilism is the position that free will and determinism are logically incompatible

Church of Our Saviour, Friend of Children

Church of Our Saviour, Friend of Children known as Holy Angels Roman Catholic Church, is a church located on North Shore Road on Sugar Island, near Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, it was designated a Michigan State Historic Site in 1978 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Michael G. Payment was born in Montreal in 1814. In 1827 he became involved in business, he soon was put in charge of cargo shipments, in which capacity he traded goods with Native Americans. In 1845, Payment moved to Sugar Island and established a small settlement, known at the time as "Payment's Landing" or "Payment Settlement." Payment undertook trade with the local Ojibwe people. Beginning in 1853, Bishop Frederic Baraga was a frequent visitor to the settlement, in 1856 Baraga purchased lumber and requested that Michael Payment construct a church at the site. Payment complied, the building was completed in 1857. Michael Payment returned to Detroit in 1874, but regular services were held at the church until it closed in 1953.

The church reopened in 1982 for services in the summer. It is the last remaining structure from Payment's Landing. Church of Our Saviour, Friend of Children is a single story frame structure sitting on a fieldstone foundation; the exterior was clad in clapboard, but at some time weatherboarding was installed over the original siding. The church has a gable roof with a pyrimidal-roofed belfry at the top; each side has three windows, one end has an entry portico below a plain wooden cross. Catholicism portal Michigan portal National Register of Historic Places portal

Fort Point Light, San Francisco

Fort Point Light is a decommissioned lighthouse built on the third tier of Fort Point, now directly beneath the south anchorage of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California. The lighthouse is at the south end of the narrowest part of Golden Gate strait, it was preceded by two other lighthouses in nearby locations. The present lighthouse was in operation from 1864 until 1934. There have been three lighthouses built in the area; the original lighthouse, built in 1853, was a Cape Cod style lighthouse with an integral tower. It was the second lighthouse to be built on the US west coast, but it stood for only three months, was never lit. While awaiting the arrival of its lens, it was torn down to make room for the Army fort; the second lighthouse at Fort Point was a squat wooden 36-foot tower with four sides that sloped up to a square watch room. It was built on the narrow ledge between the water. In 1855, the light behind its fourth-order Fresnel lens was lit for the first time. Erosion undermined its foundation, in 1863 it was torn down to make way for a bigger seawall.

Fort Point's third lighthouse was built atop the wall of the fort in 1864. It was built as a 27-foot iron skeleton tower with a spiral staircase. A fifth-order lens was fitted, but in 1902 the lens was upgraded to a fourth-order lens, which produced alternating white and red flashes. In 1933, when work on the Golden Gate Bridge began, a fog signal and navigational light were placed at the base of the bridge's south tower. On September 1, 1934, after the towers for the Golden Gate Bridge were completed, the lighthouse was deactivated; the bridge would block off much of the light from the lighthouse, as the towers were 740 feet tall, they provided a more visible warning for mariners. Early keepers of Fort Point Light included: B. F. Deane J. C. Frachey George D. Wise Henry Hickson John D. Jenkins George W. Omey Scott Blanchard R. S. Martin Frank Thompson J. T. Hule James Rankin George D. Cobb The Mc Kay Family were the last to occupy the lighthouse keepers cottage. Assistant keepers included: Ephrin Sohn Return J. Henter George D. Wise D. Dennison G. W. Thomas James Gormley James Jenkins James Heron C. H. Warren G. W. Omey G. A. Braley J. J. Wickersham Ann Blanchard William Ferry Mrs. Rachel L. Jones Theresa Welch F. B.

Morehouse Mrs. Mary Thompson Sophie Hule John Riley H. P. McKeever Frank P. Stanyan List of lighthouses in the United States United States Coast Guard National Park Service Fort Point Page Fort Point Lighthouse Page www.us-lighthouses.com "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: California". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. Archived from the original on 2017-05-01. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Fort Point Lighthouse