Orange S. A. formerly France Télécom S. A. is a French multinational telecommunications corporation. It has 256 million customers worldwide and employs 95,000 people in France, in 2015, the group had revenue of €40 billion. The companys head office is located in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, the current CEO is Stéphane Richard. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, Orange has been the companys main brand for mobile, internet and IPTV services since 2006. It originated in 1994 when Hutchison Whampoa acquired a stake in Microtel Communications during the early 1990s. It became a subsidiary of Mannesmann in 1999 and was acquired by France Télécom in 2000, the company was rebranded as Orange in July 2013. In 1792, under the French Revolution, the first communication network was developed to enable the rapid transmission of information in a warring and that was the optical telegraphy network of Claude Chappe. In 1878, after the invention of the telegraph and the invention of the telephone.
Telephone Services were added to the ministry when they were nationalised in 1889, however, it was not until 1923 that the second T appeared and the department of P&T became PTT. In 1941, a General Direction of Telecommunications was created within this ministry, then, in 1944, the National Centre of Telecommunications Studies was created to develop the telecommunications industry in France. In the 1970s, France tried extra hard to make up its delay on other countries with the programme delta LP and it was at the time when the majority of the local loop was built, that is all the cables linking the users to the operator. Moreover, with the help of French manufacturers, digital switching, the Minitel, until 1988, France Télécom was known as the Direction Générale des Télécommunications, a division of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. This was in response to a European directive, aimed at making competition mandatory in public services from 1 January 1998, the 2 July 1990 Bill changed France Télécom into an operator of public law, with Marcel Roulet the first Chairman.
Since then, the company has had a body corporate from the State. It was privatised by Lionel Jospins Plural Left government starting on 1 January 1998, the French government, both directly and through its holding company ERAP, continues to hold a stake of almost 27% in the company. In addition, the government Conseil of Ministers names the CEO, in 1982 Telecom introduced Minitel online ordering for its customers. In September 1995, Michel Bon was appointed to run France Télécom Group, in 1997, the capital of the new public company was successfully floated whereas the dot-com bubble phenomenon made the stock exchanges bullish. A second share offering occurred in 1998, Hutchison renamed Microtel to Orange Personal Communications Services Ltd, and on 28 April 1994 the Orange brand was launched in the UK mobile phone market
A landline telephone refers to a phone that uses a metal wire or fibre optic telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission. In 2003, the CIA reported approximately 1.263 billion main telephone lines worldwide, china had more than any other country at 350 million and the United States was second with 268 million. The United Kingdom has 23.7 million residential fixed homephones, the 2013 statistics show that the total number of fixed-telephone subscribers in the world was about 1.16 billion. The number of landline subscribers continuously decreases due to upgrades in digital technology, a fixed phone line can be hard-wired or cordless and typically refers to the operation of wireless devices or systems in fixed locations such as homes. Fixed wireless devices usually derive their power from the utility mains electricity, unlike mobile wireless or portable wireless. Although mobile and portable systems can be used in fixed locations, mobile or portable, battery-powered wireless systems can be used as emergency backups for fixed systems in case of a power blackout or natural disaster.
So-called leased lines are invariably of the type, the implications of a land line in this context are security and survivability. For example, a military headquarters might be linked to units by landline to ensure that communication remains possible even if the conventional telephone network is damaged or destroyed. Another example of this is in airports, all air traffic control towers have dedicated lines connected to the police, fire department, army, etc. Deployed as a precaution in case of emergency, these can be used at any time, in many countries the landline has not been readily available to most people. In some countries in Africa, the rise in cell phones has outpaced any rise in landline telephones, between 1998 and 2008, Africa added only 2.4 million landlines. However, during this time the number of mobile phone lines that have been subscribed to has skyrocketed. Between 2000 and 2008, cell phone use has risen from less than 2 in 100 people to 33 out of 100. In developing countries it is difficult to install landline copper that is accessible to everyone than it is to install mobile wireless towers that people can connect to from anywhere.
In the early 21st century, the telephone has declined due to the advancement of mobile network technology. Some see this happening as soon as the year 2025, in 2004, only about 45% of people in the United States between the ages of 12 and 17 owned cell phones. At that time, they had to rely on landline telephones, in just 4 years time, that percentage climbed to about 71%. That same year,2008, about 77% of adults owned a mobile phone, in the year 2013, 91% of adults in the United States owned a mobile phone
Hellenic Telecommunications Organization S. A. usually known by its Greek initials OTE, is the dominant telecommunications provider in Greece. Along with its subsidiaries, is one of the largest telecom groups in South Eastern Europe, OTE Group offers broadband services and mobile telephony, high-speed data communications and leased lines services. In addition, the Group in Greece is involved in a range of activities, notably satellite communications, real-estate, at present, OTE companies employ about 30,000 people in 4 countries. Formerly a state-owned monopoly, OTEs privatization started in 1996 and is now listed on the Athens, since July 2009 Deutsche Telekom is the largest shareholder of the company. In September 2015, the announced they are to discontinue the use of the OTE name. The company chose not to adopt the Deutsche Telekom brand under which name it operates in its Central, starting in 1996, the Greek State gradually decreased its participation in OTE’s share capital. Following an agreement between the Greek State and Deutsche Telekom, as of November 2008 each party held 25% plus one share of OTE’s share capital.
Following a further sale of shares and voting rights, as of 11 July 2011 Deutsche Telekom’s stake in OTE has risen to 40% while that of the Greek State amounts to 10%. The largest mobile operator in Greece, with 7.9 million subscribers. OTEGlobe, International carrier with presence in SE Europe and the arm of OTE Group. The company has grown to a regional hub delivering a portfolio of voice, data/IP, oTESat-Maritel, Satellite services for maritime communications. It is one of the four major providers of Inmarsat maritime satellite communication services in the world, cosmoOne, B2B electronic commerce applications and services – the largest provider in Greece. OTEAcademy and advanced vocational training, oTEplus, Consultancy services on telecommunications and ICT. OTE Estate, management of OTE Group’s real estate assets, providing specialized insurance counseling to the OTE Group and to the general public. Www. oteasfalisi. gr OTE owns 54% of the capital of Telekom Romania. OTE owns 86. 2% in mobile telephony division of Telekom Romania, prior to this, telegraphy and international connections were fragmented and ill-coordinated.
Up to 1998, the market in Greece was a monopoly. The market was opened to competitors and OTE was gradually privatized, as a result, the Greek government currently holds 10% of the companys stock
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Reichspost was the name of several postal authorities in Germany. It may refer to one of these entities, The Imperial Reichspost was the name of the postal service of the Holy Roman Empire. The Bergamascan Tasso family had built up postal routes throughout Italy since c. 1290, Ruggiero had already connected Vienna and Innsbruck with Italy and Brussels, before Maximilian expanded from those routes throughout his realm. Charles V confirmed Jannettos son Giovanni Battista as Postmaster General in 1520, confirmed by Emperor Rudolph II in 1595, the Imperial postal service remained a monopoly of the Thurn und Taxis family until it was terminated with the end of the Empire in 1806. The Imperial Reichspost was based in Brussels in the Spanish Netherlands, from where the route led via Namur, Lieser, Wöllstein, Rheinhausen. It was used to bypass the Kingdom of France in order to keep in touch with Habsburg Spain during times of hostility, competing services were prohibited, although the Imperial cities were permitted to maintain their own communication system.
In the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, the Thurn und Taxis seat was relocated from Brussels to the Free City of Frankfurt in 1702, two years later, the postal authority moved to Regensburg, seat of the Imperial Diet. The family had accumulated wealth, nonetheless, it was devastated by the Napoleonic Wars. Originally a military alliance, it evolved to a federation with the issuing of a constitution with effect from 1 July 1867. In the course of the war, Prussian troops had occupied the Free City of Frankfurt, according to article 48, the federal area of the Northern German states, de facto an enlarged Prussia, came under the united postal authority, led by director Heinrich von Stephan. Its official name was Kaiserliche Post und Telegraphenverwaltung, the Southern German federated states of Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria initially maintained separate state post authorities, that nevertheless were integrated into the nationwide administration. On 1 January 1876 a Reichspostamt under Postmaster General von Stephan was split off Bismarcks Reich Chancellery as a government agency in its own right.
In the First World War, a Reichsabgabe tax was levied on the traffic from 1 August 1916 in order to finance the war expenses. With the establishment of the Weimar Republic upon the German Revolution of 1918–1919, after the hyperinflation period, the Deutsche Reichspost agency was again spun off in 1924 and operated as a state-owned enterprise. It was during this time that the Reichspost installed the first public Videophone, in 1941 postal codes were introduced. Deliveries were more and more affected by the advance of Allied troops from January 1945 on, the Reichspost finally ceased to function with the German Instrument of Surrender on May 8. The Reichspost was initially replaced by Allied-controlled postal authorities that provided services in the occupation zones. From 1947 a united agency served the British-American Bizone area, with the emergence of two German states, the Deutsche Bundespost was established in West Germany, and the Deutsche Post in East Germany
T-Mobile International AG was a German holding company for Deutsche Telekom AGs mobile communications subsidiaries. From 2003 to 2007 T-Mobile International was one of Deutsche Telekoms segments beside the segments of Broadband/Fixnet, Business Customers and Group HQ and Shared Services. T-Mobile International AG was based in Bonn and its subsidiaries operated GSM, UMTS and LTE-based cellular networks in Europe, the United States, Puerto Rico, the company had financial stakes in mobile operators in both Central and Eastern Europe. S. Globally, T-Mobile Internationals subsidiaries had a total of approximately 230 million subscribers. Germanys first mobile-communications services were radiotelephone systems that were owned and operated by the postal monopoly. It launched the analog first-generation C-Netz, Germanys first true mobile phone network in 1985, on July 1,1989, West Germany reorganized Deutsche Bundespost and consolidated telecommunications into a new unit, Deutsche Bundespost Telekom.
On July 1,1992, it began to operate Germanys first GSM network, along with the C-Netz, the GSM900 MHz frequency band was referred to as the D-Netz, and Telekom named its service D1, the private consortium awarded the second license chose the name D2. Deutsche Bundespost Telekom was renamed Deutsche Telekom AG on January 1,1995 as part of two of the German communications reform. This process of continued in November 1996, when DT was privatized and had the largest European IPO at the time. That same year, DT began to brand its subsidiaries with the T- prefix, in 2002, as DT consolidated its international operations, it anglicized the T-Mobil name to T-Mobile. On July 5,2005 Deutsche Telekom transformed its structure and adopted a regional setup, where available, the local mobile businesses were combined with the respective local wireline businesses to follow the integrated business aproach. In late 2007, it was confirmed that the merger of the high-speed 3G, the merger was completed the following month, the new companys name being announced as EE.
Orange and T-Mobile continued as separate brands in the market until 2015, until 2000, T-Mobile was a shareholder of the former max. mobil. In April 2001, it acquired one hundred percent and subsequently introduced the T-Mobile brand in Austria by rebranding max. mobil. in April 2002 as T-Mobile Austria, in 2005, it acquired former competitor tele. ring from Western Wireless International. It is now used as a discount brand, tele. ring is an Austrian mobile network operator. Since it was bought by T-Mobile in 2006, it is no longer an independent company. Tele. ring is independent and now acts primarily as a discount-offer, similar to Yesss. In the past, tele. ring was known for their aggressive price-politics, T-Mobile entered the Croatian market in October 1999 when DT initially acquired a thirty-five percent interest in Hrvatski telekom, including its cell phone service provider Cronet
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the worlds 10th largest stock exchange by market capitalization. Located in Frankfurt, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse AG and it is located in the district of Innenstadt and within the central business district known as Bankenviertel. The trading indices are DAX, DAXplus, CDAX, DivDAX, LDAX, MDAX, SDAX, TecDAX, VDAX, through its Deutsche Börse Cash Market business section, Deutsche Börse AG now operates two trading venues at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Xetra is the market for exchange trading in German equities. In 2015,90 per cent of all trading in shares at all German exchanges was transacted through the Xetra, with regard to DAX listings, Xetra has 60 per cent market share throughout Europe. Trading times on trading days are from 9.00 a. m. to 5.30 p. m, the prices on Xetra serve as the basis for calculating the DAX, the best-known German share index. Over 200 trading participants from 16 European countries, plus Hong Kong, Börse Frankfurt is the trading venue for mainly private investors with more than one million securities of German and international issuers.
So named Specialists on the trading floor attend to the trading of the securities, trading at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is governed by clear rules, which apply equally for all trading participants. With a view to improving the continuity of prices and to avoid mistrades, several mechanisms are in place for the trading venues Xetra. These include volatility interruption, market order interruption, and liquidity interruption measures, the origins of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange go back to medieval trade fairs in the 11th century. By the 16th century Frankfurt developed into a wealthy and busy city with a based on trade. In 1585 a bourse was established to set up fixed currency exchange rates, during the following centuries Frankfurt developed into one of the worlds first stock exchanges - next to London and Paris. Bankers like Mayer Amschel Rothschild and Max Warburg had substantial influence on Frankfurts financial trade, in 1879 Frankfurt Stock Exchange moved into its new building at Börsenplatz.
During the 1990s the Frankfurt Stock Exchange was bourse for the Neuer Markt as part of the worldwide dot-com boom, in 1993 the Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse became Deutsche Börse AG, operating businesses for the exchange. Since the profits from the presence of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt. In 2002 and 2004 Deutsche Börse was in advanced negotiations to take over London Stock Exchange, financial Market Integration in a Wider European Union International financial centres, rivals or partner
Digital media is any media that is encoded in a machine-readable format. Digital media can be created, distributed and preserved on digital electronics devices, Digital media are frequently contrasted with print media, such as printed books and magazines, and other traditional or analog media, such as pictures, film or audio tape. Combined with the Internet and personal computing, digital media has caused disruption in publishing, entertainment, commerce, Digital media has a significant, wide-ranging and complex impact on society and culture. Machine-readable media predates the Internet, modern computers and electronics, machine-readable codes and information were first conceptualized by Charles Babbage in the early 1800s. Babbage imagined that these codes would provide instructions for his Difference Engine and Analytical Engine, between 1822 and 1823, Ada Lovelace, a mathematician, wrote the first instructions for calculating numbers on Babbages engines. Lovelaces instructions are now believed to be the first computer program, there are in all extensions of human power, or additions to human knowledge, various collateral influences, besides the main and primary object attained.
Other early machine-readable media include the instructions for player pianos and jacquard looms, though they used machine-readable media, Babbages engines, player pianos, jacquard looms and many other early calculating machines were themselves analog computers, with physical, mechanical parts. The first truly digital media came into existence with the rise of digital computers, Digital computers use binary code and Boolean logic to store and process information, allowing one machine in one configuration to perform many different tasks. The first modern, digital computers, the Manchester Mark 1, though different in many ways from modern computers, these machines had digital software controlling their logical operations. They were encoded in binary, a system of ones and zeroes that are combined to make hundreds of characters, the 1s and 0s of binary are the digits of digital media. Bush envisioned a system of devices that could be used to help scientists, doctors and others, store and communicate information.
Calling this then-imaginary device a memex, Bush wrote, The owner of the memex, let us say, is interested in the origin, specifically he is studying why the short Turkish bow was apparently superior to the English long bow in the skirmishes of the Crusades. He has dozens of possibly pertinent books and articles in his memex, first he runs through an encyclopedia, finds an interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected. Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, thus he goes, building a trail of many items. Occasionally he inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item. He inserts a page of longhand analysis of his own, thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him. Bush hoped that the creation of this memex would be the work of scientists after World War II and it was recognized as a significant work even at the time of its publication. In the years since the invention of the first digital computers, computing power, personal computers and smartphones put the ability to access, modify and share digital media in the hands of billions of people
Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL Group, is a German postal service and international courier service company, the worlds largest. With its headquarters in Bonn, the corporation has 510,000 employees, Deutsche Post is the successor to the German mail authority Deutsche Bundespost, which was privatized in 1995 and became a fully independent company in 2000. DHL Express is an owned subsidiary. Since its privatization, Deutsche Post has significantly expanded its business area through acquisitions, the postal division delivers 59 million letters each day in Germany, making it Europes largest such company. The Express division provides services in 220 countries, in late 2014, the Group acquired StreetScooter GmbH, a small manufacturer of electric vehicles. Two years later, the Group acquired UK Mail, a postal service in the UK for US$315.5. The former company became a division of the Deutsche Post European parcel network, the Deutsche Post DHL Group 2016 earnings before interest and taxes was €3.491 billion, with a net profit of €2.64 billion on revenue of €57,334 billion.
Return on equity, before taxes, was 27.7 percent, the Groups long term credit rating, in November 2016, was BBB+ with a Stable outlook per Fitchs. Deutsche Post AG is listed on the Börse Frankfurt as DPW and is in the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. In 2016,20. 5% of the Groups shares are held by the state-owned KfW bank,79. 5% are freely floating,65. 6% of which are held by institutional and 10. 8% by private investors. Since its privatization, Deutsche Post has significantly expanded its business area through acquisitions, the massive, worldwide Deutsche Post DHL Group is quite recent. The following are the significant dates in the development into its current form,2 January 1995, Deutsche Bundespost Postdienst becomes Deutsche Post AG, this is the companys privatization. The government of Germany still owns a share of the company. 1998, Deutsche Post begins acquiring shares in DHL International,1999, Deutsche Post World Net acquires the Dutch distribution company Van Gend & Loos from Nedlloyd and in 2000 the Swiss distribution company Danzas.
20 November 2000, Deutsche Post AG becomes a private company, with a new Board of Directors. The government of Germany sells one third of its shares and KfW bank sells some of its shares, December 2002, Deutsche Post AG acquires the remaining shares in DHL International. August 2003, The company acquires the Seattle-based Airborne Express, the company integrates Van Gend & Loos, Airborne Express, and its own EuroExpress into DHL to form DHL Express. December 2005, The Group acquires the logistics company Exel in the UK, a£3.7 billion takeover, Excel provided transport,2006, DHL GlobalMail UK merges with Mercury International
BT Group plc is a holding company which owns British Telecommunications plc, a British multinational telecommunications services company with head offices in London, United Kingdom. It has operations in around 180 countries, BTs origins date back to the founding of the Electric Telegraph Company in 1846 which developed a nationwide communications network. In 1912, the General Post Office, a government department, the Post Office Act of 1969 led to the GPO becoming a public corporation. British Telecommunications, trading as British Telecom, was formed in 1980, British Telecommunications was privatised in 1984, becoming British Telecommunications plc, with some 50 percent of its shares sold to investors. The Government sold its stake in further share sales in 1991 and 1993. BT has a listing on the London Stock Exchange, a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. BT controls a number of large subsidiaries, BT announced in February 2015 that it had agreed to acquire EE for £12.5 billion, and received final regulatory approval from the Competition and Markets Authority on 15 January 2016.
The transaction was completed on 29 January 2016, BTs origins date back to the establishment of the first telecommunications companies in Britain. Among them was the first commercial service, the Electric Telegraph Company. As these companies amalgamated and were taken over or collapsed, the companies were transferred to state control under the Post Office in 1912. These companies were merged and rebranded as British Telecom, in January 1878 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his recently developed telephone to Queen Victoria at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. John Hudson, with his premises in nearby Shudehill. As the number of installed telephones across the country grew it became sensible to consider constructing telephone exchanges to allow all the telephones in each city to be connected together, the first exchange was opened in London in August 1879, closely followed by the Lancashire Telephonic Exchange in Manchester. From 1878, the service in Britain was provided by private sector companies such as the National Telephone Company.
In 1896, the National Telephone Company was taken over by the General Post Office, in 1912 it became the primary supplier of telecommunications services, after the Post Office took over the private sector telephone service in GB, except for a few local authority services. Those services all folded within a few years, the exception being Kingston upon Hull. Converting the Post Office into an industry, as opposed to a governmental department, was first discussed in 1932 by Lord Wolmer. In 1932 the Bridgeman Committee produced a report that was rejected, in 1961, more proposals were ignored
Digital television is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signal, in contrast to the totally analog and channel separated signals used by analog television. Digital TV can support more than one program in the channel bandwidth. It is a service that represents the first significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s. Several regions of the world are in different stages of adaptation and are implementing different broadcasting standards and this standard has been adopted in Europe, Singapore and New Zealand. Advanced Television System Committee uses eight-level vestigial sideband for terrestrial broadcasting and this standard has been adopted by six countries, United States, Mexico, South Korea, Dominican Republic and Honduras. Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting is a designed to provide good reception to fixed receivers. It utilizes OFDM and two-dimensional interleaving and it supports hierarchical transmission of up to three layers and uses MPEG-2 video and Advanced Audio Coding.
This standard has adopted in Japan and the Philippines. ISDB-T International is an adaptation of this standard using H. 264/MPEG-4 AVC that been adopted in most of South America and is being embraced by Portuguese-speaking African countries. Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting adopts time-domain synchronous OFDM technology with a signal frame to serve as the guard interval of the OFDM block. The DTMB standard has adopted in the Peoples Republic of China, including Hong Kong. Digital TVs roots have been tied very closely to the availability of inexpensive and it wasnt until the 1990s that digital TV became a real possibility. S. Until June 1990, the Japanese MUSE standard—based on an analog system—was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration, then, an American company, General Instrument, demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal. This breakthrough was of significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed.
In March 1990, when it became clear that a standard was feasible. The new ATV standard allowed the new DTV signal to be based on new design principles. Although incompatible with the existing NTSC standard, the new DTV standard would be able to incorporate many improvements, the final standard adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats, aspect ratios, or lines of resolution. This outcome resulted from a dispute between the electronics industry and the computer industry over which of the two scanning processes—interlaced or progressive—is superior