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A devil is the personification of evil as it is conceived in many and various cultures and religious traditions. It is seen as the objectification of a destructive force, it is difficult to specify a particular definition of any complexity that will cover all of the traditions, beyond that it is a manifestation of evil. It is meaningful to consider the devil through the lens of each of the cultures and religions that have the devil as part of their mythos; the history of this concept intertwines with theology, psychiatry and literature, maintaining a validity, developing independently within each of the traditions. It occurs in many contexts and cultures, is given many different names—Satan, Beelzebub, Mephistopheles—and attributes: It is portrayed as blue, black, or red; the idea of the devil has been taken often, but not always, for example when devil figures are used in advertising and on candy wrappers. The Modern English word devil derives from the Middle English devel, from the Old English dēofol, that in turn represents an early Germanic borrowing of the Latin diabolus.

This in turn was borrowed from the Greek: διάβολος diábolos, "slanderer", from διαβάλλειν diabállein, "to slander" from διά diá, "across, through" and βάλλειν bállein, "to hurl" akin to the Sanskrit gurate, "he lifts up". In his book The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity, Jeffrey Burton Russell discusses various meanings and difficulties that are encountered when using the term devil, he does not claim to define the word in a general sense, but he describes the limited use that he intends for the word in his book – limited in order to "minimize this difficulty" and "for the sake of clarity". In this book Russell uses the word devil as "the personification of evil found in a variety of cultures", as opposed to the word Satan, which he reserves for the figure in the Abrahamic religions. In the Introduction to his book Satan: A Biography, Henry Ansgar Kelly discusses various considerations and meanings that he has encountered in using terms such as devil and Satan, etc.

While not offering a general definition, he describes that in his book "whenever diabolos is used as the proper name of Satan", he signals it by using "small caps". The Oxford English Dictionary has a variety of definitions for the meaning of "devil", supported by a range of citations: "Devil" may refer to Satan, the supreme spirit of evil, or one of Satan's emissaries or demons that populate Hell, or to one of the spirits that possess a demonic person. In the Bahá'í Faith, a malevolent, superhuman entity such as a devil or satan is not believed to exist; these terms do, appear in the Bahá'í writings, where they are used as metaphors for the lower nature of man. Human beings are seen to have free will, are thus able to turn towards God and develop spiritual qualities or turn away from God and become immersed in their self-centered desires. Individuals who follow the temptations of the self and do not develop spiritual virtues are described in the Bahá'í writings with the word satanic; the Bahá'í writings state that the devil is a metaphor for the "insistent self" or "lower self", a self-serving inclination within each individual.

Those who follow their lower nature are described as followers of "the Evil One". In Christianity, evil is incarnate in the devil or Satan, a fallen angel, the primary opponent of God. Christians considered the Roman and Greek deities as devils. Christianity describes Satan as a fallen angel who terrorizes the world through evil, is the antithesis of truth, shall be condemned, together with the fallen angels who follow him, to eternal fire at the Last Judgment. In mainstream Christianity, the devil is referred to as Satan; this is because Christian beliefs in Satan are inspired directly by the dominant view of Second Temple Judaism, as expressed/practiced by Jesus, with some minor variations. Some modern Christians consider the devil to be an angel who, along with one-third of the angelic host, rebelled against God and has been condemned to the Lake of Fire, he is described as hating all humanity, opposing God, spreading lies and wreaking havoc on their souls. Satan is identified as the serpent who convinced Eve to eat the forbidden fruit.

Although this identification is not present in the Adam and Eve narrative, this interpretation goes back at least as far as the time of the writing of the Book of Revelation, which identifies Satan as being the serpent. In the Bible, the devil is identified with "the dragon" and "the old serpent" seen in the Book of Revelation, as has "the prince of this world" in the Gospel of John, he is identified as the dragon in the Book of Revelation, the tempter of the Gospels. The devil is sometimes called Lucifer when describing him as an angel before his fall, although the reference in Isaiah 14:12 to Lucifer, the "son of the dawn", is a reference to a Babylonian king. Beelzebub is the name of a Philistine god (more specifica


KaTeX is a cross-browser JavaScript library that displays mathematical notation in web browsers. It puts special emphasis on being easy to use, it was developed by Khan Academy, became one of the top five trending projects on GitHub in September 2014. KaTeX rendering of math claims to be: Fast: It renders its math synchronously and doesn’t need to reflow the page. Print quality: Its layout is based on TeX. Self contained: It has no dependencies, so it can be bundled. Capable of server-side rendering: it has an option to generate HTML on the server. However, compared to MathJax, it handles only a more limited subset of LaTeX's mathematics notation. MathML Official website "KaTeX is a alternative to MathJax" "KaTeX - a new way to display math on the Web" KaTeX-MathJax comparison

Leon Sperling

Leon Sperling was a Polish Jewish Olympic footballer. Sperling was born in Kraków, was Jewish, he was a football forward. Sperling represented Cracovia, the team he led in 1921, 1930, 1932 to the Championship of Poland, he played in 16 games for the Polish National Team, including Poland's lone game at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games. He was regarded as a skilled dribbler. Sperling is one of Cracovia Kraków's legends. Sperling was shot to death by the Nazis in the Lwów Ghetto in December 1941, his Jewish teammate, Józef Klotz, was killed in the Holocaust. List of select Jewish football players

Britain from Above

Britain From Above is a 2008 six-part British television miniseries in which journalist Andrew Marr takes to the skies over Britain to research aspects of past and present British life and the interconnections that make Britain what it is today. The series is described by the BBC as "An epic journey revealing the secrets and hidden rhythms of our lives from a striking new perspective". According to the BBC, "Cutting edge technology allows you to see through cloud cover, navigate the landscape and witness familiar sights as never seen before."The series was filmed in High Definition and aired on BBC One and Four for three weeks starting 10 August 2008 and is repeated regularly. The official website features all the films from the programmes, exclusive material including Rewinds through time at 16 different locations, Rough Cuts of magic moments and Behind the Scenes; the site shows aerial images by photographer Jason Hawkes. Britain from Above at BBC Programmes Britain From Above on IMDb Britain From Above at


Necatia is a genus of the jumping spider family Salticidae. Its only species, Necatia magnidens, is found in southern China; the species is only known from a single female specimen, collected in 1872 by A. David, described by Schenkel a hundred years later. Nothing more has been reported of the species since. From above, the carapace is U-shaped flared at the front; the female is larger than 6 mm. The posterior lateral eyes are located halfway along the carapace; the abdomen is longer than broad and the legs are spiny. Schenkel described the specimen as having an overall brownish black color, "which is not surprising for a specimen preserved for so long"; the genus name is dedicated to Necati Bingöl. Magnidens is Latin for "big toothed". Taxonomically, this genus is interesting; the name Davidina was proposed by Brignoli in 1985 as a replacement for the original name Davidia, proposed by Schenkel in 1963. This was necessary according to ICZN rules, because Davidia had been established by Hicks in 1873 as the name of a genus of Cycloconchidae, fossil mollusks.

However, Brignoli overlooked that in 1879, Oberthür had named a genus of Satyrini thus. Brignioli believed the mollusk genus to be a nomen dubium. In any case, the lepidopteran genus is valid. Thus, another replacement name for the spider became necessary. Brignoli, Paolo Marcello. On some generic homonymies in spiders. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 6: 380. Schenkel, E.. Ostasiatische Spinnen aus dem Muséum d'Histoire naturelle de Paris. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle A 25: 1-481. Sánchez, Teresa M.. New Late Ordovician Bivalves from the Sierra de Villicum. Journal of Paleontology 73: 66-76. Doi:10.1666/0022-3360073<0066:NLOCBF>2.3. CO. Nomenclatural changes for seven preoccupied Spider genera. Munis Entomology & Zoology 1: 137-142. PDF

List of cities and towns in Russia by population

This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with a population of over 50,000 as of the 2010 Census. These numbers are the population within the limits of the city/town proper, not the urban area or metropolitan area figures; the list excludes the city of Sevastopol and locations within the Republic of Crimea, since those were not subject to the 2010 Census as constituent parts of Ukraine. The city of Zelenograd and the municipal cities/towns of the federal city of St. Petersburg are excluded, as they are not enumerated in the 2010 Census as stand-alone localities. Note that the sixteen largest cities have a total population of 35,798,844, or 24.4% of the country's total population. Cities in bold symbolize the capital city of its respective federal subject List of cities and towns in Russia, a complete list of all cities and towns in Russia List of federal subjects of Russia by population Russian Cities of over 100,000 population at Cities of Russia as a subject of tourist interest