Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories have the power to make legislation relevant to the area and thus granting them a higher level of autonomy. Devolution differs from federalism in that the devolved powers of the subnational authority may be temporary and are reversible residing with the central government. Thus, the state remains de jure unitary. Legislation creating devolved parliaments or assemblies can be repealed or amended by central government in the same way as any statute. In federal systems, by contrast, sub-unit government is guaranteed in the constitution, so the powers of the sub-units cannot be withdrawn unilaterally by the central government; the sub-units therefore have a lower degree of protection under devolution than under federalism. Australia is a federation, it has two territories with less power than states.

The Australian Capital Territory refused self-government in a 1978 referendum, but was given limited self-government by a House of Assembly from 1979, a Legislative Assembly with wider powers in 1988. The Northern Territory of Australia refused statehood in a 1998 referendum; the rejection was a surprise to both the Northern Territory governments. Territory legislation can be disallowed by the Commonwealth Parliament in Canberra, with one notable example being the NT's short lived voluntary euthanasia legislation. Although Canada is a federal state, a large portion of its land mass in the north is under the legislative jurisdiction of the federal government; this has been the case since 1870. In 1870 the Rupert’s Land and North-Western Territory Order effected the admission of Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory to Canada, pursuant to section 146 of the Constitution Act, 1867 and the Rupert’s Land Act, 1868; the Manitoba Act, 1870, which created Manitoba out of part of Rupert’s Land designated the remaining territories the Northwest Territories, over which Parliament was to exercise full legislative authority under the Constitution Act, 1871.

Since the 1970s, the federal government has been transferring its decision-making powers to northern governments. This means greater local control and accountability by northerners for decisions central to the future of the territories. Yukon was carved from the Northwest Territories in 1898 but it remained a federal territory. Subsequently, in 1905, the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created from the Northwest Territories. Other portions of Rupert's Land were added to the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, extending the provinces northward from their previous narrow band around the St. Lawrence and lower Great Lakes; the District of Ungava was a regional administrative district of Canada's Northwest Territories from 1895 to 1912. The continental areas of said district were transferred by the Parliament of Canada with the adoption of the Quebec Boundary Extension Act, 1898 and the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act, 1912; the status of the interior of Labrador, believed part of Ungava was settled in 1927 by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which ruled in favour of Newfoundland.

In 1999, the federal government created Nunavut pursuant to a land claim agreement reached with Inuit, the indigenous people of Canada’s Eastern Arctic. The offshore islands to the west and north of Quebec remained part of the Northwest Territories until the creation of Nunavut in 1999. Since that time, the federal government has devolved legislative jurisdiction to the territories. Enabling the territories to become more self-sufficient and prosperous and to play a stronger role in the Canadian federation is considered a key component to development in Canada’s North. Among the three territories, devolution is most advanced in Yukon; the Northwest Territories was governed from Ottawa from 1870 until the 1970s, except for the brief period between 1898 and 1905 when it was governed by an elected assembly. The Carrothers Commission was established in April 1963 by the government of Lester B. Pearson to examine the development of government in the NWT, it conducted surveys of opinion in the NWT in 1965 and 1966 and reported in 1966.

Major recommendations included that the seat of government of the territories should be located in the territories. Yellowknife was selected as the territorial capital as a result. Transfer of many responsibilities from the federal government to that of the territories was recommended and carried out; this included responsibility for education, small business, public works, social services and local government. Since the report, the transfer of the government of Northwest Territories has taken over responsibilities for several other programs and services including the delivery of health care, social services, administration of airports, forestry management; the legislative jurisdiction of the territorial legislature is set out in section 16 of the Northwest Territories Act. Now, the government of Canada is negotiating the transfer of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development's remaining provincial-type responsibilities in the NWT; these include the legislative powers and responsibilities for land and resources associated with the department's Northern Affairs Program with respect to: Powers to develop, conserve and regulate of surface and subsurface natural resources in the NWT for mining and minerals administration, water management, land management and environmental management.

Madhulika Guhathakurta

Madhulika Guhathakurta is an American Astrophysicist and scientist with NASA's Heliophysics Science Division. She was the lead program scientist for NASA's Living With a Star initiative and serves as program scientist on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Van Allen Probes, Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory missions. Lika was the program scientist on SPARTAN-201, a free-flying science instrument platform designed to study velocity and acceleration of the solar wind and observe the sun's corona; these missions were conducted as part of the larger STS-56, STS-69, STS-77, STS-87, STS-95 mission objectives. She has worked as an educator, mission designer and managed science programs, has built instruments for spacecraft. Dr. Guhathakurta is known for her work in heliophysics where she has authored over 70 publications on the subject, she served as the NASA Lead Scientist for the North American Solar eclipse of August 21, 2017. NY Times Op-Ed: How's the Weather on the Sun? NPR: On Point - Mysteries of the Sun NBC Today Show: Lester Holt Interview The Atlantic: Solar Probe Plus CNN Starting Point: Soledad O'Brien Interview New Scientist: SDO New Scientist: Largest Sunspot in 25 Years Wired Magazine: Rethinking Space Weather USA Today: Weather Forecast in Space Boston Globe: Solar Activity/Climate Change Christian Science Monitor: Solar Storms Ahead Huffington Post: Space Weather Threat FOX: Lou Dobbs Interview Heliophysics: LWS Overview Smithsonian Air & Space: From Skylab to Interplanetary Space Weather - The Next Frontier Smithsonian Air & Space: Meet the Lecturer Peak Prosperity Podcast: Our Tech-Dependent Lifestyle is Vulnerable to Solar Flares Peak Prosperity Podcast: Revisiting Our Vulnerability to Solar Flares LWS Interview Sun-Earth Day Podcast The 25th Hour Radio Show: 2017 North American Solar Eclipse Applied Artificial Intelligence for Science & Exploration Enabled by Public-Private Partnerships


Kiwi! is a 2006 computer-generated animation created by Dony Permedi, a student in the New York City School of Visual Arts, as his Master's Thesis Animation, with music composed and performed by Tim Cassell. The animation's story of a kiwi that aspires to fly created a major Internet phenomenon after it was hosted on the video sharing site YouTube. Unofficial versions of the video pair it with Mad World by Gary Jules; these versions became popular viral videos. The video itself centers around a kiwi bird, mysteriously seen to be nailing an array of trees to the side of a sheer cliff so that they stick out horizontally. After the kiwi finishes it returns to the top of the cliff, before donning an aviator's cap and jumping off; as it dives down the cliff head-first the camera view turns sideways, revealing the purpose behind the kiwi's efforts. A tear wells from one eye as the kiwi achieves its dream, flapping its tiny wings as it "flies" above the forest of trees; the kiwi disappears into the fog below, a distant thud is heard.

Kiwi! has received a large following for its deep meaning and heart touching manner. One of the most popular activities in the fan base is to create an alternate ending; as of May 27, 2017, the animation has been viewed over 41 million times. It won official recognition on March 26, 2007 when viewers voted it the Most Adorable video of 2006 in the first annual YouTube Video Awards; this was an event large enough to draw international media attention with ABC News describing Kiwi! as "so cute it hurts" while the International Herald Tribune, critical of the awards, characterized the video as being "sweet but dull." Gagarin - cartoon about a caterpillar who dreams of flying. Kiwi! Video on YouTube Dony Permedi's website Dony Permedi interviewed Kazakhstani YouTube-like project named after this animation Kiwi! on IMDb