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The dewberries are a group of species in the genus Rubus, section Rubus related to the blackberries. They are small trailing brambles with aggregate fruits, reminiscent of the raspberry, but are purple to black instead of red. Dewberries are common throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere and are thought of as a beneficial weed; the leaves can be used to make a herbal tea, the berries are edible and taste sweet. They can be used to make cobbler, jam, or pie. Alternatively, they are sometimes referred to as ground berries. Around March and April, the plants start to grow white flowers that develop into small green berries; the tiny green berries grow red and a deep purple-blue as they ripen. When the berries are ripe, they are tender and difficult to pick in any quantity without squashing them; the plants do not have upright canes like some other Rubus species, but have stems that trail along the ground, putting forth new roots along the length of the stem. The stems are covered with fine stickers.

The berries are less seedy than blackberries. In the winter the leaves remain on the stems, but may turn dark red; the leaves are sometimes eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including peach blossom moths. The European dewberry, Rubus caesius, grows more upright like other brambles, but is restricted to coastal communities sand dune systems, its fruits are a deep black and are coated with a thin layer or'dew' of waxy droplets. Thus, they appear sky-blue, it is less sought after, because its fruits are small and retain a markedly tart taste when ripe. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the town of Cameron, North Carolina, was known as the "dewberry capital of the world" for large scale cultivation of this berry, shipped out for wide spread consumption. Local growers made extensive use of the railroads, in the area, to ship them nationally and internationally. Rubus Section Caesii, European dewberry European dewberry, Rubus caesius L. Rubus Section Flagellares, American dewberries Rubus aboriginum Rydb.

Synonyms:Rubus almus L. H. Bailey Rubus austrinus L. H. Bailey Rubus bollianus L. H. Bailey Rubus clair-brownii' L. H. Bailey Rubus decor L. H. Bailey Rubus flagellaris Willd. Var. almus L. H. Bailey Rubus foliaceus L. H. Bailey Rubus ignarus L. H. Bailey Rubus ricei L. H. Bailey Aberdeen dewberry, Rubus depavitus L. H. Bailey Northern dewberry, Rubus flagellaris Willd. Swamp dewberry, Rubus hispidus L. Upland dewberry, Rubus invisus Britton Pacific blackberry, Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schltdl. Black raspberry Boysenberry, a cross between a dewberry and a Loganberry Cloudberry, another dioecious Rubus species Youngberry

2011–12 Kurdish protests in Turkey

The 2011–2012 Kurdish protests in Turkey are ongoing protests in Turkey, led by the Peace and Democracy Party, against restrictions of Kurdish rights by of the country's Kurdish minority's rights. Although they are the latest in a long series of protest actions by Kurds in Turkey, they are influenced by the concurrent popular protests throughout the Middle East and North Africa, the Turkish publication Hürriyet Daily News has suggested that the popularly dubbed "Arab Spring" that has seen revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia may lead to a "Kurdish Summer" in the northern reaches of the Middle East. Protesters have taken to the streets both in İstanbul and in southeast Turkey, with some demonstrations reported as far west in Anatolia as İzmir. From 24 March and 10 May, a total of 2 protesters were killed, 308 injured and 2,506 detained by Turkish authorities; the protests declined in July after a new breakout of violence between state forces and Kurdistan Workers' Party rebels. There are 14 to 20 million Kurds in Turkey, living predominantly in the southeast of the country.

The Kurdish people are a unique ethnic group with customs. In Turkey, the Kurdish uprising dates back to at least 1925, but the most recent major rebellion started in 1978 and has crossed the border into adjacent Iraqi Kurdistan on a number of occasions. Over 3,000 Kurdish villages have been "evacuated" by the Turkish armed forces since the conflict began; the Kurdistan Workers' Party, a Kurdish separatist group listed as a terrorist organization by the governments of Turkey and the United States, demands autonomy for Turkish Kurdistan. It has called upon Turkish authorities to release Kurdish prisoners and detainees, overturn a ban on Kurdish-language education, cease military action against Kurdish groups. In 2009, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan launched a "Kurdish initiative" aiming to broaden cultural rights for Kurds, but many Kurdish protesters have said this does not go far enough. On 28 February 2011, the PKK announced an end to a unilateral ceasefire it had declared in August 2010, prompting Erdoğan to comment on the pro-Kurdish Peace and Democracy Party over its alleged collusion with the militant group.

"A political party, in Parliament hurling out threats... during every election period puts pressure on people who want to exercise their democratic will and serves no other purpose," the prime minister said. Internet censorship is practiced by the government of Turkey. A number of websites, including those of pro-Kurdish and alternative news outlets such as Voice of America and Azadiya Welat, are subject to a filter imposed by the Turkish Council of State. Bianet reported that according to new regulations adopted by the government in late February, this filter will be expanded from blocking access to certain websites from Internet cafés to affect all Internet access points and ISPs in Turkey sometime in the near future. On 13 March 2011, The New York Times reported a turnout of "thousands" for a march in İstanbul protesting censorship of the press and the arrest of over a dozen journalists by Turkish authorities since the start of the month; the Turkish media advocacy group Freedom to Journalists Platform said Turkey held 68 journalists as of mid-March, including many on charges of "inciting public hatred" and similar offenses, though the government maintains only 27 journalists are incarcerated on unrelated charges.

24 MarchIn a statement published online on 24 March, the Peace and Democracy Party announced the immediate beginning of a civil disobedience campaign, beginning with a strike and sit-in in Diyarbakır, the largest city in the Kurdish region. The government responded by deploying soldiers and Army vehicles to break up the unsanctioned demonstration, which drew about 3,000 participants. Just a fraction of these participants—a few dozen MPs and Kurdish city officials, including the mayor of Diyarbakır—were permitted to proceed to the sit-in venue, while thousands more demonstrators thronged outside and shouted angry slogans. Police clashed with demonstrators, some of whom attempted to attack officers with fireworks, detained five. A similar scene erupted in Batman, where a larger number of protesters were detained and protest tents were forcibly taken down. 27 MarchDemonstrations spread to İstanbul, İzmir and Antalya by 27 March. Protest camps sprang up in Tunceli, Muş, Ağrı. Several dozen protesters were arrested.

Protest leader and MP Selahattin Demirtaş said that the Peace and Democracy Party was determined to carry out civil disobedience actions across the Kurdish region and condemned the governor of Diyarbakır Province for declaring the protests unlawful. Fellow Kurdish leader Ahmet Türk said they will continue the sit-in action despite the pressure from the Turkish authorities. "The prime minister who sends greetings to Tahrir Square while sending tanks and gas bombs at us should know that the people have been seeking their freedom in their Tahrir Squares," said Demirtaş, referring to Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and his favorable stance toward Egyptian revolutionaries. 28 MarchAbout 40,000 people marched to the alleged site of mass graves of Kurds in Siirt Province on 28 March. The protest march spun off into rioting in the province. In Batman and Diyarbakır, two of the original sites of protests as part of the civil disobedience campaign, media reported Turkish security forces detained several more protesters.

6 AprilDemirtaş ratcheted up the civil disobedience campaign by Kurdish protesters on 6 April by accusing imams sent by the government to lead prayers in Turkey's southeast of supporting and spying for the ruling Justice and Development Party and urging Kurds not to pray behind them. Demirtaş said that sermons in Kurdish part

Puttalam Electoral District (1947–1989)

Puttalam electoral district was an electoral district of Sri Lanka between August 1947 and February 1989. The district was named after the City of Puttalam in North Western Province; the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka introduced the proportional representation electoral system for electing members of Parliament. The existing 160 single-member electoral districts were replaced with 22 multi-member electoral districts. Puttalam electoral district was replaced by the Puttalam multi-member electoral district at the 1989 general elections, the first under the proportional representation system, Puttalam continues to be a polling division of the multi-member electoral district. Key Independent Sri Lanka Freedom Party United National Party

Solanum parishii

Solanum parishii is a species of nightshade known by the common name Parish's nightshade. It is native to western North America from Oregon to Baja California, where it grows in many types of habitat, including maritime and inland chaparral and forests, it is a perennial herb or subshrub producing a branching, ribbed or ridged stem up to about a meter in maximum height. The lance-shaped to nearly oval leaves are up to 7 centimeters long and smooth-edged or somewhat wavy; the inflorescence is an umbel-shaped array of each borne on a short pedicel. The flower corolla is around 2 centimeters wide when open and is purple, but sometimes white. At the center are yellow anthers; the fruit is a berry a centimeter wide. Jepson Manual Treatment Photo gallery

Marie-Cessette Dumas

Marie-Cessette Dumas was a French slave, called by one writer a "great matriarch to a saga of distinguished men," was the mother of General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, the grandmother of novelist Alexandre Dumas, the great-grandmother of playwright Alexandre Dumas, fils. She was an enslaved woman of African descent owned by the Marquis Alexandre Antoine Davy de La Pailleterie, they lived at a plantation called La Guinaudée near Jérémie of the French colony of Saint-Domingue, until Antoine's departure in 1775. Two primary source documents show. One is a 1776 letter from a retired royal prosecutor in Jérémie to the Count de Maulde, the son-in-law of Thomas-Alexandre Dumas's uncle, Charles Davy de la Pailleterie; the letter states that Dumas's father "bought from a certain Monsieur de Mirribielle a negress named Cesette at an exorbitant price," after living with her for some years, "sold... the negress Cezette" along with her two daughters "to a... baron from Nantes." The second is a legal judgment signed by Thomas-Alexandre Dumas known as Thomas Retoré or Rethoré, his widowed step-mother Marie Retou Davy de la Pailleterie, which attests that Retou gave up her property rights over Marie-Cessette Dumas and her two daughters.

The only source for her full name with the spelling "Marie-Cessette Dumas," is General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas's marriage certificate and contract. The name Marie is given in some sources as Louise. Cessette is spelled Cecette and Cezette in one primary source and given in others as Cécile. There has been some speculation that the family name "Dumas," rather than representing a family name for Marie-Cessette, instead means "of the farm" and constitutes a descriptive addition to her first names meant to signify that she belonged to the property. Others have proposed that the name Cessette may have originated in Gabon, where Marie-Cessette might have been captured by slave traders. According to Francophone novelist Calixthe Beyala, the name "Dumas" was "Dûma," of Fang origin, meaning "dignity." Hans Werner Debrunner has written that she would have been Dahomeyan. The two extant primary documents that state a racial identity for Marie-Cessette Dumas refer to her as a "négresse" —as opposed to a "mulâtresse".

The first is a June 3, 1776, letter from the retired royal prosecutor Chauvinault, hired by the Count de Maulde. It states that Dumas’ father "bought... a negress named Cesette," after living with her for some years, "sold... the negress Cezette". In contrast to describing her as a "negress," implying she was African, the letter classifies the four children she had with Antoine as "mulattos."The second document is a legal judgment signed before "the Counselors of King, Notary Publics in the Châtelet of Paris" on November 22, 1786, which settled property ownership issues between Thomas-Alexandre Dumas and his step-mother, Marie Françoise Elisabeth Retou. In it, Marie-Cesette Dumas is mentioned as "Marie Cezette, mother of Mr. Rethoré". Secondary sources on General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas, dating back to 1822 always describe his mother as a black African. Sources differ on the circumstance of her death. Two documents signed by Alex Dumas—his contract and certificate of marriage to Marie-Louise Labouret—state that Marie-Cessette died in La Guinaudée, near Trou Jérémie, Saint-Domingue, in 1772.

Based on this death date, Victor Emmanuel Roberto Wilson speculates that she may have died in the mass outbreak of dysentery following a devastating hurricane that struck principally the Grand'Anse region of Saint-Domingue that year. There is good reason, however, to believe that she did not die in 1772. Two other documents say; the 1776 letter from Chauvinault to the Count de Maulde, cited above, states that Dumas's father Antoine sold Marie-Cessette in 1775 before returning to France. A second document, this one signed by Dumas in 1801, states "Marie-Cezette" will be in charge of General Dumas's properties in Saint-Domingue; this evidence makes it unlikely that Marie-Cessette Dumas died in 1772. According to the writer Claude Ribbe, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas may have deliberately entered a false death date on the marriage certificate, he had urgent reason to claim she was dead at the moment of his marriage in Villers-Cotterêts, France, in 1792. If she were living, he would have been required to consult her opinion on the marital union

Ideographic Research Group

The Ideographic Research Group called the Ideographic Rapporteur Group, is a subgroup of Working Group 2 of ISO/IEC JTC1 SC2, the subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee of ISO and IEC, responsible for developing standards within the field of coded character sets. IRG is composed of experts from China, South Korea and other countries and regions that use Han characters, as well as experts representing the Unicode Consortium; the group is responsible for coordinating the addition of new CJK unified ideographs to the Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set and the Unicode Standard. The group meets twice a year for 4-5 days each time, reports its activity to the subsequent meeting of WG2; the precursor to the Ideographic Rapporteur Group was the CJK Joint Research Group, established in 1990. In October 1993 this group was established as a subgroup of WG2 under SC2 with the name Ideographic Rapporteur Group. In June 2019 SC2 changed the name of the subgroup to Ideographic Research Group.

The IRG rapporteur from 1993 to 2004 was Zhang Zhoucai, convenor and chief editor of CJK-JRG from 1990 to 1993. Since 2004 the rapporteur has been Professor Lu Qin of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. In June 2018 the title of "Rapporteur" was changed to "Convenor". IRG is responsible for reviewing proposals for adding new CJK unified ideographs to the Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set and the Unicode Standard, submitting consolidated proposals for sets of CJK unified ideographs to WG2, which are processed for encoding in the ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode standards by SC2 and the Unicode Technical Committee respectively. National and liaison bodies of SC2 that participate in IRG include China, Hong Kong, North Korea, South Korea, Singapore, Taipei Computer Association, Unicode Consortium, United Kingdom, Vietnam; as of Unicode version 13.0, the IRG has been responsible for submitting several blocks of CJK unified ideographs and compatibility ideographs for encoding: CJK Unified Ideographs CJK Unified Ideographs Extension A CJK Unified Ideographs Extension B CJK Unified Ideographs Extension C CJK Unified Ideographs Extension D CJK Unified Ideographs Extension E CJK Unified Ideographs Extension F CJK Unified Ideographs Extension G CJK Compatibility Ideographs CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement