Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea and it is the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement in Australia, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself particularly the Sydney New Years Eve celebrations, the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Roads & Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks, the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head.
The Cammeragal lived on the side of the harbour. The area along the banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal. The Eora occupied Port Jackson, south to the Georges River, the first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour, was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770 - Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson. His ships log notation states at noon we were. about 2 or 3 miles from the land, eighteen years later, on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to examine Cooks Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove, moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove, Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia, to become the city of Sydney. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, in 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed.
It spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom nets central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges, killing themselves in the process, a second midget submarine came to grief in Taylors Bay, the two crew committing suicide. The third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour, in November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydneys Northern Beaches. The anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, and all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island. Fort Denison is a former site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour
The land adjacent to the Pittwater was occupied for many thousands of years by the Kuringgai Aboriginal peoples. They used the river as an important source of food and a place for trade, Pittwater was named Pitt Water in 1788 in honour of William Pitt the Younger, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The eastern parts of the catchment are largely urbanised whilst the western parts are primarily Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, Scotland Island is located within the estuary. Pittwater contains a diversity of habitat types including mangrove wetlands, sand flats and seagrass meadows. Amongst the Kuringgai, there were smaller units called clans. During 1789 the impact of smallpox on aboriginal peoples led to extensive mortality, between 500 and 1000 Aboriginal people died on the coastal strip bounded by Botany Bay and Broken Bay. A significant proportion of these were Kuringgai, the waterway was surveyed by crew members of HMS Sirius in 1788, and named Pitt Water after William Pitt the Younger, the Prime Minister of Great Britain.
Pitt Water was said to be the first place in Australia to be formally named, the first regular water transport across Pittwater was the cutter Francis which carried settlers and farm produce from Sydney between 1793 and 1800. These vessels were built on Scotland Island and were not sufficiently seaworthy to leave Broken Bay. A customs house operated from Pittwater between 1843 and 1900, and a government-built sandstone lighthouse was completed at Barrenjoey in 1881, both the Old Customs House and the lighthouse are listed on the Register of the National Estate. Shipping declined as a medium following road and rail construction through the region between 1850 and 1890, especially the construction of a rail bridge over the waterway in 1899. The last locally constructed shipping vessel was launched from a shipyard at Blackwall in 1912, since the 1950s, Pittwater has become predominantly residential in character and is a suburban region of Sydney. The greater Sydney metropolis has extended to Palm Beach, Church Point, the Pitwater is a popular water recreation, such as sailing and fishing.
The area is an important natural area that comprises wetlands, lagoons. The Pittwater to Coffs Harbour Yacht Race is held in January annually, however, in 2016 the race was held as Pittwater to Southport since the facilities at Coffs Harbour had been badly damaged by East coast storms. The current ministry coordinator is Rob Lamont, who succeeded Phil Rawlings in June 2014, the Church runs a once a month Prayer service on a Friday Night The Newport Anglican Church meets right next to the Pittwater Post Office at 9. 30am on Sundays. The Senior Minister is Rev. Jason Ramsay, since 2007
The First Fleet is the name given to the 11 ships that left England on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The First Fleet was commanded by Commodore Arthur Phillip, who was given instructions authorising him to make regulations, the cost to Britain of outfitting and despatching the Fleet was £84,000. Ropes, agricultural equipment and a miscellany of other stores were needed, the party had to rely on its own provisions to survive until it could make use of local materials, assuming suitable supplies existed, and grow its own food and raise livestock. Scale models of all the ships are on display at the Museum of Sydney, the models were built by ship makers Lynne and Laurie Hadley, after researching the original plans and British archives. The replicas of the Supply, Scarborough, Prince of Wales, Lady Penrhyn, Alexander, Fishburn, nine Sydney harbour ferries built in the mid-1980s are named after First Fleet vessels. The unused names are Lady Penrhyn and Prince of Wales, the people of the fleet included seamen and their families, government officials, and a large number of convicts, including women and children.
The majority were British, but there were African, the six convict transports each had a detachment of marines on board. Most of the families of the marines travelled aboard the Prince of Wales, a number of people on the First Fleet kept diaries and journals of their experiences, including the surgeons. There are twelve known journals in existence as well as some letters, the exact number of people directly associated with the First Fleet will likely never be established, as all accounts of the event vary slightly. A total of 1,420 people have identified as embarking on the First Fleet in 1787. The total number of persons embarking on the First Fleet would, therefore, be approximately 1,530 with about 1,483 reaching Sydney Cove. The Scarborough, of 418 tons, had on board 205 male convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,2 corporals,1 drummer, and 26 privates, with 1 assistant surgeon to the colony. The Charlotte, of 346 tons, had on board 89 male and 20 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,3 corporals,1 drummer, and 35 privates, with the principal surgeon of the colony.
The Lady Penrhyn, of 338 tons, had on board 101 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants, and 3 privates, with a person acting as a surgeons mate. The Prince of Wales, of 334 tons, had on board 2 male and 50 female convicts,2 lieutenants,3 sergeants,2 corporals,1 drummer, and 24 privates, with the surveyor-general of the colony. The Friendship, … of 228 tons, had on board 76 male and 21 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,3 corporals,1 drummer, and 36 privates, with 1 assistant surgeon to the colony. There were on board, beside these,28 women,8 male and 6 female children, belonging to the soldiers of the detachment, the Fishburn store-ship was of 378 tons, the Borrowdale of 272 tons, and the Golden Grove of 331 tons. Golden Grove carried the chaplain for the colony, with his wife, not only these store-ships, but the men of war and transports were laden with provisions, implements of agriculture, camp equipage, clothing for the convicts, etc
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue, as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip, as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have symbols for the alveolar consonants. Rather, the symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized like English palato-alveolar sh. To disambiguate, the bridge may be used for a dental consonant, note that differs from dental in that the former is a sibilant and the latter is not. Differs from postalveolar in being unpalatalized, the bare letters, etc. cannot be assumed to specifically represent alveolars. If it is necessary to specify a consonant as alveolar, a diacritic from the Extended IPA may be used, the letters ⟨s, t, n, l⟩ are frequently called alveolar, and the language examples below are all alveolar sounds.
Alveolar consonants are transcribed in the IPA as follows, The alveolar or dental consonants and are, along with, there are a few languages that lack them. A few languages on Bougainville Island and around Puget Sound, such as Makah, lack nasals and therefore, colloquial Samoan, lacks both and, but it has a lateral alveolar approximant /l/. In Standard Hawaiian, is an allophone of /k/, but /l/, in labioalveolars, the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge. Such sounds are typically the result of a severe overbite, the Sounds of the Worlds Languages
Greater Western Sydney
In government administration, the region has a Minister for Western Sydney, currently held by the Hon. Stuart Ayres, MP. The population is predominantly of a working background, with major employment in the heavy industries. Greater Western Sydney local government authorities agree on the definition of greater western Sydney. The Macarthur Regional Organisation of Councils includes the government areas of Camden, Campbelltown. This confirmed earlier accounts by Governor Phillip, who suggested that the trees were growing at a distance of twenty to forty feet from each other. Maximum summer temperatures average at around 28 °C to 30 °C and winter temperatures are mild, averaging at around 17 °C to 18 °C, autumn and spring are the transitional seasons, with spring showing a larger variation than autumn in terms of temperatures. Rainfall is almost evenly throughout the year, although the first half tends to be wetter. The region is in a rain shadow created by the higher coastal highlands which seize the rain from the prevailing south-east winds.
The months from July through to December tend to be drier, thunderstorms are common in late summer and early autumn. Winters are pleasantly cool and relatively sunny, although east coast lows can bring large amounts of rainfall, most suburbs in the west have an annual precipitation that averages at around 700 to 900 mm, in contrast to Sydney CBDs 1,217 mm. Western Sydney is much warmer than Sydney city in summer, during this time, daytime temperatures can be 5 degrees Celsius warmer than the city. This is because sea breezes in the City do not penetrate the inland areas, northwesterlies occasionally bring hot winds from the desert that raise temperatures as high as 40 °C. The humidity in the summer is usually in the comfortable range, in early autumn, hot days are possible, with temperatures above 38 °C possible in March, but quite rare. April is cooler, with days above 30 °C happening on average only 1.1 times during the month, days cooler than 20 °C occur more regularly leading into May. In May, days are mild, ranging from the high teens to the low-mid 20s.
Average minimums fall throughout the season, with the first night below 10 °C often occurring in April. Winter temperatures often show a variation in late winter than early winter. Winter nights average 6.9 °C, although an average of 2.1 nights per year see temperatures fall below 2 °C, mostly in July, and these low temperatures often occur when the night sky is clear and the ground can radiate heat back into the atmosphere
The Georges River, formerly known as Tucoerah River, is an intermediate tide dominated drowned valley estuary, located to the south and west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The river travels for approximately 96 kilometres in a north and easterly direction to its mouth at Botany Bay, the Georges River is the main tributary of Botany Bay, with the Cooks River being a secondary tributary. The land adjacent to the Georges River was occupied for thousands of years by the Tharawal. They used the river as an important source of food and a place for trade, major tributaries include OHares Creek, Bunbury Curran Creek, Cabramatta Creek, Prospect Creek, Salt Pan Creek and the Woronora River. The Georges River is popular for activities such as water skiing and swimming. The banks of the river along the lower reaches are marked by large inlets and indentations overlooked by steep ridges and scarps. The Georges River features some artificial lakes in the suburb of Chipping Norton and these lakes, known as the Chipping Norton Lakes, are the result of sand mining and quarrying operations in the twentieth century.
The Lakes are now a popular watersports and recreational facility for the residents of the suburbs of Sydney. Liverpool Weir now forms the uppermost tidal limit and presence of water on the Georges River. Georges River National Park adjoins the upper reaches of the Georges River, from Appin to Glenfield, a large corridor has been protected as part of the Georges River Regional Open Space Corridor. Council reserves allow for access to natural sections of the river at Simmos Beach, Ingleburn Reserve, Keith Longhurst Reserve, Botany Bay Community River Health Monitoring Program is a community-based initiative to monitor ecosystem health catchment. Www. georgesriver. org. au Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Georges River was named in honour of King George III, by Governor Arthur Phillip. The river was first explored by Bass and Flinders in 1795 on their first voyage on the Tom Thumb after their arrival in New South Wales, the exploration led to the establishment of Bankstown. A dam was constructed by David Lennox using convict labour at Liverpool in 1836, in February 2007, Liverpool and Campbelltown City Council were awarded a $2 million grant from the NSW Environmental Trust under their Urban Sustainability Initiative.
Bridges over the Georges River include from east to west, Captain Cook Bridge, for cars, Tom Uglys Bridge, for cars and cyclists. Old Como railway bridge, now for pedestrians and cyclists, Como railway bridge on the Illawarra line, connecting Oatley to Como, for trains. Alfords Point Bridge, for cars and cyclists, East Hills rail bridge at East Hills, for trains. Voyager Point footbridge, for pedestrians and cyclists, m5 South Western Motorway Georges River East Bridge Milperra Bridge, for cars and cyclists
Specials (Unicode block)
Specials is a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 codepoints, five are assigned as of Unicode 9, U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the sense. They can be used to guess a texts encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by not a correctly encoded Unicode text. The replacement character � is a found in the Unicode standard at codepoint U+FFFD in the Specials table. It is used to indicate problems when a system is unable to render a stream of data to a correct symbol and it is usually seen when the data is invalid and does not match any character, Consider a text file containing the German word für in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. This file is now opened with an editor that assumes the input is UTF-8. The first and last byte are valid UTF-8 encodings of ASCII, therefore, a text editor could replace this byte with the replacement character symbol to produce a valid string of Unicode code points.
The whole string now displays like this, f�r, a poorly implemented text editor might save the replacement in UTF-8 form, the text file data will look like this, 0x66 0xEF 0xBF 0xBD 0x72, which will be displayed in ISO-8859-1 as fï¿½r. Since the replacement is the same for all errors this makes it impossible to recover the original character, a better design is to preserve the original bytes, including the error, and only convert to the replacement when displaying the text. This will allow the text editor to save the original byte sequence and it has become increasingly common for software to interpret invalid UTF-8 by guessing the bytes are in another byte-based encoding such as ISO-8859-1. This allows correct display of both valid and invalid UTF-8 pasted together, Unicode control characters UTF-8 Mojibake Unicodes Specials table Decodeunicodes entry for the replacement character
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding and handling of text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. As of June 2016, the most recent version is Unicode 9.0, the standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium. Unicodes success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread, the standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems, XML, and the. NET Framework. Unicode can be implemented by different character encodings, the most commonly used encodings are UTF-8, UTF-16 and the now-obsolete UCS-2. UTF-8 uses one byte for any ASCII character, all of which have the same values in both UTF-8 and ASCII encoding, and up to four bytes for other characters. UCS-2 uses a 16-bit code unit for each character but cannot encode every character in the current Unicode standard, UTF-16 extends UCS-2, using one 16-bit unit for the characters that were representable in UCS-2 and two 16-bit units to handle each of the additional characters.
Many traditional character encodings share a common problem in that they allow bilingual computer processing, Unicode, in intent, encodes the underlying characters—graphemes and grapheme-like units—rather than the variant glyphs for such characters. In the case of Chinese characters, this leads to controversies over distinguishing the underlying character from its variant glyphs. In text processing, Unicode takes the role of providing a unique code point—a number, in other words, Unicode represents a character in an abstract way and leaves the visual rendering to other software, such as a web browser or word processor. This simple aim becomes complicated, because of concessions made by Unicodes designers in the hope of encouraging a more rapid adoption of Unicode, the first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO-8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text. For other examples, see duplicate characters in Unicode and he explained that he name Unicode is intended to suggest a unique, universal encoding.
In this document, entitled Unicode 88, Becker outlined a 16-bit character model, Unicode could be roughly described as wide-body ASCII that has been stretched to 16 bits to encompass the characters of all the worlds living languages. In a properly engineered design,16 bits per character are more than sufficient for this purpose, Unicode aims in the first instance at the characters published in modern text, whose number is undoubtedly far below 214 =16,384. By the end of 1990, most of the work on mapping existing character encoding standards had been completed, the Unicode Consortium was incorporated in California on January 3,1991, and in October 1991, the first volume of the Unicode standard was published. The second volume, covering Han ideographs, was published in June 1992, in 1996, a surrogate character mechanism was implemented in Unicode 2.0, so that Unicode was no longer restricted to 16 bits. The Microsoft TrueType specification version 1.0 from 1992 used the name Apple Unicode instead of Unicode for the Platform ID in the naming table, Unicode defines a codespace of 1,114,112 code points in the range 0hex to 10FFFFhex.
Normally a Unicode code point is referred to by writing U+ followed by its hexadecimal number, for code points in the Basic Multilingual Plane, four digits are used, for code points outside the BMP, five or six digits are used, as required. Code points in Planes 1 through 16 are accessed as surrogate pairs in UTF-16, within each plane, characters are allocated within named blocks of related characters
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/ is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural. As at June 2016 Sydneys estimated population was 5,005,358, in the 2011 census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home and it is classified as an Alpha+ World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia, there is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of Asia Pacifics leading financial hubs. Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, Sydney Tower and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are well known to international visitors. The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people. Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan, the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells. Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840