The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Pintupi is an Australian Aboriginal language. It is one of the Wati languages of the large Pama–Nyungan family and it is one of the varieties of the Western Desert Language. These people moved into the communities of Papunya and Haasts Bluff in the west of the Northern Territory in the 1940s–1980s. The last Pintupi people to leave their traditional lifestyle in the desert came into Kiwirrkura in 1984, over recent decades they have moved back into their traditional country, setting up the communities of Kintore in the Northern Territory and Jupiter Well in Western Australia. This has continued through the moves west so that most Pintupi people today speak Pintupi-Luritja, Pintupi is one of the healthier Aboriginal languages and is taught to local children in schools. The phonology of Pintupi has been described by K. C. and L. E, Hansen based on fieldwork conducted in Papunya, Northern Territory in 1967–68. The symbols used in the orthography are shown in brackets where they differ from the IPA symbols.
The lamino-alveolars are frequently palatalised, and /t̻/ often has an affricated allophone, the trill /r/ usually has a single contact in ordinary speech, but multiple contacts in slow, emphatic, or angry speech. The retroflex approximant /ɻ/ may be realised as a flap and Hansen refer to the retroflex consonants as apico-domal. Pintupi has six vowel phonemes, three long and three short, all are monophthongal at the phonemic level. Again, the used in the practical orthography are shown enclosed in brackets where they differ from the phonemic symbols. The short vowel phonemes are devoiced when word-final at the end of a clause, as in he finally to camp, we all water for him, short vowels are rhotacised before retroflex consonants, as in tree, and a shelter. The open vowel /a/ is diphthongised to and before /j/ and /w/ respectively, as in pare, an orthography was developed by the Hansens and is used in their publications, which include a dictionary, a grammar sketch and bible portions. This orthography is used in the bilingual school, and especially in the schools Literature Production Centre.
The orthography is shown in the tables of consonants and vowels. Pintupi has only two possible types, CV and CVC. In the middle of a word, /m/ and /ŋ/ may appear in the syllable coda only when followed by a plosive, as in /t̻ampu/ left side. Otherwise, only coronal sonorants may appear in the syllable coda, all consonants except the apico-alveolars and /l̻/ may appear in word-initial position, only coronal sonorants may appear in word-final position
The Ngarigo people are some of the Indigenous inhabitants living in South East Australia, and whose traditional lands extended from Canberra to Cooma, on the Monaro and Limestone Plains. However, as stated by the South Australia Museum where his maps are archived, further south various dialects of Ngarigu are spoken by other tribes. However, as concluded in the 2013 ACT Government report Our Kin Our Country, the Ngarigo/Ngarmal are an Aboriginal group whose traditional lands lie in the Monaro and Australian Alpine regions of New South Wales and Victoria, and the Canberra and Queanbeayan area. With their hunting areas being taken over by European settlers running sheep, the population decreased due to the spread of diseases introduced by the Europeans, such as smallpox, influenza and tuberculosis. Thus, all that was left were mixed race people working either as labourers or domestic servants, many people were moved to New South Wales government settlements, such as at Yass. By 1880 there were no full blood Aboriginal people living in the Canberra area, according to some scholars, the language of the Wolgalu is a form of Ngarigu, others that it is the other way round.
A southern dialect, of Ngarigu was used as far south as Goongerah in Victoria, the last two both spoke dialects of Ngarigu. The present dispute originated when Tindall in his 1940 and 1974 maps incorrectly drew its boundaries with that of Ngarigo/Nguramal, the report confirmed that the language spoken in the Canberra region was a dialect of Ngarigu, related to but distinguishable from the dialects spoken at Tumut and Monaro. The evidence that the language spoken in the Canberra Based on known disputes between the two tribes, the boundary ran from north of Sutton on the Yass River to Wee Jasper on the Murrumbidee. However, the claim of the status is disputed by some Aboriginal people who say that the Ngambri are a small family clan of the Wiradjuri nation. However latest research shows, Walegulu were the south of Cooma in the Australian Alps. In 2013, an ACT Government anthropological report was released concluding that the struggle between various groups for the mantle of Canberras first people is likely to remain uncertain.
The report concluded that evidence gathered from the mid-1700s onward was too scant to support any familys claims and European Encounter in the Canberra Region Aboriginals on the Monaro
Australian Capital Territory
The Australian Capital Territory is the federal district in the south east of Australia, enclaved within New South Wales. Its only city is Canberra, the city of Australia. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. The need for a territory was flagged by colonial delegates during the Federation conventions of the late 19th century. Section 125 of the Australian Constitution provided that, following Federation in 1901, the territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by the state of New South Wales in 1911, two years prior to the naming of Canberra as the national capital in 1913. The floral emblem of the ACT is the royal bluebell and the emblem is the gang-gang cockatoo. The economic activity of the Australian Capital Territory is heavily concentrated around Canberra and this trend continued into 2016, when the territory was ranked the third best performing out of all of Australias states and territories. There is a proportion of young adults in the region compared with other Australian states or territories.
Approximately one-fifth of ACT residents were born outside of Australia, mainly in the United Kingdom, almost one-fifth speak a language other than English at home, the most common being Chinese. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. Apart from the city of Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory contains agricultural land, small townships and communities located within the ACT include Williamsdale, Uriarra and Hall. There are a range of mountains and creeks in the Namadgi National Park. These include the Naas and Murrumbidgee Rivers, Canberra is noted for its warm to hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the mountains in the territorys south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm, with rainfall highest in spring and summer, the highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C at Acton on 11 January 1939.
The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971, notable geological formations in the Australian Capital Territory include the Canberra Formation, the Pittman Formation, Black Mountain Sandstone and State Circle Shale. In the 1840s fossils of brachiopods and trilobites from the Silurian period were discovered at Woolshed Creek near Duntroon, at the time, these were the oldest fossils discovered in Australia, though this record has now been far surpassed. Other specific geological places of interest include the State Circle cutting, the oldest rocks in the ACT date from the Ordovician around 480 million years ago
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 381,488, it is Australias largest inland city, the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory,280 km south-west of Sydney, and 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran, the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nations capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australias two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being a planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States. Following an international contest for the design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected. The Griffins plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, the citys design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation that have earned Canberra the title of the bush capital. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority, the Australian Armys officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital.
The ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power, the ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, and has its own independent Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states. Compared to the averages, the unemployment rate is lower. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivans Creek floodplain between two mountains as Nganbra. Nganbra or Nganbira could readily have been anglicised to the name Canberry, survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. Although popularly pronounced /ˈkænbərə/ or /ˈkænbɛrə/, the pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was /ˈkæn. brə/. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would eventually be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians, archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites, and stone tools and arrangements.
Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some point in the area 21,000 years previously, European exploration and settlement started in the Canberra area as early as the 1820s. There were four expeditions between 1820 and 1824, white settlement of the area probably dates from 1823, when a homestead or station was built on what is now the Acton peninsula by stockmen employed by Joshua John Moore. He formally applied to purchase the site on 16 December 1826, on 30 April 1827, Moore was told by letter that he could retain possession of 1,000 acres at Canberry. The European population in the Canberra area continued to grow throughout the 19th century
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
South Coast (New South Wales)
The South Coast refers to the narrow coastal belt from Sydney in the north to the border with Victoria in the south in the south-eastern part of the State of New South Wales, Australia. To the east is the coastline of the Pacific Ocean, which is characterised by rolling farmlands, small towns and villages along a coastline, interspersed by numerous beaches. Some definitions of the include the Illawarra, but it is often seen as a separate. The region has a mild, warm temperate climate, maximum temperatures range from around 30 °C in summer to approximately 17 °C in winter. However, rainfall tends toward erratic as falls can occur in heavy and these storms may occur at any time of year, but are most frequent in late autumn and early winter. When a strong anticyclone is located to the south of these systems, rainfalls of up to 350mm in a day. For example, in May 1925 the region received an averages of as much as 860 millimetres of rain, with some receiving as much as 1. However, in dry years the region can receive as little as 400mm for an entire year, Bega received 380mm in May 1944 and over 400mm in two days during April 1945 - but only around 200mm in the ten months in between.
A2011 report by the Climate Commission highlighted the risks of the effects of change in the South Coast. These risks included a higher likelihood of fires, coastal flooding, changing rainfall patterns. The Illawarra Steam Navigation Company serviced the south coast and Illawarra by ship transporting passengers, bus services operate to locations south of Nowra. The South Coast region is traversed by the Princes Highway which links Sydney and Melbourne by the coast, the region is reached from Canberra to the west by the Kings Highway. Road linkages north to Sydney were only completed in the half of the twentieth century when the Clyde River was bridged at Batemans Bay in 1956. Before that a punt was used to cross the river
Three of the Yuin groups include, north of present-day Narooma Murramurang, north of Deua River south of Lake Conjola. Dyiringanj, or Djiringanj, from Narooma, south to Bega, the population before 1788 has been estimated at about 11000 between Cape Howe and Batemans Bay. The population was reduced to only 600 by the mid nineteenth century due to epidemics in 1789 and 1830, as well as tribal battles. 1858, d.1919 Sydney, married to Gunaal alias Rosie Carpenter from Roseby Park, children Harry, Percy, Kate, biamangas mother Elizabeth Turner was the daughter of Ko, ma of Dry River. Biamanga was given the task of Biambun because Merriman had no living children and he was given a Breast plate in 1912 which read Biamanga, King of Wallaga Lake and Bega District, born Bredbatoura. This plate is in a private Australian collection, the Eurobodalla Shire Council signed a Local Agreement with the Yuin people in 1998. In 2001, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Bega and Merrimans Local Aboriginal Land Councils, the Native Title Holders, the Yuin are considered as the traditional owners of Wallaga Lake land.
The former Wallaga Lake National Park is incorporated into Gulaga National Park, Merriman Island in Wallaga Lake is a sacred place for the Yuin people. On 25 November 1977, it was the first place in New South Wales to be declared an Aboriginal Heritage site by the New South Wales National Parks, the island was named after King Merriman, leader of the Yuin, who died in 1904. Mumbulla Mountain, located in the middle of Bega Valley Shire, was named in November 1973, after Jack Mumbulla, Mumbulla Mountain is the central place of significance in Biamanga National Park. Certain areas have been recognised as a meeting places for Aboriginal men and women. Mount Dromedary, recently renamed Gulaga Mountain, in the Gulaga National Park, is described by Aboriginal people as the place of origin for Yuin people. Gulaga itself symbolises the mother and provides a basis for Aboriginal spiritual identity, on 6 May 2006 the freehold titles to Gulaga and Biamanga National Parks were handed back to the Yuin people by the New South Wales Government.
Montague Island is known to the Yuin people as Barranguba, Barranguba is regarded as being the son of Gulaga, along with Najanuga, Barranguba being the oldest son and allowed out to sea, whereas Najanuga had to stay close to his mother. The Yuin are known as, Djiringanj, ausAnthrop Australian Aboriginal tribal database entry for Thaua Accessed 9 June 2008 Tindale, Norman Djiringanj in his Catalogue of Australian Aboriginal Tribes. Accessed 92008 Portion of Norman Tindales Tribal Boundary Map including Djiringanj, Walbanga, & Wandandian Accessed from South Australian Museum website 9 June 2008
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840