The Dhaulagiri massif in Nepal extends 120 km from the Kaligandaki River west to the Bheri. This massif is bounded on the north and southwest by tributaries of the Bheri River and on the southeast by the Myagdi Khola. Dhaulagiri I is the seventh highest mountain in the world at 8,167 metres above sea level, the highest mountain within the borders of a single country, it was first climbed on 13 May 1960 by a Swiss/Austrian/Nepali expedition. The mountain's name is धौलागिरी in Nepali; this comes from Sanskrit where धवल means dazzling, beautiful and गिरि means mountain. Dhaulagiri 1 is the highest point of the Gandaki river basin. Annapurna I is 34 km. east of Dhaulagiri I. The Kali Gandaki River flows between the two in the Kaligandaki Gorge, said to be the world's deepest; the town of Pokhara is south of the Annapurnas, an important regional center and the gateway for climbers and trekkers visiting both ranges as well as a tourist destination in its own right. Looking north from the plains of India, most 8,000-metre peaks are obscured by nearer mountains, but in clear weather Dhaulagiri I is conspicuous from northern Bihar and as far south as Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh.
In 1808, survey computations showed it to be the highest mountain yet surveyed. This lasted until 1838 when Kangchenjunga took its place, followed by Mount Everest in 1858. Dhaulagiri I's sudden rise from lower terrain is unequaled, it rises 7,000 m from the Kali Gandaki River 30 km to the southeast. The south and west faces rise precipitously over 4,000 m; the south face of Gurja Himal in the same massif is notably immense. Most ascents have followed the northeast ridge route of the first ascent, but climbs have been made from most directions; as of 2007 there had been 358 successful ascents and 58 fatalities, a summit to fatality rate of 16.2%. Between 1950 and 2006, 2.88% of 2,016 expedition members and staff going above base camp on Dhaulagiri I died. On all 8,000 metre peaks in Nepal the death rate was 1.63%, ranging from 0.65% on Cho Oyu to 4.04% on Annapurna I and 3.05% on Manaslu. 1950 – Dhaulagiri I reconnoitered by a French expedition led by Maurice Herzog. They do not see a feasible route and switch to Annapurna, where they make the first ascent of an 8000 m peak.
1953–1958 – Five expeditions attempt the north face, or "Pear Buttress", route. 1959 – Austrian expedition led by Fritz Moravec makes the first attempt on the northeast ridge. 1960 – Swiss-Austrian expedition led by Max Eiselin, successful ascent by Kurt Diemberger, Peter Diener, Ernst Forrer, Albin Schelbert, Nyima Dorje Sherpa, Nawang Dorje Sherpa on 13 May. First Himalayan climb supported by a fixed-wing aircraft, which crashed in Hidden Valley north of the mountain during takeoff and was abandoned. 1969 – American team led by Boyd Everett attempt southeast ridge. 1970 – second ascent, via the northeast ridge by a Japanese expedition led by Tokufu Ohta and Shoji Imanari. Tetsuji Kawada and Lhakpa Tenzing Sherpa reach the summit. 1973 – American team led by James Morrissey makes third ascent via the northeast ridge. Summit team: John Roskelley, Louis Reichardt, Nawang Samden Sherpa. 1975 – Japanese team led by Takashi Amemiya attempts southwest ridge. Six are killed in an avalanche. 1976 – Italian expedition makes the fourth ascent.
1977 – International team led by Reinhold Messner attempts the south face. 1978, spring: Amemiya returns with an expedition that puts five members on the summit via the southwest ridge—the first ascent not using the northeast ridge. One team member dies during the ascent. 1978, autumn – Seiko Tanaka of Japan leads successful climb of the difficult southeast ridge. Four are killed during the ascent. French team attempts the southwest buttress, only reaches 7,200 m. 1980 – A four-man team consisting of Polish climbers Voytek Kurtyka, Ludwik Wiczyczynski, Frenchman René Ghilini and Scotsman Alex MacIntyre climb the east face, topping out at 7,500 m on the northeast ridge. After a bivouac they descend back to base camp in a storm. One week they climb the mountain via the northeast ridge reaching the summit on 18 May. 1981 – Yugoslav team reaches 7,950 m after putting up the first route on the true south face of the mountain, on the right side, connecting with the southeast ridge. They climb in alpine style but suffer four days of open bivouacs and six days without food before returning.
Hironobu Kamuro of Japan reaches the summit alone, via the normal route. 1982, 5 May – Three members – Philip Cornelissen, Rudi Van Snick and Ang Rita Sherpa – of a Belgian-Nepali team reach the summit via the north-east ridge. A day four more climbers – Ang Jangbu Sherpa, Marnix Lefever, Lut Vivijs and Jan Vanhees – summit also. Vivijs becomes the first woman to reach the summit. 1982, 13 December – Two members of Japanese team led by Jun Arima of the Academic Alpine Club of Hokkaido University reach the summit. By the world calendar, winter begins 21 December, so this was not a winter but a very-late-autumn-climb; however the climb was done under a winter climbing permit, which the Nepali government issues for climbs beginning on or after 1 December. 1984 – Three members of the Czechoslovakian expedition climb the west face to the summit. Simon died during the descent. 1985 – Polish expedition led by Adam Bilczewski set out to conquer Dhaulagiri for the first time in winter. After seven weeks of dramatic struggle against hurricane-force winds and temperatures below −40c°, Andrzej Czok and Jerzy Kukuczka made first winter ascent on 21 January.
Adam James Hall is a New Zealand alpine skier and double Paralympic gold medalist. Hall was born in Dunedin on 9 October 1987 to Lindsay Hall, a dairy farmer, Gayle Hall, nee Paterson, an obstetric nurse, he was diagnosed with spina bifida. Hall competed for New Zealand at the 2006 Winter Paralympics, where he placed 41st in the men's downhill event, 43rd in the men's giant slalom and 50th in the men's Super-G, standing At the 2010 Winter Paralympics, Hall won a gold medal in the men's slalom event, standing, he placed 8th in 7th in the men's Super-G, standing. At the 2018 Winter Paralympics, Hall again won a gold medal in the men's slalom event and won a bronze medal in the super combined standing, he was named as a co-recipient of the 2018 Whang Youn Dai Achievement Award. Hall was appointed a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit in the 2011 Queen's Birthday Honours, for services to sport. Adam Hall at Paralympics New Zealand Adam Hall at the International Paralympic Committee
The Kunstmuseum Solothurn or Art Museum Solothurn is an art museum in the Swiss town Solothurn. The museum opened in 1902; the early exposition showed the town's collections of arts, historical artifacts and natural historical objects. Around 1980, the natural history collection was moved to the Naturmuseum Solothurn, the museumsbuilding was converted and since exhibits art from various collections along with short-period exhibitions of contemporary art; the collection has five divisions: old masters, Swiss landscapes from the 18th until the 20th century, Swiss contemporary art, two separate collections from gifts from collectors. Highlights of the collection of old masters include a "Madonna of the Strawberries" from 1425, the Solothurner Madonna by Hans Holbein the Younger, works by Frans Snyders and Jusepe de Ribera. Swiss masters included in the landscape collection are Caspar Wolf, Alexandre Calame, Félix Vallotton, Giovanni Giacometti and local artist Otto Frölicher. Modern Swiss artists include Méret Oppenheim and Bernhard Luginbühl.
The contemporary collection includes works by Daniel Spoerri, Dieter Roth, Markus Raetz, Roman Signer, Silvie Defraoui, René Zäch, Albrecht Schnider, Uwe Wittwer, Felix Stephan Huber, Ian Anüll, Peter Wüthrich, Ingo Giezendanner, Robert Estermann. The double collection of the sisters Müller contains paintings by Vincent van Gogh, Gustav Klimt, Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse, Edgar Degas, Auguste Renoir, Fernand Léger, Swiss painter Ferdinand Hodler. official website