click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is a publication for the classification of mental disorders using a common language and standard criteria. It is used by clinicians, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, the legal system, policy makers, it is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM evolved from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, from a United States Army manual. Revisions since its first publication in 1952 have incrementally added to the total number of mental disorders, removed those no longer considered to be mental disorders. Two alternate classification publications are widely used; the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders is produced by the WHO. The International Classification of Diseases is the other common manual for mental disorders, it has broader scope than the DSM, covering overall health. While the DSM is the most popular diagnostic system for mental disorders in the U.

S. the ICD is used more in Europe and other parts of the world, giving it a far larger reach than the DSM. The DSM-IV-TR contains specific codes allowing comparisons between the DSM and the ICD manuals, which may not systematically match because revisions are not coordinated. Though recent editions of the DSM and ICD have become more similar due to collaborative agreements, each one contains information absent from the other; the DSM has received praise for standardizing psychiatric diagnosis grounded in empirical evidence, as opposed to the theory-bound nosology used in DSM-III. Criticisms include ongoing questions concerning the validity of many diagnoses. Mental health professionals use the manual to determine and help communicate a patient's diagnosis after an evaluation. Hospitals and insurance companies in the United States may require a DSM diagnosis for all patients treated; the DSM can be used clinically, or to categorize patients using diagnostic criteria for research purposes. But they are correlated with the pharmaceutical corps to for profit purposes.

Some studies done on specific disorders recruit patients whose symptoms match the criteria listed in the DSM for that disorder. An international survey of psychiatrists in sixty-six countries compared the use of the ICD-10 and DSM-IV, it found the former was more used for clinical diagnosis while the latter was more valued for research. DSM-5, the abbreviations for all previous editions, are registered trademarks owned by the APA; the initial impetus for developing a classification of mental disorders in the United States was the need to collect statistical information. The first official attempt was the 1840 census, which used a single category: "idiocy/insanity". Three years the American Statistical Association made an official protest to the U. S. House of Representatives, stating that "the most glaring and remarkable errors are found in the statements respecting nosology, prevalence of insanity, blindness and dumbness, among the people of this nation", pointing out that in many towns African-Americans were all marked as insane, calling the statistics useless.

The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane was formed in 1844. Edward Jarvis and Francis Amasa Walker helped expand the census, from two volumes in 1870 to twenty-five volumes in 1880. Frederick H. Wines was appointed to write a 582-page volume called Report on the Defective and Delinquent Classes of the Population of the United States, As Returned at the Tenth Census. Wines used seven categories of mental illness: dementia, epilepsy, melancholia and paresis; these categories were adopted by the Association. In 1917, together with the National Commission on Mental Hygiene, the APA developed a new guide for mental hospitals called the Statistical Manual for the Use of Institutions for the Insane; this would be revised several times by the APA over the years. Along with the New York Academy of Medicine, the APA provided the psychiatric nomenclature subsection of the U. S. general medical guide, the Standard Classified Nomenclature of Disease, referred to as the Standard.

World War II saw the large-scale involvement of U. S. psychiatrists in the selection, processing and treatment of soldiers. This moved the focus away from traditional clinical perspectives. Under the direction of James Forrestal a committee headed by psychiatrist Brigadier General William C. Menninger, with the assistance of the Mental Hospital Service developed a new classification scheme called Medical 203, issued in 1943 as a War Department Technical Bulletin under the auspices of the Office of the Surgeon General; the foreword to the DSM-I states the United States Navy had itself made some minor revisions but "the Army established a much more sweeping revision, abandoning the basic outline of the Standard and attempting to express present day concepts of mental disturbance. This nomenclature was adopted by all Armed Forces", "assorted modifications of the Armed Forces nomenclature introduced into many clinics and

Mark Wood (explorer)

Mark Wood is a British adventurer and explorer who, in 2011 / 2012, made an attempt to be the first person in history to ski solo to both the South and North Poles. He undertook the expedition to raise awareness of climate change, setting off on his trek in November 2011 from the West coast of Antarctica. After reaching the South Pole in January 2012, he continued his journey across 2 degrees of the Arctic Ocean. Crossing the North pole and continuing to the Russian Ice Station; the expedition was cut short due to extra funding required by the Canadian airline company who pick explorers up from expeditions on the Arctic Ocean. Mark's attempt was continued to the North Geographic pole to extend the schools programme - "My Life In a Freezer" which reached over 40 countries around the globe. Mark completed the 6 month solo expedition called The North South Solo expedition in April 2012. During his visits to the North and South poles Mark Wood used the ipadio service via satellite phone to transmit video and make phone calls.

2014 IGGY - Cycle New Zealand educational schools program 2013 Skype Mount Everest Ascent expedition 2011/ 2012 solo expedition to the North and South Geographic poles 2011 North South Solo training expedition - High Arctic Svalbard 2010 Island Peak expedition - 6184m - Himalayas 2010 Global Schools Project to the Himalayas - Warwick University 2010 Himalayan expedition for the Global Schools project 2010 A solo 30-day training expedition in Svalbard 2009 Led 3 expeditions involving over 60 people to Everest BC – Snowball Exp. 2009 Led a British first expedition in the Arctic – highlighting the Inuit communities affected by climate change. 2009 Alaskan dog sledding expedition – filming for an educational films programme. 2008 Led a team through the Himalayas to base camp Everest as part of an educational schools programme. 2008 Led an expedition linking the two highest Inuit settlements in the Canadian high arctic. 2008 Filming for a documentary on how global warming is affecting the Inuit people.

2008 Led a dog sledging expedition in North America. 2007 Set up a polar expedition company – www.snowballexpeditions.com 2007 Polar guide and operational support for the BBC Top Gear programme -'race to the pole'. 2007 Arctic expedition technical support for the Magnetic North Pole Race. 2006 Cycled across the United States – 3500 miles from Seattle to New York. 2006 Led an 8-person team on a successful Geomagnetic North Pole expedition. 2005 & 2006 Instructor on an Arctic training expedition – Northern Canada. 2005 Instructor on an Arctic training program – Norway. 2004 A successful Geomagnetic North Pole expedition. 2003 70 day training expedition and research for Cancer Research UK - Canadian high arctic. Mark Wood Explorer

Raoul Van Caenegem

Raoul Charles, Baron Van Caenegem, was a Belgian historian and noted expert in the field of European legal history. Raoul Van Caenegem was born in Ghent on 14 July 1927, he became a professor at the University of Ghent. In 1974, he was awarded the Francqui Prize in human sciences for his work on medieval history, he studied the history of continental and English common law, why they diverged so sharply. He revealed the significance of power struggles between the judiciary and legal scholars, he wrote in Dutch and English, with some of his most notable works being translated into other European languages. Van Caenegem became a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1977. In 1995 he was awarded the title of baron, he died on 15 June 2018. "Foundations: c. 750-c. 1150, Law & Society", in The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought, c. 350-1450, ed. J. H. Burns, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988; the Birth of the English Common Law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1973, 2nd edition 1988.

An Historical Introduction to Private Law, translated by D. E. L. Johnston, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992. An Historical Introduction to Western Constitutional Law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995 ISBN 0521476933 G. R. Elton, Return to Essentials: Some Reflections on the Present State of Historical Studies, Cambridge University Press, 1991. Th. Denoël, Le nouveau dictionnaire des Belges, 1992 S. Dauchy, J. Monballyu, A. Wijffels Auctoritates. Xenia R. C. Van Caenegem oblata, Paleis der Academiën, 2000. Oscar Coomans de Brachène, État présent de la noblesse belge, Annuaire 2002.

Ornithine decarboxylase

The enzyme ornithine decarboxylase catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine. This reaction is the committed step in polyamine synthesis. In humans, this protein forms a homodimer. Lysine 69 on ornithine decarboxylase binds the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate to form a Schiff base. Ornithine displaces the lysine to form a Schiff base attached to orthonine, which decarboxylates to form a quinoid intermediate; this intermediate rearranges to form a Schiff base attached to putrescine, attacked by lysine to release putrescine product and reform PLP-bound ODC. This is the first step and the rate-limiting step in humans for the production of polyamines, compounds required for cell division; the active form of ornithine decarboxylase is a homodimer. Each monomer contains a barrel domain, consisting of an alpha-beta barrel, a sheet domain, composed of two beta-sheets; the domains are connected by loops. The monomers connect to each other via interactions between the barrel of one monomer and the sheet of the other.

Binding between monomers is weak, ODC interconverts between monomeric and dimeric forms in the cell. The pyridoxal phosphate cofactor binds lysine 69 at the C-terminus end of the barrel domain; the active site is at the interface of the two domains, in a cavity formed by loops from both monomers. The ornithine decarboxylation reaction catalyzed by ornithine decarboxylase is the first and committed step in the synthesis of polyamines putrescine and spermine. Polyamines are important for stabilizing DNA structure, the DNA double strand-break repair pathway and as antioxidants. Therefore, ornithine decarboxylase is an essential enzyme for cell growth, producing the polyamines necessary to stabilize newly synthesized DNA. Lack of ODC causes cell apoptosis in embryonic mice, induced by DNA damage. ODC is the most well-characterized cellular protein subject to ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation. Although most proteins must first be tagged with multiple ubiquitin molecules before they are bound and degraded by the proteasome, ODC degradation is instead mediated by several recognition sites on the protein and its accessory factor antizyme.

The ODC degradation process is regulated in a negative feedback loop by its reaction products. Until a report by Sheaff et al. which demonstrated that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1 is degraded by the proteasome in a ubiquitin-independent manner, ODC was the only clear example of ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation. ODC is upregulated in a wide variety of cancers; the polyamine products of the pathway initialized by ODC are associated with increased cell growth and reduced apoptosis. Ultraviolet light and androgens released by the prostate gland are all known to induce increased ODC activity associated with cancer. Inhibitors of ODC such as eflornithine have been shown to reduce cancers in animal models, drugs targeting ODC are being tested for potential clinical use; the mechanism by which ODC promotes carcinogenesis is complex and not known. Along with their direct effect on DNA stability, polyamines upregulate gap junction genes and downregulate tight junction genes.

Gap junction genes are involved in communication between carcinogenic cells and tight junction genes act as tumor suppressors. ODC gene expression is induced by a large number of biological stimuli including seizure activity in the brain. Inactivation of ODC by difluoromethylornithine is used to treat cancer and facial hair growth in postmenopausal females. ODC is an enzyme indispensable to parasites like trypanosoma and plasmodium, a fact exploited by the drug eflornithine. Ornithine decarboxylase at herkules.oulu.fi Ornithine+decarboxylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Grating light valve

The grating light valve is a "micro projection" technology which operates using a dynamically adjustable diffraction grating. It competes with other light valve technologies such as Digital Light Processing and liquid crystal on silicon for implementation in video projector devices such as rear-projection televisions; the use of microelectromechanical systems in optical applications, known as optical MEMS or micro-opto-electro-mechanical structures, has enabled the possibility to combine the mechanical and optical components in small scale. Silicon Light Machines, in Sunnyvale CA, markets and licenses GLV technology with the capitalised trademarks Grated Light Valve and GLV Grating Light Valve; the valve diffracts laser light using an array of tiny movable ribbons mounted on a silicon base. The GLV uses six ribbons as the diffraction gratings for each pixel; the alignment of the gratings is altered by electronic signals, this displacement controls the intensity of the diffracted light in a smooth gradation.

The light valve was developed at Stanford University, in California, by electrical engineering professor David M. Bloom, along with William C. Banyai, Raj Apte, Francisco Sandejas, Olav Solgaard, professor in the Stanford Department of Electrical Engineering. In 1994, the start-up company Silicon Light Machines was founded by Bloom to develop and commercialize the technology; the company is now wholly owned by Dainippon Screen Manufacturing Co. Ltd. In July 2000, Sony announced the signing of a technology licensing agreement with SLM for the implementation of GLV technology in laser projectors for large venues, but by 2004 Sony announced the SRX-R110 front projector using its own LCoS-based technology SXRD. SLM partnered with Evans & Sutherland. Using GLV technology, E&S developed the E&S Laser Projector, designed for use in domes and planetariums; the E&S Laser Projector was incorporated into the Digistar 3 dome projection system. The GLV device is built on a silicon wafer and consists of parallel rows of reflective micro-ribbons – ribbons of sizes of a few µm with a top layer of aluminium – suspended above an air gap that are configured such that alternate ribbons can be dynamically actuated.

Individual electrical connections to each active ribbon electrode provide for independent actuation. The ribbons and the substrate are electrically conductive so that the deflection of the ribbon can be controlled in an analog manner: When the voltage of the active ribbons is set to ground potential, all ribbons are undeflected, the device acts as a mirror so the incident light returns along the same path; when a voltage is applied between the ribbon and base conductor an electrical field is generated and deflects the active ribbon downward toward the substrate. This deflection can be as big as one-quarter wavelength hence creating diffraction effects on incident light, reflected at an angle, different from that of the incident light; the wavelength to diffract is determined by the spatial frequency of the ribbons. As this spatial frequency is determined by the photolithographic mask used to form the GLV device in the CMOS fabrication process, the departure angles can be accurately controlled, useful for optical switching applications.

Switching from undeflected to maximum ribbon deflection can occur in 20 nanoseconds, a million times faster than conventional LCD display devices, about 1000 times faster than TI’s DMD technology. This high speed can be achieved thanks to the small size, small mass and small excursion, of the ribbons. Besides, there is no physical contact between moving elements which makes the lifetime of the GLV as long as 15 years without stopping; the GLV technology has been applied to a wide range of products, from laser-based HDTV sets to computer-to-plate offset printing presses to DWDM components used for wavelength management. Applications of the GLV device in maskless photolithography have been extensively investigated. To build a display system using the GLV device different approaches can be followed: ranging from a simple approach using a single GLV device with a white light as a source thus having a monochrome system to a more complex solution using three different GLV devices each for one of the RGB primaries' sources that once diffracted require different optical filters to point the light onto the screen or an intermediate using a single white source with a GLV device.

Besides, the light can be diffracted by the GLV device into an eyepiece for virtual retinal display, or into an optical system for image projection onto a screen. DLP Liquid crystal on silicon Silicon Light Machines Dainippon Screen Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Sony Evans & Sutherland MEKO-European Display Data and Market Research HDTVExpert Defence Research and Development Canada

La Cava Bible

The La Cava Bible or Codex Cavensis is a 9th-century Latin illuminated Bible, produced in Spain in the Kingdom of Asturias during the reign of Alfonso II. The manuscript is preserved at the abbey of La Trinità della Cava, near Cava de' Tirreni in Campania, Italy; the Bible was signed on folio 166v by a scribe named Danila. The location of the scriptorium in which Danila worked is not known; however the hand, textual variations, orthography indicate that the manuscript was produced in Spain, during the early 9th century. It is unlikely that such a luxury manuscript could have been produced in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula; this makes Asturias, the largest Christian kingdom of the time, the most probable origin of the codex. Additional evidence of an Asturian origin is provided by the decoration of the manuscript; the Cross which appears in four locations in the La Cava Bible, is the only explicitly Christian decoration in the manuscript. Although the form of the Crosses in the La Cava Bible do not appear in other surviving Asturian art, the Cross was emphasized in Asturian devotional art.

For example, both Alfonso II and Alfonso III commissioned gold crosses, like the Victory Cross and the Cross of the Angels. "Cross of the Resurrection" was a prominent feature of murals at San Julián de los Prados, near Oviedo, Asturias. The decoration of the La Cava Bible is limited to the four crosses mentioned above, frames surrounding explicits and titles, decorated initials. There are two linear, compass drawn Crosses, one serving as frontispiece on folio 1 verso, the other in the introduction to the prophetical books on folio 143 recto. On folio 100 verso the title frame for the Psalms is in the form of a cross; the text on folio 220 verso, which contains the prefaces by Jerome used to introduce the New Testament, is written in the form of a cross. This text is written in red and yellow inks on a blue-stained folio. There is one other folio stained three folios stained purple in this manuscript; the frames surrounding the explicits and titles are similar in form to frames found in the earliest medieval illuminated books.

However, Danila exploited brilliant and contrasting hues of color not found in earlier manuscripts. The decorated initials include initial types associated with Merovingian illumination; however similar initials occurred in Visigothic manuscripts. It is that Danila copied this manuscript from an earlier, now-lost, Visigothic manuscript; the title and explicit frames are similar to those found in early manuscripts and the pages written in coloured inks are related to Late Antique manuscripts written in gold and silver on purple-dyed parchment.. However Danila's use of colour was not present in the original manuscript and anticipates the use of colour in Spanish manuscripts. Although Danila may have been aware of Merovingian initials, it is equally that his initials share in common the models for Merovingian initials; the manuscript gives no indication that Danila was influenced by contemporary Carolingian illumination. However, Carolingian Bibles produced under the patronage of Theodulph of Orleans, who had Visigothic parentage, do have similar text and organization to that found in the La Cava Bible, something not found in other similar Carolingian manuscripts.

It is one of the two most important representatives of the Spanish type of Vulgate text, in the Old Testament presents a text believed to be derived from old Italian exemplars. In the Stuttgart Vulgate the La Cava Bible stands alongside the Codex Amiatinus as primary witnesses for all the books of the Old Testament; the text of the Gospels shows signs of being a revision, being mingled with Old Latin elements. The manuscript contains the Comma Johanneum with the earthly witnesses preceding the heavenly witnesses. List of New Testament Latin manuscripts Williams, Early Spanish Manuscript Illumination. Information about the name "La Cava" Specifications about the origin of the word and Bible Samuel Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate pendant les premiers siècles du moyen âge, pp. 12 ff