Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. As a narrative, philosophical or didactic device, it is chiefly associated in the West with the Socratic dialogue as developed by Plato, but antecedents are found in other traditions including Indian literature. In the 20th century, philosophical treatments of dialogue emerged from thinkers including Mikhail Bakhtin, Paulo Freire, Martin Buber, David Bohm. Although diverging in many details, these thinkers have articulated a holistic concept of dialogue as a multi-dimensional and context-dependent process of creating meaning. Educators such as Freire and Ramón Flecha have developed a body of theory and techniques for using egalitarian dialogue as a pedagogical tool; the term dialogue stems from the Greek διάλογος. The first extant author who uses the term is Plato, in whose works it is associated with the art of dialectic. Latin took over the word as dialogus.
Dialogue as a genre in the Middle East and Asia dates back to ancient works, such as Sumerian disputations preserved in copies from the late third millennium BC, Rigvedic dialogue hymns and the Mahabharata. In the East, In 13th century Japan, dialogue was used in important philosophical works. In the 1200s, Nichiren Daishonin wrote some of his important writings in dialogue form, describing a meeting between two characters in order to present his argument and theory, such as in "Conversation between a Sage and an Unenlightened Man", "On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land", while in other writings he used a question and answer format, without the narrative scenario, such as in "Questions and Answers about Embracing the Lotus Sutra"; the sage or person answering the questions was understood as the author. In the West, Plato has been credited with the systematic use of dialogue as an independent literary form. Ancient sources indicate, that the Platonic dialogue had its foundations in the mime, which the Sicilian poets Sophron and Epicharmus had cultivated half a century earlier.
These works and imitated by Plato, have not survived and we have only the vaguest idea of how they may have been performed. The Mimes of Herodas, which were found in a papyrus in 1891, give some idea of their character. Plato further simplified the form and reduced it to pure argumentative conversation, while leaving intact the amusing element of character-drawing. By about 400 BC he had perfected the Socratic dialogue. All his extant writings, except the Apology and Epistles, use this form. Following Plato, the dialogue became a major literary genre in antiquity, several important works both in Latin and in Greek were written. Soon after Plato, Xenophon wrote his own Symposium. Two French writers of eminence borrowed the title of Lucian's most famous collection. Contemporaneously, in 1688, the French philosopher Nicolas Malebranche published his Dialogues on Metaphysics and Religion, thus contributing to the genre's revival in philosophic circles. In English non-dramatic literature the dialogue did not see extensive use until Berkeley employed it, in 1713, for his treatise, Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous.
His contemporary, the Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. A prominent 19th-century example of literary dialogue was Landor's Imaginary Conversations. In Germany, Wieland adopted this form for several important satirical works published between 1780 and 1799. In Spanish literature, the Dialogues of Valdés and those on Painting by Vincenzo Carducci are celebrated. Italian writers of collections of dialogues, following Plato's model, include Torquato Tasso, Galiani, a host of others. In the 19th century, the French returned to the original application of dialogue; the inventions of "Gyp", of Henri Lavedan, of others, which tell a mundane anecdote wittily and maliciously in conversation, would present a close analogy to the lost mimes of the early Sicilian poets. English writers including Anstey Guthrie adopted the form, but these dialogues seem to have found less of a popular following among the English than their counterparts written by French authors; the Platonic dialogue, as a distinct genre which features Socrates as a speaker and one or more interlocutors discussing some philosophical question, experienced something of a rebirth in the 20th century.
Authors who have employed it include George Santayana, in his eminent Dialogues in Limbo. Edith Stein and Iris Murdoch used the dialogue form. Stein imagined a dialogue between Thomas Aquinas. Murdoch included not only Socrates and Alcibiades as interlocutors in her work Acastos: Two Platonic Dialogues, but featured a young Plato himself as well. More Timothy Williamson wrote Tetralogue, a philosophical exchange on a train between four people with radically different epistemological views. Martin Buber assigns dialogue a pivotal position in his theology, his most influential wor
Rocco Forte Hotels is a British hotel group, established in 1996 by hotelier Sir Rocco Forte and his sister, Olga Polizzi. Their 14 hotels are located in European cities, as well as beach resorts in Sicily and Apulia, recent openings in Saudi Arabia and China. Sir Rocco Forte is Chairman and Chief Executive, while Olga Polizzi is Deputy Chairman and Director of Design. Following the takeover of the Forte Group by Granada plc in 1996, Sir Rocco Forte and Olga Polizzi formed RF Hotels; the rights to the Forte name were lost in 1996, when Granada plc bought the Forte Group. The first hotel purchased by the newly formed company in 1997 was a former Forte Group hotel, The Balmoral Hotel in Edinburgh, put up for sale by new owners Granada plc. In 2001, following the de-merger of Compass Group from Granada's media interests, the use of the Forte trademark was returned to Sir Rocco Forte in a gesture intended to dispel the bitter legacy of the takeover. In 2003, the company changed its name to Rocco Forte Hotels, The Rocco Forte Collection on 29 July 2007.
The group name reverted to Rocco Forte Hotels in 2011. The group's sales offices are located in London, Frankfurt, Madrid, New York City and Los Angeles; as a brand of Rocco Forte Hotels Limited, the group manages luxury five-star hotels. Brown's Hotel, Hotel de Rome and Hotel Amigo are members of The Leading Hotels of the World; the Balmoral Hotel, Edinburgh - 1997 Hotel Savoy, Florence - 1997 Hotel Astoria, St Petersburg - 1999 Hotel Amigo, Brussels - 2000 Hotel de Russie, Rome - 2000 Brown’s Hotel, London - 2003 Villa Kennedy, Frankfurt - 2006 Hotel de Rome, Berlin - 2006 The Charles Hotel, Munich - 2007 Verdura Resort, Sicily - 2009 Assila Hotel, Jeddah - 2017 Masseria Torre Maizza, Apulia - 2019Hotel de la Ville, Rome - 2019The Westbund Hotel, Shanghai - 2020 Angleterre Hotel in St. Petersburg, Russia, is owned by Rocco Forte & Family PLC but is not part of Rocco Forte Hotels. Hotel Endsleigh in the Tamar Valley, United Kingdom and Hotel Tresanton in St. Mawes, United Kingdom, are owned by Sir Rocco Forte's sister, Olga Polizzi.
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Nellis Prison Camp was a United States federal minimum-security prison known as a Federal Prison Camp, located on Nellis Air Force Base in the state of Nevada. The camp was operational between 1989 and 2006. Notable former inmates include Peter Bacanovic, convicted along with Martha Stewart of various crimes in the ImClone scandal, Larry Jay Levine founder of Wall Street Prison Consultants; the prison opened in 1989 to provide a labor force for the air force base. After 9/11, security at Nellis was beefed up considerably; the government did not want federal prisoners and their visitors in such a secure area and the prison was closed in 2006. Inmates, who dress in tan shirts and pants, may participate in a work program on Area II of Nellis AFB; the inmates perform janitorial services, cleaning floors and emptying trash from office buildings around the base. They perform groundskeeping, clean the base bowling alley; each workcenter that uses inmate labor must assign an NCO or officer to monitor and direct the work throughout the day.
These monitors receive a card after training. The card authorizes monitors to transport the prisoners with them each morning to their workcenters. Inmates are not allowed to leave the base to perform work. Inmates say the work relieves the boredom they would otherwise face at the prison camp; the program saves taxpayers money that would otherwise be spent on contracted services or longer/less productive work hours by military personnel. List of U. S. federal prisons Prisons in the United States US Federal Bureau of Prisons