The Diamond Sūtra is a Mahāyāna sūtra from the Prajñāpāramitā sutras or'Perfection of Wisdom' genre. Translated into a variety of languages over a broad geographic range, the Diamond Sutra is one of the most influential Mahayana sutras in East Asia, is prominent within the Chan tradition, along with the Heart Sutra. A copy of the Tang-dynasty Chinese version of the Diamond Sūtra was found among the Dunhuang manuscripts in 1900 by Daoist monk Wang Yuanlu and sold to Aurel Stein in 1907, they are dated back to 11 May 868. It is, in the words of the British Library, "the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book."It is the first creative work with an explicit public domain dedication, as its colophon at the end states that it was created "for universal free distribution." The Sanskrit title for the sūtra is the Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, which may be translated as the "Vajra Cutter Perfection of Wisdom Sūtra" or "The Perfection of Wisdom Text that Cuts Like a Thunderbolt". In English, shortened forms such as Diamond Sūtra and Vajra Sūtra are common.
The title relies on the power of the vajra to cut things as a metaphor for the type of wisdom that cuts and shatters illusions to get to ultimate reality. The sutra is called by the name "Triśatikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra"; the Diamond Sūtra is regarded in a number of Asian countries with traditions of Mahayana Buddhism. Translations of this title into the languages of some of these countries include: Sanskrit: वज्रच्छेदिकाप्रज्ञापारमितासूत्र, Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra Chinese: Jingang Borepoluomiduo Jing 金剛般若波羅蜜多經; the first Chinese translation dates to the early 5th Century, but by this point the 4th or 5th Century monks Asanga and Vasubandhu seem to have authored authoritative commentaries on its content. The Vajracchedika sutra was an influential work in the Mahayana Buddhist tradition. Early translations into a number of languages have been found in locations across Central and East Asia, suggesting that the text was studied and translated. In addition to Chinese translations, translations of the text and commentaries were made into Tibetan, translations and paraphrases survive in a number of Central Asian languages.
The first translation of the Diamond Sūtra into Chinese is thought to have been made in 401 by the venerated and prolific translator Kumārajīva. Kumārajīva's translation style is distinctive, possessing a flowing smoothness that reflects his prioritization on conveying the meaning as opposed to precise literal rendering; the Kumārajīva translation has been highly regarded over the centuries, it is this version that appears on the 868 Dunhuang scroll. It is the most used and chanted Chinese version. In addition to the Kumārajīva translation, a number of translations exist; the Diamond Sūtra was again translated from Sanskrit into Chinese by Bodhiruci in 509, Paramārtha in 558, Dharmagupta and Yijing in 703. The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang visited a Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravāda monastery at Bamiyan, Afghanistan, in the 7th century. Using Xuanzang's travel accounts, modern archaeologists have identified the site of this monastery. Birchbark manuscript fragments of several Mahāyāna sūtras have been discovered at the site, including the Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, these are now part of the Schøyen Collection.
This manuscript was written in the Sanskrit language, written in an ornate form of the Gupta script. This same Sanskrit manuscript contains the Medicine Buddha Sūtra; the Diamond Sūtra gave rise to a culture of artwork, sūtra veneration, commentaries in East Asian Buddhism. By the end of the Tang Dynasty in China there were over 80 commentaries written on it, such as those by prominent Chinese Buddhists like Sengzhao, Xie Lingyun, Jizang and Zongmi. Copying and recitation of the Diamond Sutra was a widespread devotional practice, stories attributing miraculous powers to these acts are recorded in Chinese, Japanese and Mongolian sources. One of the best known commentaries is the Exegesis on the Diamond Sutra by Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of the Chan School; the Diamond Sutra features prominently in the Platform Sutra, the religious biography of Huineng, where hearing its recitation is supposed to have triggered the enlightening insight that led Huineng to abandon his life as a woodcutter to become a Buddhist monk.
The Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sutra contains the discourse of the Buddha to a senior monk, Subhuti. Its major themes are anatman, the emptiness of all phenomena, the liberation of all beings without attachment and the importance of spreading and teaching the Diamond sutra itself. In his commentary on the Diamond Sūtra, Hsing Yun describes the four main points from the sūtra as giving without attachment to self, liberating beings without n
Dicle Nur Babat is a Turkish volleyball player. She is 191 cm and plays as middle blocker for Fenerbahçe and Turkey women's national volleyball team. Dicle Nur Babat began playing volleyball in the feeder team of Eczacıbaşı. After three years, she transferred to the feeder team of Vakıfbank. In the 2011-12 season, she was loaned out to Nilüfer Belediyesi in Bursa; the next season, she signed with Beşiktaş returning to Istanbul again. At the end of the first season, her team was relegated to the Second League after losing the play-off game to Galatasaray, her contract was extended for one year in the beginning of the 2013-14 season. Following the 2013-14 season, she enjoyed runner-up title at the CEV Women's Challenge Cup with Beşiktaş. In the beginning of the 2014-15 season, she moved to Fenerbahçe, she capped more than 75 times in the Turkey national team. Champions:2012 Women's Junior European Volleyball Championship 2014-15 Turkish Women's Volleyball League 2014-15 Turkish Women's Volleyball Cup 2014-15 Turkish Super Cup 2015 European Games 2016-17 Turkish Women's Volleyball Cup 2016-17 Turkish Women's Volleyball LeagueRunner-up:2014 CEV Women's Challenge Cup Turkish women in sports Dicle Nur Babat profile at Fenerbahçe.org
Birgit Irma Gunborg Friggebo is a Swedish politician and member of the Liberal People's Party. Born in Falköping, she married economics professor Bo Södersten in 1997. Friggebo was Minister for Planning in the Ministry of Housing between 1976 and 1978 and Minister for Housing between 1978 and 1982. Between 1991 and 1994 she was Minister for Culture, she was a member of the Swedish Parliament between 1979 and 1982 and yet again between 1985 and 1997. From 1998 to 2004, she was the governor for the County of Jönköping; as Minister for Housing, she removed the need for a planning approval to build small sheds under 15 square meters of area. Such sheds are now popularly known as "friggebod", a pun on her surname, bod meaning shed; as Minister for Culture and Immigration, she appeared in a televised debate held in Rinkeby on the serial sniper John Ausonius's reign of terror. During the debate she stood up and tried to get the crowd consisting of non-white immigrants to sing "We Shall Overcome"; the incident was regarded as an embarrassment and a public relations debacle and showed the alienation felt by many immigrants vis-à-vis the centre-right coalition government.
"Birgit Friggebo". Www.riksdagen.se. Sveriges riksdag. Retrieved 2010-05-10. Kari Marklund. "Friggebo, Birgit". Nationalencyklopedin. 7. Höganäs: Bokförlaget Bra Böcker AB. ISBN 91-7133-426-2. Arne Ekman. "Friggebo, Birgit". Nationalencyklopedin. Supplement II. Malmö: Bokförlaget Bra Böcker AB. ISBN 91-7133-733-4. "Birgit Friggebo". Www.ne.se. Nationalencyklopedin. Retrieved 2010-05-10