Swissvale is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 9 miles east of downtown Pittsburgh. Named for a farmstead owned by James Swisshelm, during the industrial age it was the site of the Union Switch and Signal Company of George Westinghouse; the population was 8,983 at the 2010 census. In 1940, 15,919 people lived there. Swissvale is located at 40°25′20″N 79°53′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.3 square miles, of which 1.2 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 4.76%, is water. Swissvale has six land borders, including Edgewood to the north, Braddock Hills to the east, North Braddock to the southeast, Rankin to the south, the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Regent Square and Swisshelm Park to the west. Directly across the Monongahela River to the southwest is the borough of Munhall; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,653 people, 4,679 households, 2,390 families residing in the borough. The population density was 8,052.0 people per square mile.
There were 5,097 housing units at an average density of 4,251.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 74.45% White, 22.14% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.91% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. There were 4,679 households, out of which 21.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.9% were non-families. 42.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.85. In the borough the population was spread out, with 20.0% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.0 males.
The median income for a household in the borough was $31,523, the median income for a family was $35,929. Males had a median income of $29,333 versus $25,184 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,216. About 14.1% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. Swissvale is served by the Woodland Hills School District. School tax millage rate- The Woodland Hills School District in 2017 was 25.35. This ranked 7th highest/most expensive out of Allegheny County's 45 school districts. Swissvale is served by the Swissvale stations on the Martin Luther King Jr.. East Busway. Billy Gardell, actor David Conrad, actor Frank Conrad, creator of KDKA Radio. Dickson, steel industry executive and labor policy reformer Michael F. Doyle, congressman Dick Groat, baseball player for Pittsburgh Pirates and All-American college basketball player Agnes Christine Johnston, screenwriter Vladimir K. Zworykin, television inventor Swissvale is named after the Swisshelm family.
John Swisshelm, who owned a farm where the town is located. John Swisshelm served under General George Washington in the Revolutionary War, camped at Valley Forge. Swisshelm married Mary Elizabeth Miller, they had many children, their son, James Swisshelm, married Jane Grey Cannon, noted abolitionist and political activist, Jane Swisshelm named the town Swissvale as the town overlooked the Monongahela River Valley. The Pittsburgh neighborhood of Swisshelm Park, adjacent to Swissvale, is named after John Swisshelm. Since 1874, the Allegheny Car & Transportation Shops had provided well-paying jobs to local citizens and were purchased by George Westinghouse, the President of Westinghouse Air Brake Company, who formed the Union Switch & Signal company and maintained that facility in Swissvale. Vladimir K. Zworykin, a principal inventor of television, worked for Westinghouse as a fresh immigrant from Russia and lived in Swissvale with his wife and daughter
Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball or softball fielding position between second and third base, considered to be among the most demanding defensive positions. The position was assigned to defensive specialists who were poor at batting and were placed at the bottom of the batting order. Today shortstops are able to hit well and many are placed at the top of the lineup. In the numbering system used by scorers to record defensive plays, the shortstop is assigned the number 6. More hit balls go to the shortstop than to any other position, as there are more right-handed hitters in baseball than left-handed hitters, most hitters have a tendency to pull the ball slightly. Like a second baseman, a shortstop must be agile, for example. Like a third baseman, the shortstop fields balls hit to the left side of the infield, where a strong arm is needed to throw out a batter-runner before they reach the safety of first base. Doc Adams of the Knickerbockers created the concept of the shortstop position, according to baseball historian John Thorn and Baseball Hall of Fame researcher Freddy Berowski.
In the first five years the Knickerbockers played, the team fielded anywhere from eight to eleven players. The only infielders were the players covering each of the bases; the outfielders had difficulty throwing baseballs into the infield, because of the balls' light weight. Adams' shortstop position, which he started playing at some time from 1849 to 1850, was used to field throws from the outfielders and throw to the three infielders. With the advent of higher-quality baseballs, Adams moved to the infield, since the distance the balls could travel increased. Adams had a long playing career with the Knickerbockers: he remained a player with the team until 1860. Unlike the pitcher and catcher, who must start every play in a designated area the shortstop and the other fielders can vary their positioning in response to what they anticipate will be the actions of the batter and runner once the play begins; the shortstop ordinarily is positioned near second base on the third-base side. Because right-handed hitters tend to hit the ball more toward third base, a shortstop will move closer to third base if the batter is batting right-handed, more toward first base if the batter is batting left-handed.
A shortstop has a strong throwing arm, because he has a long throw to first base, has less time in which to make a throw, given that the ground balls he fields have traveled far. A shortstop must be agile, because balls hit to or near the shortstop position are hit harder than to other infield positions. Shortstops are required to cover second base in double play situations when the ball is hit to the second baseman or first baseman, they cover second when a runner is attempting a stolen base, but only when a left-handed hitter is batting. This is because the infield will respond to a left-handed batter by shifting toward first base, resulting in the shortstop being the infielder, closest to second base. Shortstops must cover third at various times, including the rotation play. Shortstops are given precedence on catching pop-ups in the infield as well, so they end up calling off other players many times, although on deep pop-ups they fall back when called off by an outfielder, they become the cutoff man on balls to any part of the outfield that are being directed towards third base and all balls to left and center field that are destined for second base.
Depending on the system the shortstop may cut balls from left field heading home. The emphasis on defense makes the position unusually difficult to fill. A strong shortstop did not have to be a good hitter; some of the weakest hitters in Major League Baseball have played the position, including Mario Mendoza, for whom George Brett popularized the eponymous Mendoza Line to describe a batting average below.200. Since the 1960s, such mediocre hitting has become rarer as teams demand players with ability to both field and hit. In practice, a marginal fielder as a shortstop who hits well can be moved to any other position second base or third base, whether early in their careers or due to diminished fielding range, slower reflexes, weaker throwing arms, increased risk of injury, or co-existence with another dominant shortstop, as with Ernie Banks, Cal Ripken Jr. Alex Rodríguez, Michael Young, or Miguel Tejada; the year in which the player was inducted is given in brackets after his name. John Henry Lloyd and Willie Wells were elected for their play in the Negro Leagues.
George Wright was elected as a pioneer, but starred as a shortstop in the 1860s and 1870s. Robin Yount started his career as a shortstop, moved to the outfield where he played his last nine seasons. Ernie Banks played shortstop for the first half of first base for the remainder. Ozzie Smith: 621 Glenn Wright: 601 Dave Bancroft: 598 (Philadelphia Phillies/New York Gia
The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known as the National League, is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada, the world's oldest current professional team sports league. Founded on February 2, 1876, to replace the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players of 1871–1875, the NL is sometimes called the Senior Circuit, in contrast to MLB's other league, the American League, founded 25 years later. Both leagues have 15 teams. After two years of conflict in a "baseball war" of 1901–1902, the two leagues of 8 team franchises each, agreed in a "peace pact" to recognize each other as "major leagues", draft rules regarding player contracts, prohibiting "raiding", regulating relationships with minor leagues and lower level clubs, with each establishing a team in the nation's largest metropolis of New York City, the league champions of 1903 arranged to compete against each other in the new professional baseball championship tournament with the inaugural "World Series" that Fall of 1903, succeeding earlier similar national series in previous decades since the 1880s.
After the 1904 champions failed to reach a similar agreement, the two leagues formalized the new World Series tournament beginning in 1905 as an arrangement between the leagues themselves. National League teams have won 48 of the 114 World Series championships contested from 1903 to 2018. Due to its length, the National League's full name is used. Up until about the 1970's, the term National League was considered an informal term to be used for any North American major sports league that included those two words in its name the National Football League and National Hockey League. By the 21st century, that practice had fallen out of favor in North America, with the terms National League and NL reserved for the baseball league and similarly-named leagues in other sports being referred to by their full names or initials. By 1875, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, founded four years earlier, was suffering from a lack of strong authority over clubs, unsupervised scheduling, unstable membership of cities, dominance by one team, an low entry fee that gave clubs no incentive to abide by league rules when it was inconvenient to them.
William A. Hulbert, a Chicago businessman and an officer of the Chicago White Stockings of 1870–1889, approached several NA clubs with the plans for a professional league for the sport of base ball with a stronger central authority and exclusive territories in larger cities only. Additionally, Hulbert had a problem: five of his star players were threatened with expulsion from the NAPBBP because Hulbert had signed them to his club using what were considered questionable means. Hulbert had a great vested interest in creating his own league, after recruiting St. Louis four western clubs met in Louisville, Kentucky, in January 1876. With Hulbert speaking for the four in New York City on February 2, 1876, the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs was established with eight charter members, as follows: Chicago White Stockings from the NA Philadelphia Athletics from the NA Boston Red Stockings, the dominant team in the NA Hartford Dark Blues from the NA Mutual of New York from the NA St. Louis Brown Stockings from the NA Cincinnati Red Stockings, a new franchise Louisville Grays, a new franchise The National League's formation meant the end of the old National Association after only five seasons, as its remaining clubs shut down or reverted to amateur or minor league status.
The only strong club from 1875 excluded in 1876 was a second one in Philadelphia called the White Stockings or Phillies. The first game in National League history was played on April 22, 1876, at Philadelphia's Jefferson Street Grounds, at 25th & Jefferson Streets, between the Philadelphia Athletics and the Boston baseball club. Boston won the game 6–5; the new league's authority was soon tested after the first season. The Athletic and Mutual clubs fell behind in the standings and refused to make western road trips late in the season, preferring to play games against local non-league competition to recoup some of their financial losses rather than travel extensively incurring more costs. Hulbert reacted to the clubs' defiance by expelling them, an act which not only shocked baseball followers and the sports world, but made it clear to clubs that league schedule commitments, a cornerstone of competition integrity, were not to be ignored; the National League operated with only six clubs during 1877 and 1878.
Over the next several years, various teams left the struggling league. By 1880, six of the eight charter members had folded; the two remaining original NL franchises and Chicago, remain still in operation today as the Atlanta Braves and the Chicago Cubs. When all eight participants for 1881 returned for 1882—the first off-season without turnover in membership—the "circuit" consist
Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort; the main campus—designed by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. East Campus, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China; as of 2018, 13 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university.
Further, Duke alumni include 25 Churchill Scholars. The university has produced the 5th highest number of Rhodes, Truman and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015; as of 2018, Duke holds a top-ten position in several national rankings. Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity. Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter; the academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men."
In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, the Methodist Church, four colleges. William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile west were completed, construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935. In 1878, Trinity awarded A. B. degrees to three sisters—Mary and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with private tutors and in classes with men.
With the relocation of the college in 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day students. At the time of Washington Duke's donation in 1896, which carried the requirement that women be placed "on an equal footing with men" at the college, four women were enrolled. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation he had put on a donation to the college. A woman's residential dormitory was built in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke's daughter. By 1904, fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman's College was established as a coordinate to the men's undergraduate college, established and named Trinity College in 1924. Engineering, taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission.
In 1963 the Board of Trustees desegregated the undergraduate college. Duke enrolled its first graduate students in 1961; the school did not admit Black undergraduates until September 1963. The teaching staff remained all-White until 1966. Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Martin Luther King Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the Civil Rights Movement. Following Douglas Knight's resignation from the office of university president, Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling The Fuqua School of Business' opening, the William R. Perkins library completion, the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs; the separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's r
In baseball, a double play is the act of making two outs during the same continuous play. The double play is defined in the Official Rules in the Definitions of Terms, for the official scorer in Rule 9.11. Double plays can occur any time there is less than two outs. During the 2016 Major League Baseball regular season, the average for double plays completed by each team during the course of a 162-game season was 145 — nearly one per game by each team; the simplest scenario for a double play is a runner on first base with less than two outs. In that context, five example double plays are: The batter hits a ground ball to a middle infielder, who throws the ball to the other middle infielder, who steps on second base to force out the runner coming from first, throws the ball to the first baseman in time to force out the batter; as both outs are made by force plays, this is referred to as a "force double play". This is the most common double play; the neighborhood play is a recurring source of controversy: Umpires sometimes call the first out though the infielder is not touching second base but "in the neighborhood". to the first baseman, who steps on first base to force out the batter, with the baserunner trying to advance from first base to second base, throws the ball to the shortstop who puts out the runner.
This is referred to as a "reverse force double play", although executing the first out removes the condition that forced the runner to take second base. The second out must be made with a tag; the batter hits the ball in the air a line drive to the first baseman, who catches it, steps on first base before the baserunner can return to first to tag up. This is an example of an unassisted double play. A deep fly ball to the right fielder, who catches it, meanwhile the baserunner tags up and attempts to advance, the outfielder throws the ball to the shortstop who tags the runner before he reaches second base; the batter strikes out. If the runner was trying to steal second base, it is a double play. Double plays can occur in many ways in addition to these examples, can involve many combinations of fielders. A double play can include an out resulting from a rare event, such as interference or an appeal play. Per standard baseball positions, the examples given above are recorded as: 4-6-3 or 6-4-3 3-6 3, unassisted 9-6 kc or ks, 2-6 or 2-4 cs Double plays that are initiated by a batter hitting a ground ball are recorded in baseball statistics as GIDP.
This statistic has been tracked since 1933 in the National League and since 1939 in the American League. This statistic does not include line-outs into double plays, for which there is no official statistic for a batter; the double play is a coup for the fielding team and debilitating to the batting team. The fielding team can select pitches to induce a double play — such as a sinker, more to be hit as a ground ball — and can position fielders to make a ground ball more to be turned into a double play; the batting team may take action — such as a hit and run play — to reduce the chance of grounding into a force double play. In baseball slang, making a double play is referred to as "turning two" or a "twin killing". Double plays are known as "the pitcher's best friend" because they disrupt offense more than any other play, except for the rare triple play. A force double play made on a ground ball hit to the third baseman, who throws to the second baseman, who throws to the first baseman, is referred to as an "around the horn" double play.
A "strike'em out, throw'em out" double play occurs when a base runner is caught stealing after the batter strikes out. The ability to "make the pivot" on a force double play – receiving a throw from the third base side quickly turning and throwing to first base – is a key skill for a second baseman; the most famous double play trio – although they never set any records – were Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers and Frank Chance, who played shortstop, second baseman and first baseman for the Chicago Cubs between 1902 and 1912. Their double play against the New York Giants in a 1910 game inspired Giants fan Franklin Pierce Adams to write the short poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon, otherwise known as Tinker to Evers to Chance, which immortalized the trio. All three players were part of the Cubs team that won the National League pennant in 1906, 1907, 1908, 1910, the World Series in 1907 and 1908, turning 491 double plays on the way, they were elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946. The New York Yankees recorded a rare 4-1-5 double play against the San Francisco Giants on July 24, 2016, in the top of the 8th inning.
The Giants had Mac Williamson on first base with one out, when Ramiro Peña hit a ground ball that got by Yankees' first baseman Mark Teixeira but was fielded on the edge of the outfield grass by Starlin Castro. Castro threw to pitcher Chad Green at first base to retire Peña. Meanwhile, Williamson had rounded second on his way to third, a throw from Green to third baseman Chase Headley resulted in Williamson being tagged out, ending the inning. A bizarre 8-6-2 double play occurred in a nationally televised game between the New York Yankees and Chicago White Sox on August 2, 1985, in the b
St. Louis Cardinals
The St. Louis Cardinals are an American professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri; the Cardinals compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division. Busch Stadium has been their home ballpark since 2006. One of the most successful franchises in baseball history, the Cardinals have won 11 World Series championships, the second-most in Major League Baseball and the most in the National League, their 19 National League pennants rank third in NL history. In addition, St. Louis has won 13 division titles in the Central divisions. While still in the old American Association, named as the St. Louis Browns, the team won four AA league championships, qualifying them to play in the professional baseball championship tournament of that era, they tied in 1885 and won outright in 1886 and lost in 1888 for the early trophy Hall Cup versus the New York Giants. The others both times against the Chicago Cubs, in the first meetings of the Cardinals–Cubs rivalry between nearby cities of St. Louis and Chicago that continues to this day.
With origins as one of the early professional baseball clubs in St. Louis and the nation, entrepreneur Chris von der Ahe purchased a barnstorming club in 1881 known as the Brown Stockings, established them as charter members of the old American Association base ball league which played 1882 to 1891, the following season. Upon the discontinuation of the AA, St. Louis joined the continuing National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs known as the National League, in 1892. Cardinals achievements that have impacted MLB and sports events in general include manager/owner Branch Rickey's pioneering of the farm system, Rogers Hornsby's two batting Triple Crowns, Dizzy Dean's 30-win season in 1934, Stan Musial's 17 MLB and 29 NL records, Bob Gibson's 1.12 earned run average in 1968, Whitey Herzog's Whiteyball, Mark McGwire breaking the single-season home run record in 1998, the 2011 championship team's unprecedented comebacks. The Cardinals have won 105 or more games in four different seasons and won 100 or more a total of nine times.
Cardinals players have won 20 league MVPs, four batting Triple Crowns, three Cy Young Awards. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees include Lou Brock, Dizzy Dean, Bob Gibson, Whitey Herzog, Rogers Hornsby, Joe Medwick, Stan Musial, Branch Rickey, Red Schoendienst, Ozzie Smith, Bruce Sutter. In 2018, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $1.9 billion, making them the 7th-most valuable franchise in MLB. Since their purchase in 1995, owner William DeWitt, Jr.'s investment group has seen enormous growth from the $147 million purchase price. John Mozeliak is the President of Baseball Operations, Mike Girsch is the general manager and Mike Shildt is the manager; the Cardinals are renowned for their strong fan support: despite being in one of the sport's mid-level markets, they see attendances among the league's highest, are among the Top 3 in MLB in local television ratings. Professional baseball began in St. Louis with the inception of the Brown Stockings in the National Association in 1875; the NA folded following that season, the next season, St. Louis joined the National League as a charter member, finishing in third place at 45-19.
George Bradley hurled the first no-hitter in Major League history. The NL expelled St. Louis from the league after 1877 due to a game-fixing scandal and the team went bankrupt. Without a league, they continued play as a semi-professional barnstorming team through 1881; the magnitudes of the reorganizations following the 1877 and 1881 seasons are such that the 1875–1877 and 1878–1881 Brown Stockings teams are not considered to share continuity as a franchise with the current St. Louis Cardinals. For the 1882 season, Chris von der Ahe purchased the team, reorganized it, made it a founding member of the American Association, a league to rival the NL. 1882 is considered to be the first year existence of the St. Louis Cardinals; the next season, St. Louis shortened their name to the Browns. Soon thereafter they became the dominant team in the AA, as manager Charlie Comiskey guided St. Louis to four pennants in a row from 1885 to 1888. Pitcher and outfielder Bob Caruthers led the league in ERA and wins in 1885 and finished in the top six in both in each of the following two seasons.
He led the AA in OBP and OPS in 1886 and finished fourth in batting average in 1886 and fifth in 1887. Outfielder Tip O'Neill won the first batting triple crown in franchise history in 1887 and the only one in AA history. By winning the pennant, the Browns played the NL pennant winner in a predecessor of the World Series; the Browns twice met the Chicago White Stockings – the Chicago Cubs prototype – tying one in a heated dispute and winning the other, thus spurring the vigorous St. Louis-Chicago rivalry that ensues to this day. During the franchise's ten seasons in the AA, they compiled an all-time league-high of 780 wins and.639 winning percentage. They lost just 432 contests while tying 21 others; the AA went bankrupt after the 1891 season and the Browns transferred to the National League. This time, the club entered an era of stark futility. Between 1892 and 1919, St. Louis managed just five winning seasons, finis
In baseball, a home run is scored when the ball is hit in such a way that the batter is able to circle the bases and reach home safely in one play without any errors being committed by the defensive team in the process. In modern baseball, the feat is achieved by hitting the ball over the outfield fence between the foul poles without first touching the ground, resulting in an automatic home run. There is the "inside-the-park" home run where the batter reaches home safely while the baseball is in play on the field; when a home run is scored, the batter is credited with a hit and a run scored, an RBI for each runner that scores, including himself. The pitcher is recorded as having given up a hit, a run for each runner that scores including the batter. Home runs are among the most popular aspects of baseball and, as a result, prolific home run hitters are the most popular among fans and the highest paid by teams—hence the old saying, "Home run hitters drive Cadillacs, singles hitters drive Fords.
In modern times a home run is most scored when the ball is hit over the outfield wall between the foul poles before it touches the ground, without being caught or deflected back onto the field by a fielder. A batted ball is a home run if it touches either foul pole or its attached screen before touching the ground, as the foul poles are by definition in fair territory. Additionally, many major-league ballparks have ground rules stating that a batted ball in flight that strikes a specified location or fixed object is a home run. In professional baseball, a batted ball that goes over the outfield wall after touching the ground becomes an automatic double; this is colloquially referred to as a "ground rule double" because the rule is not written into the rules of baseball, but is rather a rule of the field being used. A fielder is allowed to reach over the wall to attempt to catch the ball as long as his feet are on or over the field during the attempt, if the fielder catches the ball while it is in flight the batter is out if the ball had passed the vertical plane of the wall.
However, since the fielder is not part of the field, a ball that bounces off a fielder and over the wall without touching the ground is still a home run. A fielder may not deliberately throw his glove, cap, or any other equipment or apparel to stop or deflect a fair ball, an umpire may award a home run to the batter if a fielder does so on a ball that, in the umpire's judgment, would have otherwise been a home run. A home run accomplished in any of the above manners is an automatic home run; the ball is dead if it rebounds back onto the field, the batter and any preceding runners cannot be put out at any time while running the bases. However, if one or more runners fail to touch a base or one runner passes another before reaching home plate, that runner or runners can be called out on appeal, though in the case of not touching a base a runner can go back and touch it if doing so won't cause them to be passed by another preceding runner and they have not yet touched the next base; this stipulation is in Approved Ruling of Rule 7.10.
An inside-the-park home run occurs when a batter hits the ball into play and is able to circle the bases before the fielders can put him out. Unlike with an outside-the-park home run, the batter-runner and all preceding runners are liable to be put out by the defensive team at any time while running the bases; this can only happen. In the early days of baseball, outfields were much more spacious, reducing the likelihood of an over-the-fence home run, while increasing the likelihood of an inside-the-park home run, as a ball getting past an outfielder had more distance that it could roll before a fielder could track it down. Modern outfields are much less spacious and more uniformly designed than in the game's early days, therefore inside-the-park home runs are now a rarity, they occur when a fast runner hits the ball deep into the outfield and the ball bounces in an unexpected direction away from the nearest outfielder, or an outfielder misjudges the flight of the ball in a way that he cannot recover from the mistake.
The speed of the runner is crucial as triples are rare in most modern ballparks. If any defensive play on an inside-the-park home run is labeled an error by the official scorer, a home run is not scored. All runs scored on such a play, still count. An example of an unexpected bounce occurred during the 2007 Major League Baseball All-Star Game at AT&T Park in San Francisco on July 10, 2007. Ichiro Suzuki of the American League team hit a fly ball that caromed off the right-center field wall in the opposite direction from where National League right fielder Ken Griffey, Jr. was expecting it to go. By the time the ball was relayed, Ichiro had crossed the plate standing up; this was the first inside-the-park home run in All-Star Game history, led to Suzu