Magnoliids are a group of flowering plants. Until the group included about 9,000 species, including magnolias, bay laurel, avocado, black pepper, tulip tree and many others; that group is characterized by trimerous flowers, pollen with one pore, branching-veined leaves. "Magnoliidae" is the botanical name of a subclass, "magnoliids" is an informal name that does not conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants. The circumscription of a subclass will vary with the taxonomic system being used; the only requirement is. The informal name "magnoliids" is used by some researchers to avoid the confusion that surrounds the name "Magnoliidae". More the group has been redefined under the PhyloCode as a node-based clade comprising the Canellales, Laurales and Piperales. Chase & Reveal have proposed, "Magnoliidae" as the name used for the entire group of flowering plants, the formal name "Magnolianae" for the group of four orders are discussed here; the APG III and its predecessor systems did not use formal botanical names above the rank of order.
Under those systems, larger clades were referred to by informal names, such as "magnoliids" or "magnoliid complex". The formal name in Linnean nomenclature was specified in a separate APG publication as the existing name "Magnolianae" Takht.. The APG III recognizes a clade within the angiosperms for the magnoliids; the circumscription is: The clade includes most of the basal groups of the angiosperms. This clade was formally named Magnoliidae in 2007 under provisions of the PhyloCode; the Cronquist system used the name Magnoliidae for one of six subclasses. In the original version of this system the circumscription was: Subclass Magnoliidae: Order Aristolochiales Order Illiciales Order Laurales Order Magnoliales Order Nymphaeales Order Papaverales Order Piperales Order Ranunculales Both Dahlgren and Thorne classified the magnoliids in superorder Magnolianae, rather than as a subclass. In their systems, the name Magnoliidae is used for a much larger group including all dicotyledons; this is the case in some of the systems derived from the Cronquist system.
Dahlgren divided his Magnolianae into ten orders, more than other systems of the time, unlike Cronquist and Thorne, he did not include the Piperales. Thorne grouped most of his Magnolianae into two large orders and Berberidales, although his Magnoliales was divided into suborders along lines similar to the ordinal groupings used by both Cronquist and Dahlgren. Thorne revised his system in 2000, restricting the name Magnoliidae to include only the Magnolianae and Rafflesianae, removing the Berberidales and other included groups to his subclass Ranunculidae; this revised system diverges from the Cronquist system, but agrees more with the circumscription published under APG II. Comparison of classification systems is difficult. Two authors may apply the same name to groups with different composition of members. Two authors may describe the same group with nearly identical composition, but each may apply a different name to that group or place the group at a different taxonomic rank. For example, the composition of Cronquist's subclass Magnoliidae is nearly the same as Thorne's superorder Magnolianae, despite the difference in taxonomic rank.
Because of these difficulties and others, the synoptic table below imprecisely compares the definition of "magnoliid" groups in the systems of four authors. For each system, only orders are named in the table. All orders included by a particular author are linked in that column; when a taxon is not included by that author, but was included by an author in another column, that item appears in unlinked italics and indicates remote placement. The sequence of each system has been altered from its publication in order to pair corresponding taxa between columns; the magnoliids is a large group of plants, with many species that are economically important as food, perfumes, as ornamentals, among many other uses. One cultivated magnoliid fruit is the avocado, believed to have been cultivated in Mexico and Central America for nearly 10,000 years. Now grown throughout the American tropics, it originates from the Chiapas region of Mexico or Guatemala, where "wild" avocados may still be found; the soft pulp of the fruit is eaten mashed into guacamole.
The ancient peoples of Central America were the first to cultivate several fruit-bearing species of Annona. These include the custard-apple, sweetsop or sugar-apple, the cherimoya. Both soursop and sweetsop now are grown for their fruits in the Old World as well; some members of the magnoliids have served as important food additives. Oil of sassafras was used as a key flavoring in both root beer and in sarsaparilla; the primary ingredient responsible for the oil's flavor is safrole, but it is no longer used in either the United States or Canada. Both nations banned the use of safrole as a food additive in 1960 as a result of studies that demonstrated safrole promoted liver damage and tumors in mice. Consumption of more than a minute quantity of the oil causes nausea, vomiting and shallow rapid breathing, it is toxic, can damage the kidneys. In addition to its former use as a food additive, safro
Cladistics is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups based on the most recent common ancestor. Hypothesized relationships are based on shared derived characteristics that can be traced to the most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant groups and ancestors. A key feature of a clade is that all its descendants are part of the clade. All descendants stay in their overarching ancestral clade. For example, if within a strict cladistic framework the terms animals, bilateria/worms, fishes/vertebrata, or monkeys/anthropoidea were used, these terms would include humans. Many of these terms are used paraphyletically, outside of cladistics, e.g. as a'grade'. Radiation results in the generation of new subclades by bifurcation; the techniques and nomenclature of cladistics have been applied to other disciplines. Cladistics is now the most used method to classify organisms; the original methods used in cladistic analysis and the school of taxonomy derived from the work of the German entomologist Willi Hennig, who referred to it as phylogenetic systematics.
Cladistics in the original sense refers to a particular set of methods used in phylogenetic analysis, although it is now sometimes used to refer to the whole field. What is now called the cladistic method appeared as early as 1901 with a work by Peter Chalmers Mitchell for birds and subsequently by Robert John Tillyard in 1921, W. Zimmermann in 1943; the term "clade" was introduced in 1958 by Julian Huxley after having been coined by Lucien Cuénot in 1940, "cladogenesis" in 1958, "cladistic" by Cain and Harrison in 1960, "cladist" by Mayr in 1965, "cladistics" in 1966. Hennig referred to his own approach as "phylogenetic systematics". From the time of his original formulation until the end of the 1970s, cladistics competed as an analytical and philosophical approach to systematics with phenetics and so-called evolutionary taxonomy. Phenetics was championed at this time by the numerical taxonomists Peter Sneath and Robert Sokal, evolutionary taxonomy by Ernst Mayr. Conceived, if only in essence, by Willi Hennig in a book published in 1950, cladistics did not flourish until its translation into English in 1966.
Today, cladistics is the most popular method for constructing phylogenies from morphological data. In the 1990s, the development of effective polymerase chain reaction techniques allowed the application of cladistic methods to biochemical and molecular genetic traits of organisms, vastly expanding the amount of data available for phylogenetics. At the same time, cladistics became popular in evolutionary biology, because computers made it possible to process large quantities of data about organisms and their characteristics; the cladistic method interprets each character state transformation implied by the distribution of shared character states among taxa as a potential piece of evidence for grouping. The outcome of a cladistic analysis is a cladogram – a tree-shaped diagram, interpreted to represent the best hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships. Although traditionally such cladograms were generated on the basis of morphological characters and calculated by hand, genetic sequencing data and computational phylogenetics are now used in phylogenetic analyses, the parsimony criterion has been abandoned by many phylogeneticists in favor of more "sophisticated" but less parsimonious evolutionary models of character state transformation.
Cladists contend. Every cladogram is based on a particular dataset analyzed with a particular method. Datasets are tables consisting of molecular, ethological and/or other characters and a list of operational taxonomic units, which may be genes, populations, species, or larger taxa that are presumed to be monophyletic and therefore to form, all together, one large clade. Different datasets and different methods, not to mention violations of the mentioned assumptions result in different cladograms. Only scientific investigation can show, more to be correct; until for example, cladograms like the following have been accepted as accurate representations of the ancestral relations among turtles, lizards and birds: If this phylogenetic hypothesis is correct the last common ancestor of turtles and birds, at the branch near the ▼ lived earlier than the last common ancestor of lizards and birds, near the ♦. Most molecular evidence, produces cladograms more like this: If this is accurate the last common ancestor of turtles and birds lived than the last common ancestor of lizards and birds.
Since the cladograms provide competing accounts of real events, at most one of them is correct. The cladogram to the right represents the current universally accepted hypothesis that all primates, including strepsirrhines like the lemurs and lorises, had a common ancestor all of whose descendants were primates, so form a clade. Within the primates, all anthropoids are hypothesized to have had a common ancestor all of whose descendants were anthropoids, so they form the clade called Anthropoidea; the "prosimians", on the other hand, form a paraphyletic taxon. The name Prosimii is not used in phylogenetic nomenclature, whic
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol. Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are tough. Fossilized specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. Another aspect of Magnolia considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea; the natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main center in east and southeast Asia and a secondary center in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, some species in South America.
As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle; the fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The pollen is monocolpate, the embryo development is of the Polygonum type; the name Magnolia first appeared in 1703 in the Genera of Charles Plumier, for a flowering tree from the island of Martinique. English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia, he was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis and of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina and the Bahama Islands. These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America; the species that Plumier named Magnolia was described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck, has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala.
Carl Linnaeus, familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae, without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species Plantarum. There he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being Magnolia virginiana. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant, described by Catesby in his 1730 Natural History of Carolina, he placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora. Under Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus described five varieties. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae, he merged grisea with glauca, raised the four remaining varieties to species status. By the end of the 18th century and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan.
The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora, Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo. Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and at the same time Magnolia kobus was first collected. With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia and Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, of horticultural importance in the southeastern United States, M. virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is the American deciduous M. acuminata, which has attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids. Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time; because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events, its distribution has become scattered.
Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task. By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large-scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships. What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia; these phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data. As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: 1 to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet. By extension, a line and a plane, or two planes, in three-dimensional Euclidean space that do not share a point are said to be parallel. However, two lines in three-dimensional space which do not meet must be in a common plane to be considered parallel. Parallel planes are planes in the same three-dimensional space. Parallel lines are the subject of Euclid's parallel postulate. Parallelism is a property of affine geometries and Euclidean geometry is a special instance of this type of geometry. In some other geometries, such as hyperbolic geometry, lines can have analogous properties that are referred to as parallelism; the parallel symbol is ∥. For example, A B ∥ C D indicates that line AB is parallel to line CD. In the Unicode character set, the "parallel" and "not parallel" signs have codepoints U+2225 and U+2226, respectively. In addition, U+22D5 represents the relation "equal and parallel to". Given parallel straight lines l and m in Euclidean space, the following properties are equivalent: Every point on line m is located at the same distance from line l.
Line m is in the same plane as line l but does not intersect l. When lines m and l are both intersected by a third straight line in the same plane, the corresponding angles of intersection with the transversal are congruent. Since these are equivalent properties, any one of them could be taken as the definition of parallel lines in Euclidean space, but the first and third properties involve measurement, so, are "more complicated" than the second. Thus, the second property is the one chosen as the defining property of parallel lines in Euclidean geometry; the other properties are consequences of Euclid's Parallel Postulate. Another property that involves measurement is that lines parallel to each other have the same gradient; the definition of parallel lines as a pair of straight lines in a plane which do not meet appears as Definition 23 in Book I of Euclid's Elements. Alternative definitions were discussed by other Greeks as part of an attempt to prove the parallel postulate. Proclus attributes a definition of parallel lines as equidistant lines to Posidonius and quotes Geminus in a similar vein.
Simplicius mentions Posidonius' definition as well as its modification by the philosopher Aganis. At the end of the nineteenth century, in England, Euclid's Elements was still the standard textbook in secondary schools; the traditional treatment of geometry was being pressured to change by the new developments in projective geometry and non-Euclidean geometry, so several new textbooks for the teaching of geometry were written at this time. A major difference between these reform texts, both between themselves and between them and Euclid, is the treatment of parallel lines; these reform texts were not without their critics and one of them, Charles Dodgson, wrote a play and His Modern Rivals, in which these texts are lambasted. One of the early reform textbooks was James Maurice Wilson's Elementary Geometry of 1868. Wilson based his definition of parallel lines on the primitive notion of direction. According to Wilhelm Killing the idea may be traced back to Leibniz. Wilson, without defining direction since it is a primitive, uses the term in other definitions such as his sixth definition, "Two straight lines that meet one another have different directions, the difference of their directions is the angle between them."
Wilson In definition 15 he introduces parallel lines in this way. Wilson Augustus De Morgan reviewed this text and declared it a failure on the basis of this definition and the way Wilson used it to prove things about parallel lines. Dodgson devotes a large section of his play to denouncing Wilson's treatment of parallels. Wilson edited this concept out of the third and higher editions of his text. Other properties, proposed by other reformers, used as replacements for the definition of parallel lines, did not fare much better; the main difficulty, as pointed out by Dodgson, was that to use them in this way required additional axioms to be added to the system. The equidistant line definition of Posidonius, expounded by Francis Cuthbertson in his 1874 text Euclidean Geometry suffers from the problem that the points that are found at a fixed given distance on one side of a straight line must be shown to form a straight line; this must be assumed to be true. The corresponding angles formed by a transversal property, used by W. D. Cooley in his 1860 text, The Elements of Geometry and explained requires a proof of the fact that if one transversal meets a pair of lines in congruent corresponding angles all transversals must do so.
Again, a new axiom is needed to justify this statement. The three properties above lead to three different methods of construction of parallel lines; because parallel lines in a Euclidean plane are equidistant there is a unique distance between the two parallel lines. Given the equations of two non-vertical, non-horizontal parallel lines, y = m x + b 1 y = m x + b 2
Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. It is the sole species in the monotypic genus and subtribe, Ricininae; the evolution of castor and its relation to other species are being studied using modern genetic tools. It reproduces with a mixed pollination system which favors selfing by geitonogamy but at the same time can be an out-crosser by anemophily or entomophily, its seed is the castor bean, despite its name, is not a true bean. Castor is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, India, but is widespread throughout tropical regions. Castor seed is the source of castor oil; the seeds contain between 40% and 60% oil, rich in triglycerides ricinolein. The seed contains ricin, a water-soluble toxin, present in lower concentrations throughout the plant. An unrelated plant species, Fatsia japonica, is from Japan; the name Ricinus is a Latin word for tick. The genus Ricinus exists in zoology, designates insects which are parasites of birds.
The common name "castor oil" comes from its use as a replacement for castoreum, a perfume base made from the dried perineal glands of the beaver. It has another common name, palm of Christ, or Palma Christi, that derives from castor oil's reputed ability to heal wounds and cure ailments. Ricinus communis can vary in its growth habit and appearance; the variability has been increased by breeders who have selected a range of cultivars for leaf and flower colours, for oil production. It is a fast-growing, suckering shrub that can reach the size of a small tree, around 12 m, but it is not cold hardy; the glossy leaves are 15–45 cm long, long-stalked and palmate with five to twelve deep lobes with coarsely toothed segments. In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature; the leaves of some other varieties are green from the start, whereas in yet others a pigment masks the green color of all the chlorophyll-bearing parts, leaves and young fruit, so that they remain a dramatic purple-to-reddish-brown throughout the life of the plant.
Plants with the dark leaves can be found growing next to those with green leaves, so there is most only a single gene controlling the production of the pigment in some varieties. The stems and the spherical, spiny seed capsules vary in pigmentation; the fruit capsules of some varieties are more showy than the flowers. The flowers lack petals and are unisexual where both types are borne on the same plant in terminal panicle-like inflorescences of green or, in some varieties, shades of red; the male flowers are yellowish-green with prominent creamy stamens. The fruit is a spiny, greenish capsule containing large, shiny, bean-like poisonous seeds with variable brownish mottling. Castor seeds have a warty appendage called the caruncle, a type of elaiosome; the caruncle promotes the dispersal of the seed by ants. Castor oil has many uses in medicine and other applications. An alcoholic extract of the leaf was shown, in lab rats, to protect the liver from damage from certain poisons. Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Ricinus communis were used in antimicrobial testing against eight pathogenic bacteria in rats and showed antimicrobial properties.
The pericarp of Ricinus showed central nervous system effects in mice at low doses. At high doses mice died. A water extract of the root bark showed analgesic activity in rats. Antihistamine and anti-inflammatory properties were found in ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis root bark. Extract of Ricinus communis exhibited acaricidal and insecticidal activities against the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann and hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach; the Bodo tribals of Bodoland in Assam, use the leaves of this plant to feed and rear the larvae of muga and endi silkworms. Castor oil is an effective motor lubricant and has been used in internal combustion engines, including those of World War I airplanes, some racing cars and some model airplanes, it has been popular for lubricating two-stroke engines due to high resistance to heat compared to petroleum-based oils. It does not mix well with petroleum products at low temperatures, but mixes better with the methanol based fuels used in glow model engines.
In total-loss-lubrication applications, it tends to leave carbon deposits and varnish within the engine. It has been replaced by synthetic oils that are more stable and less toxic. Jewelry is made of castor beans necklaces and bracelets. Although Ricinus communis is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, India, today it is widespread throughout tropical regions. In areas with a suitable climate, castor establishes itself where it can become an invasive plant and can be found on wasteland, it is used extensively as a decorative plant in parks and other public areas as a "dot pla
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Canellales is the botanical name for an order of flowering plants, one of the four orders of the magnoliids. It is recognized by the most recent classification of the APG IV system, it is defined to contain two families: Canellaceae and Winteraceae, which comprise 136 species of fragrant trees and shrubs. The Canellaceae are found in tropical America and Africa, the Winteraceae are part of the Antarctic flora. Although the order was defined based on phylogenetic studies, a number of possible synapomorphies have been suggested, relating to the pollen tube, the seeds, the thickness of the integument, other aspects of the morphology; until 1999, these two families were not considered to be related. Instead the Winteraceae were considered to be a primitive family; the Canellaceae was considered to be related to the Myristicaceae. However, studies starting in 1999, based on molecular phylogeny or morphology, have supported uniting these two families