Die Brücke was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905. Founding members were Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Members were Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein and Otto Mueller; the seminal group had a major impact on the evolution of modern art in the 20th century and the creation of expressionism. The group came to an end around 1913; the Brücke Museum in Berlin was named after the group. Die Brücke is sometimes compared to the contemporary French group of the Fauves. Both movements shared interests in primitivist art and in the expressing of extreme emotion through high-keyed colors that were often non-naturalistic. Both movements employed a drawing technique, crude, both groups shared an antipathy to complete abstraction; the Die Brücke artists' agitated paintings of city streets and sexually charged events transpiring in country settings made their French counterparts, the Fauves, seem tame by comparison. The founding members of Die Brücke in 1905 were four Jugendstil architecture students: Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.
They met through the Königliche Technische Hochschule of Dresden, where Kirchner and Bleyl began studying in 1901 and became close friends in their first term. They discussed art together and studied nature, having a radical outlook in common. Kirchner continued studies in Munich 1903 -- 1904; the institution provided a wide range of studies in addition to architecture, such as freehand drawing, perspective drawing and the historical study of art. The name "Die Brücke" was intended to "symbolize the link, or bridge, they would form with art of the future". Die Brücke aimed to eschew the prevalent traditional academic style and find a new mode of artistic expression, which would form a bridge between the past and the present, they responded both to past artists such as Albrecht Dürer, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder, as well as contemporary international avant-garde movements. The group published a broadside called Programme in 1906, where Kirchner wrote: We call all young people together, as young people, who carry the future in us, we want to wrest freedom for our actions and our lives from the older, comfortably established forces.
As part of the affirmation of their national heritage, they revived older media woodcut prints. The group developed a common style based on vivid color, emotional tension, violent imagery, an influence from primitivism. After first concentrating on urban subject matter, the group ventured into southern Germany on expeditions arranged by Mueller and produced more nudes and arcadian images, they invented the printmaking technique of linocut, although they at first described them as traditional woodcuts, which they made. The group members "isolated" themselves in a working-class neighborhood of Dresden, aiming thereby to reject their own bourgeois backgrounds. Erich Heckel was able to obtain an empty butcher's shop on the Berlinerstrasse in Friedrichstadt for their use as a studio. Bleyl described the studio as: that of a real bohemian, full of paintings lying all over the place, drawings and artist’s materials — much more like an artist’s romantic lodgings than the home of a well-organised architecture student.
Kirchner's became a venue which overthrew social conventions to allow casual love-making and frequent nudity. Group life-drawing sessions took place using models from the social circle, rather than professionals, choosing quarter-hour poses to encourage spontaneity. Bleyl described one such model, Isabella, a fifteen-year-old girl from the neighbourhood, as "a lively, beautifully built, joyous individual, without any deformation caused by the silly fashion of the corset and suitable to our artistic demands in the blossoming condition of her girlish buds."The group composed a manifesto, carved on wood and asserted a new generation, "who want freedom in our work and in our lives, independence from older, established forces." In September and October 1906, the first group exhibition was held, focused on the female nude, in the showroom of K. F. M. Seifert and Co. in Dresden. Emil Nolde and Max Pechstein joined the group in 1906. Bleyl married in 1907, with a concern to support his family, left the group.
Otto Mueller joined in 1910. Between 1907 and 1911, Brücke members stayed during the summer at the Moritzburg lakes and on the island of Fehmarn. In 1911, Kirchner moved to Berlin, where he founded a private art school, MIUM-Institut, in collaboration with Max Pechstein with the aim of promulgating "Moderner Unterricht im Malen"; this closed the following year. In 1913, Kirchner wrote Chronik der Brücke. Die Brücke was one of two groups of German painters fundamental to Expressionism, the other being Der Blaue Reiter group, formed in Munich in 1911; the influence of Die Brücke went far beyond its founding members. As a result, the style of a number of painters is associated to Die Brücke if they were not part of the group; as an example, French academician and art specialist, Maurice Rheims mentions Frédéric Fiebig as the only Latvian painter, part of Die Brücke expressionist movement, although he was not conscious of it. German Expressionist Prints teaching resource on Die Brücke Brücke-Museum Website Die Brücke prints at MoMa "Hottentots in tails" A turbulent history by Christian Saehrendt
Leonardo Alenza y Nieto was a Spanish painter and engraver in the Romantic style. His father, Valentín, was a government employee and amateur poet, who succeeded in having some poems published in the Diario de Madrid, his mother died around 1813, when he was only seven. In 1817, his father remarried, his step-mother was only eleven years older. Soon after, the family moved from the busy neighborhood where they lived, to a quieter street near a Jesuit convent, he began his higher education there, at the Colegio Imperial de la Compañía de Jesús. In 1819, at age 16, he was enrolled at the Academia de San Fernando, where he studied with the painters Zacarías González Velázquez, Juan Antonio Ribera and José Aparicio, as well as the engraver Vicente Peleguer and the sculptor Esteban de Agreda, he finished his studies there with José Madrazo. He remained attached to the Academy until 1833, when he received a commission from the Ayuntamiento of Madrid to paint an allegorical picture of Isabella becoming Queen at the age of three.
The following year, he created a cenotaph honoring the late King Fernando VII, composed of five panels done in grisaille. In 1838, he began providing drawings for the Semanario Pintoresco Español, published by Ramón de Mesonero Romanos, exhibited some capriccios at the Academy. Two years he collaborated with the Semanario to produce illustrations for a new edition of the novel Gil Blas and the complete works of Francisco de Quevedo, he created decorations for the popular Café de Levante. In 1842, the Academy awarded him the title of "Académico de Mérito" for his painting of David cutting off the head of Goliath; this would be his last major work, as he had been suffering from tuberculosis for several years and was in poor health. Despite this, he managed to serve as a professor for a few months. Meanwhile, he was living in a cow barn, because he had become convinced that the fumes there were beneficial. Nothing helped, he died in 1845 at the age of 38, he had become impoverished by and his friends had to intervene to prevent his burial in a common grave.
Francisco Pompey, "Leonardo Alenza", in Temas españoles #249, Publicaciones Españolas, 1956 Leonardo Alenza: Dibujos y Estampas, Secretaria General Técnica, Centro de Publicaciones, 1997 ISBN 84-8181-170-X Digitalized works by Alenza in the "Biblioteca Digital Hispánica" of the Biblioteca Nacional de España. ArtNet: More works by Alenza Sonnet composed on the occasion of Alenza's death by Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch. Critique of the Satire on Romantic Suicide from Rebels and Martyrs: The Image of the Artist in the Nineteenth Century by Alexander Sturgis
The 2012–13 Liga Națională was the 55th season of Romanian Women's Handball League, the top-level women's professional handball league. The league comprises 11 teams. Z-Terom Iaşi did not register for the new season. Oltchim Râmnicu Vâlcea were the defending champions, for the sixth season in a row. CSM Bucureşti HCM Baia Mare Corona Braşov SCM Craiova Dunărea Brăila Oltchim Râmnicu Vâlcea Danubius Galaţi CSM Ploieşti HCM Roman Universitatea Jolidon Cluj-Napoca HC Zalău