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Diet of Augsburg

The Diet of Augsburg were the meetings of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire held in the German city of Augsburg. Both an Imperial City and the residence of the Augsburg prince-bishops, the town had hosted the Estates in many such sessions since the 10th century. In 1282, the diet of Augsburg assigned the control of Austria to the House of Habsburg. In the 16th century, twelve of thirty-five imperial diets were held in Augsburg, a result of the close financial relationship between the Augsburg-based banking families such as the Fugger and the reigning Habsburg emperors Maximilian I and his grandson Charles V. Nevertheless, the meetings of 1530, 1547/48 and 1555, during the Reformation and the ensuing religious war between the Catholic emperor and the Protestant Schmalkaldic League, are noteworthy. Emperor Charles V could not bring himself to discuss the matters of religious dispute and cause for division throughout Europe so he stayed away from the sessions of the Diet. Instead he sent his younger brother Ferdinand I to have authority over discussions.

The Diet was organized into three separate colleges: Prince-electors and secular sovereigns, imperial cities. However, unlike other diets, the Diet did not possess fixed methods to conduct. Tradition for the Diet of Augsburg began to emerge in the 1530s and the sessions were to be conducted under these guidelines. Either the emperor or the estates organized day-to-day business of the diet and the proposito functioned as the agenda for the Diet but could be altered by the convention; the business of the Diet was conducted on three levels. The plenary sessions or colleges created the committees; the committees would prepare material that would be discussed by colleges and once acted upon, the issue entered the plenary session stage, however this was only ceremonial during the Diet of Augsburg. The issue would continue to be discussed independently collectively by the College of Electors and College of Sovereigns. Once they were able to confer on a decision the College of Cities would be informed.

If they agreed to the decision this would become a final decision and passed to the Emperor. If the Emperor approved this recommendation he could adopt it but if there were any issues or concerns he would send it back and the process would start again; the 1530 Imperial Diet of Augsburg was requested by Emperor Charles V to decide on three issues: first, the defense of the Empire against the Ottoman threat. The climate during this time was vastly different from what we see today when the Lutheran church moved to reformation at the assembly of Augsburg; the Diet was inaugurated by the emperor on June 20. It produced numerous outcomes, most notably the 1530 declaration of the Lutheran estates known as the Augsburg Confession, a central document of Lutheranism, presented to the emperor; the Ninety-five Theses, published by Martin Luther in 1517, had sparked the Reformation in the German lands and an increasing number of princes turned Protestant. After the Great Peasants' Revolt was suppressed, the 1530 Diet was convoked to calm rising tensions over Protestantism due to fears of the Ottoman advance.

After the 1521 Diet of Worms had imposed an Imperial ban on Martin Luther and his tracts, problems of enforcement emerged, as Charles' wars against France and commitments in the rest of his empire prevented him from focusing on German religious problems. In 1529, the emperor signed a successful peace treaty with France. After these successes, Charles aimed to assert his control over what he saw as German religious heresies. At the Diet of Speyer, the Edict of Worms was affirmed, resulting in the Protestation at Speyer enacted by the Lutheran princes.. The Augsburg Confession was intended “to be an expression of the faith of the universal Church, thus a basis for a reconciliation between the Lutheran Reformers and the Roman Church.” It had been prepared by Philipp Melanchthon and Johannes Brenz at the behest of Elector John of Saxony. Based on Melanchthon's earlier Articles of Schwabach, it contained twenty-one succinct articles of faith to show that the doctrines preached did not violate the norms that were traditionally present as well as justifications for the changes in worship and life that occurred from abusive traditions.

The Confession was presented to the emperor on June 25. During the Diet, Melanchthon withstood a variety of attacks while formulating the text. According to Joachim Camerarius, his first biographer, he “did not bend the truth to win favor or meet objections. Camerarius mentions that during the diet, Melanchthon cried when hearing his work during this intense time of negotiations. There has been a long dispute regarding the Augsburg Confession and what type of confession it is. One suggestion is that it is a political and theological confession, which established the Protestant church. A second view is that it is a catholic confession that dispensed with minor teachings such as penance. During the 16th century the tensions and relationship that existed between the Emperor, the Pope, the German Princes and the Protestants were quite complex; the confessions of the early centuries of the church were evoked by the Protestant Reformation and of the tensions that e


Al-Tanzim, Al-Tanzym or At-Tanzim was the name of an ultranationalist secret military society and militia set up by right-wing Christian activists in Lebanon at the early 1970s, which came to play an important role in the Lebanese Civil War. The emblem of the group, a map of Lebanon with a cedar at the center, with the phrase "You love it, work for it" written below, was designed in 1970 during an expedition made by the Tanzim to the village of Kfarchouba in Hasbaya District, Nabatieh Governorate, in order to assist the affected population in the reconstruction effort, following an Israeli Air Force air raid in Southern Lebanon. Kfarchouba is a Muslim village in Southern Lebanon and this act symbolized the Nationalist yet Secular ideals of the Tanzim; the Tanzim was first formed in 1969 by a small group of young Lebanese Army officers who contested the Cairo agreement, which led them to break away from the Kataeb Party or'Phalange' in the late 1960s in protest for the latter's initial refusal to engage in nationwide military training and arming of the Lebanese population in order to "defend Lebanon" from the perceived "Palestinian threat".

Under the leadership of Obad Zouein, the breakaway group comprised Aziz Torbey, Samir Nassif, Fawzi Mahfouz – all were former militants of the Kataeb's youth section and veterans of the 1958 Lebanon crisis – who decided therefore to create an underground paramilitary organization to support the Lebanese Army in the defense of the Country. Shortly after its creation, the group moved to Beirut where they opened an office at the Greek-Orthodox quarter of Achrafieh, began to recruit early on civilian members outside the Army – individuals such as Milad Rizkallah, who joined the Tanzim in 1970 – from the upper and professional middle-classes, including former members of the Maronite League; the civilian cadres proved instrumental in providing the new Movement with a political structure and program, embodied in 1970-71 with the creation of the Tanzim's political wing, which began their activities under the covert title Movement of the Cedars – MoC or Mouvement des Cedres in French. Since its inception, the Tanzim rejected the monocentric leadership structure typical of the traditional political parties in Lebanon by adopting a collegial decision-making board – the "Commanding Council" – the first to emerge in Lebanon.

Yet, such collective leadership system did not prevent the rise of prominent figures who dominated the movement's leadership like the physician Dr. Fuad Chemali, together with his colleague Dr. Jean Fares in 1972, succeeded by the lawyer Georges Adwan in 1973. Involved since 1969 in the clandestine military training of Christian volunteers in secret camps such as Fatqa and on Tabrieh, both located in the mountains of the Keserwan District, in collusion with the Kataeb Party, the MoC in the early 1970s began to raise its own military wing, whose military headquarters was established in the predominately Maronite Dekwaneh District of East Beirut. Although by 1977 more than 15,000 young men and women had trained at the above-mentioned facilities, the movement only proceeded to recruit few out of this total, due to three main reasons: 1- The secret nature of such training, which rendered the selection process delicate. 3- The quality of men and women the Tanzim was looking for, this reflected a lot on the clean reputation that the group maintained throughout the war, as well as having the lowest casualty rate, despite having its militia spearheading many difficult military engagements due to their mobility along the front.

The movement enjoyed a close relationship with the Lebanese Army since the mid-1970s, which made some observers to believe that the Army's predominantly Christian High Command was somewhat directly involved in the formation of the MoC. At the outbreak of the 1975-76 civil war, the Tanzim forces were organized into autonomous mobile groups of several dozen fighters, with each being coded as "tanzim of the region x or y". Deployed to different fronts and neighbourhoods, their mission was to be present wherever the fighting required them. Unlike the main Christian factions, the Tanzim was one of the few ideologically-committed groups – other than the Guardians of the Cedars – that never tried to establish its own fiefdom or canton, nor appears to have been involved in illegal financing activities such as drug trafficking or racketeering. Fuad Chemali Jean Fares Georges Adwan Fawzi Mahfouz Obad Zouein Aziz Torbey Samir Nassif Fawzi Mahfouz Milad Rizkallah Initially backed by the Lebanese Army – which provided training, some arms and ammunition –, the MoC/Tanzim received covert funding and weapons from Jordan and Israel since September 1975, most of it being channeled via the Phalangists and the Maronite League.

The collapse of the Lebanese Armed Forces in January 1976 enabled the Tanzim militia to be re-equipped with a variety of modern small-arms and heavy weapons seized from LAF barracks or supplied by the Israelis. MoC/Tanzim militiamen were provided with a variety of small-arms, including Mauser Karabiner 98k, Lee-Enfield and MAS-36 bolt action rifles, MP 40, M1A1 Thompson and MAT-49 submachine guns, M2 carbines, MAS-49, M1 Garand (

Lydia Hedberg

Lydia Hedberg was a Swedish singer, who performed in folk costume and was known as Bergslagsmor. According to a critic at Vecko-journalen, Hedberg was "a sweet-sounding soprano with an echo of the rural forests, mountains and cow bells in her voice." She was one of the few women to be a bondkomiker although she preferred to call herself a ballad singer. Born in Falun in 1878, Hedberg was a trained physical therapist. From 1908 onwards she worked as a singer and storyteller, appearing in Sweden’s folk parks during the 1910s and 1920s, she lived for a long time in Sundsvall and was a host at Furuvik, an amusement park outside of Gävle. Hedberg contributed to the Swedish-American song repertoire during three extended tours of the United States made between 1921 and 1925. While on her longest tour she gave 50 concert performances in 81 days, acquainting audiences with the latest songs and stories from Sweden, she sold songbooks at her concerts. Her 1925 recording of Johan på snippen was the first American version of the song.

In 1925 Hedberg published a book about her travels in the United States and wrote of her concern with audience reaction. She found "repeated proof that my singing softened their American hearts, whose fibers must be moved by verses about the poor countryside at home in order that their true Swedish feelings might emerge." The Centre for Swedish Folk Music and Jazz Research had two Hedberg recordings on its album “From Sweden To America”, released as an LP in 1981 and as a CD in 1996. It had one track by Gustav Fonandern, another Swedish singer who toured America during the 1920s. In 2011 the 23 tracks on the CD were released on iTunes and Amazon mp3; the Swedish-American singer Olga Lindgren-Nilsen, married to Olle i Skratthult in the 1920s, gave credit to Hedberg and other performers from Sweden for providing much of her new material. Bergslagsmors liniment Lydia Hedberg recording Lydia Hedberg in Who's Who Svenska Amerikanaren: On the DrottningholmPhotos Lydia Hedberg 01 Lydia Hedberg 02 Lydia Hedberg 03Articles Lydia Hedberg profile Lydia Hedberg 1921-1925 Lydia Hedberg on America Lydia Hedberg Discographies Lydia Hedberg on Victor Records Lydia Hedberg at the Swedish media databaseSongbook Lydia HedbergPerformed by Lydia Hedberg Bonnjazz Bökeviksvalsen En visa om kärlekens besvärlighet 01 En visa om kärlekens besvärlighet 02 Han å ho Jag såg åt öster, jag såg åt väster Korpral Kanon Lelle Karl-Johan Man borde inte sova Mandom, mod och morske män Sommarkvetter Vid Siljan är mitt hemStreaming audio at the Internet Archive Lydia Hedberg On tour in AmericaVideoJag såg åt öster, jag såg åt väster on YouTube

Mauro Camoranesi

Mauro Germán Camoranesi Serra is an Italian football manager and former player who played as a right midfielder or right winger. He is the current manager of Slovenian PrvaLiga club Tabor Sežana. Camoranesi began his career in Argentina in 1995, where he played for Aldosivi and Banfield having spells in Mexico with Santos Laguna and Cruz Azul, in Uruguay with Wanderers. In 2000, he moved to Italy, joining Verona, where his performances earned him a transfer to defending Serie A champions Juventus in 2002. Camoranesi won the league title and the Supercoppa Italiana in his first season with the club reaching the Champions League final. In 2010, he joined German side VfB Stuttgart for a season, before returning to Argentina to play for Lanús, subsequently Racing Club, where he retired in 2014. Following his retirement, Camoranesi began his managerial career that year, has since coached Mexican club Coras de Tepic and Argentine side Tigre. Born and raised in Argentina, Camoranesi represented Italy at international level, making his debut in 2003.

With Italy, he took part at UEFA Euro 2004, UEFA Euro 2008, the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup. Camoranesi had always been a big fan of the Argentinian club River Plate growing up, but as a youngster, he played in the squad of Club Atlético Aldosivi. Aldosivi is situated in Mar del Plata just 100 miles away from Camoranesi's birthplace of Tandil. However, he moved to Mexico to begin his professional playing career at Santos Laguna during the 1995–96 season and scored one goal in 13 games for the team. More travels came for the young Argentine the following year, as he moved to Uruguayan club Montevideo Wanderers before returning to his homeland to play for Banfield in 1997, solidifying himself as an impressive attacking right midfielder, while playing 38 games with 16 goals; the following season, Camoranesi returned to Mexico as a member of club Cruz Azul, where he played from 1998 to 2000, making over 60 appearances and scoring 20 goals. He caught the attention of Italian Serie A side Verona by scoring 21 goals in 79 games with Cruz Azul, an impressive achievement for a midfielder.

He moved to Italy in 2000, signing with Verona where he played for two years, helping the club avoid relegation in his first season with 4 goals in 22 appearances. In 2002, Camoranesi was signed by Juventus on a co-ownership deal. Camoranesi soon established himself into the starting line-up on the right wing, following an injury to Gianluca Zambrotta, in his first season with the club, he won the 2002–03 Serie A title, the 2002 Supercoppa Italiana reaching the 2003 UEFA Champions League Final. Camoranesi won two more Serie A titles with Juventus in the 2004–05 and 2005–06 seasons, but Juventus were stripped of both of those titles as result of their involvement in the 2006 Italian football scandal, relegated to Serie B. Despite his agent Sergio Fortunato linking the player to clubs such as Lyon and Liverpool over the summer of 2006, following Juventus's relegation, Camoranesi made an announcement himself in September, pledging loyalty to Juventus "In January, I will not ask to be sold. Camoranesi put on some notable performances and contributed to a number of notable goals for Juventus during the 2006–07 Serie B season, scoring 4 in total, as Juventus won the title and earned promotion back to the Italian top flight.

Against Lecce in April 2007, he performed an impressive piece of skill similar to a Cruyff turn, turning the ball through a defender's legs on the wing, before retrieving it to help set up Juventus's first goal of the match. In the match, he scored his side's third. Just days before he had scored a header in the 2–0 victory against close title contenders Napoli. Despite rumours of his departure, on 10 July 2007, he extended his contract with the club until 2010. For the 2007–08 Serie A season, his shirt number was changed from 16 to 8. Despite suffering several injuries during the 2007–08 season, he was a important and influential player in Juventus's first Serie A season since their return to the top flight season, he scored 5 goals in 22 appearances, won the Guerin d'Oro award, as the player with the highest average rating, for his performances throughout the season. Camoranesi changed back to number 16 jersey ahead of the 2008–09 Serie A season, extended his contract for another year. Camoranesi had an impressive pre-season, but was sidelined by injuries at the start of the season.

After struggling in the first few games in the start of the 2009–10 Serie A season, Camoranesi came back and proved to be one of Juventus's most important players. He managed to get his name on ths scoresheet too, scoring the solitary goal against Maccabi Haifa in the Champions League, as well as a brace in a 5–2 win over Atalanta. On 31 Augus

Lagos Preparatory School

Lagos Preparatory & Secondary School is a private co-educational day school in the affluent Ikoyi suburb of Lagos and has adopted the UK National Curriculum. LPSS, known as LPS provides Early Years and Secondary school education for children from 18 months up to age 16+. In 2010, the school qualified for the Every Child Matters Standards Award. According to a firm called Educational Consultancy & Management Solutions, Lagos Prep was the first international school to qualify for its ECM Standards Award; the school has aligned itself with standards and curricular requirements of the UK National Curriculum but with an added emphasis on Nigerian history and culture. As a member of the Independent Association of Preparatory Schools, an accredited member of the Council of British International Schools and the Association of International Schools in Africa, LPS claims to be "currently the most accredited British prep school in Africa." The Council of British International Schools recognises Lagos Preparatory School as one of 33 Executive member schools, noting that Lagos Prep "remains the only school in Africa in both IAPS and COBIS."

Aside from the British International School in Cairo and the Maadi British International School in Cairo, Lagos Prep is the only school in Africa, COBIS-accredited. In February 2011, following an inspection by the Independent Schools Inspectorate, the school claims, it became the first British School in Africa to meet the UK Department for Education's current standards for British Overseas Schools; the DfE does in fact recognise Lagos Preparatory School as one of only 12 overseas schools that satisfy its "standards required for continuing registration as a school in England." Lagos Prep is the only African school. The ISI makes available its Integrated Handbook Framework both for the use of inspectors in their reporting and to assist schools in helping them to address deficiencies and to reach the ISI-required standard for accreditation; the DfE's 2011 school inspection report recommended that Lagos Preparatory School "establish consistent and secure analysis of pupil performance data, to identify rates of progress and ensure that pupils are reaching their maximum potential" and "put in place measures rigorously to evaluate and improve the quality of teaching and learning in Years 2 to 7."

The school's executive staff includes 77 faculty and 35 supporting staff. The school is in Ikoyi, a suburb of Lagos which housed the British colonial administration of Nigeria and, now affordable only for people wealthy by Nigerian standards Nigerian government and military officers, as well as foreign oil and telecommunications company executives. Parents must pay a fee of $9,000 per year plus $270 a year for required school uniforms and clothing for physical education. In 2004, the Oxford Nursery and Primary School in Ibeju Lekki, Lagos State received a stocked library from the pupils of the Lagos Preparatory School. Funds had been raised by "taxes" of 100 Naira each paid by the children on days when the school permitted students not to wear the uniforms required

Hugh Ashton

Hugh Ashton was an English churchman. Ashton was a younger son of one of the Lancashire families of Ashton, he attracted the notice of Lady Margaret Beaufort, countess of Derby, who made him comptroller of her household. He commenced M. A. at Oxford 13 October 1507, but soon after had a grace from Cambridge to enter the canon law. He subsequently became canon and prebendary in St. Stephen's, Westminster, 1509. Before 1511 he was rector of Grasmere, he was rector of Barnake, Lichfield. In 1522 he was instituted rector of Northamptonshire, he had been one of the executors of the will of his early patroness, like her was interested in the fortunes of St. John's College, Cambridge. Baker says:'The last chapel was Mr. Hugh Ashton's well known by his monument and his rebus upon it, a thing much in fashion, must be forgiven to the humour of the age, it has long since lost the face of religion. Many years after its desecration, in Dr. Beal's time, it was restored to sacred use, it may,'t is hoped. This is an allusion to Ashton's foundations.

The building accounts are given by Mayor. Whilst at Cambridge he was'very serviceable' in the business of the college. According to Thomas Baker, who followed the inscription on his tomb at York, copied in Queen Mary's reign by George Bullock master of St. John's, he died 23 November 1522, but C. H. Cooper and J. E. B. Mayor state that his will was dated 7 Dec. 1522, proved 9 March following.'Hic situs est,' runs the inscription,'Hugo Ashton archidiaconus Ebor. qui ad Christianæ religionis augmentum socios 2 ex Lancastria totidemque scolares, sociumque et scholarem Eboracensis sociumque et scholarem Dunelmensis diœcesis oriundos, suis impensis pie instituit, atque singulis a se institutis sociis consuetum sociorum stipendium solidis 40 adauxit. Obiit nono cal. Decemb. An. Dui. 1522.' It is impossible to reconcile this date with that of the will. Ashton's Lancashire foundations were made available to candidates from the entire diocese of Chester. There was an inscription in the hospital of St. Leonard's at York recording Ashton's gift of a window.

In addition to the prose tribute, some eulogistic verses, occasioned by a portrait of Ashton, were written by Baker, who bequeathed the picture to John Newcome, master of St. John's. "Ashton, Hugh". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900