click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Digestive biscuit

A digestive biscuit, sometimes described as a sweet-meal biscuit, is a semi-sweet biscuit that originated in Scotland, is popular worldwide. The digestive was first developed in 1839 by two Scottish doctors to aid digestion; the term "digestive" is derived from the belief that they had antacid properties due to the use of sodium bicarbonate when they were first developed. Some producers used diastatic malt extract to "digest" some of the starch that existed in flour prior to baking. First manufactured in 1892, McVitie's digestive is the best-selling biscuit in the UK; the digestive is ranked the fourth most popular biscuit for "dunking" into tea among the British public, with the chocolate digestive coming in at number one. A YouGov poll saw McVitie's chocolate digestive ranked the third most popular and seventh most famous confectionery in the UK. In 1839, digestives were developed in the United Kingdom by two Scottish doctors to aid digestion. Digestives featured in advertisements for the Berkshire-based biscuit company Huntley & Palmers in 1876, with a recipe being given in Cassell's "New Universal Cookery Book" of 1894.

In 1851 an issue of The Lancet London's advertising section offered brown meal digestive biscuits. At the time, it was asserted grain millers knew only of endosperm. After 10% of the whole grain's coarser outer-bran coat was removed, because the innermost 70% of pure endosperm was reserved for other uses, brown meal, representing only 20% of the whole grain, consisting of about 15% fine bran and 85% white flour. By 1912 it was more known that brown meal included the germ, which lent a characteristic sweetness. In 1889, John Montgomerie of Scotland filed a U. S. patent application, granted in 1890. This patent asserted a prior patent existed in England dated 1886; the U. S. patent, titled "Making Malted Bread", included instructions for the manufacture of digestive biscuits. Montgomerie claimed this saccharification process would make "nourishing food for people of weak digestion". Despite rumours that it is illegal for them to be sold under their usual name in the United States, they are, in fact available in imported food sections of grocery stores and by mail order.

The typical digestive biscuit contains coarse brown wheat flour, malt extract, vegetable oil, raising agents and salt. Dried whey, cultured skimmed milk and emulsifiers such as DATEM may be added in some varieties. A digestive biscuit averages around 70 calories, although this sometimes varies according to the factors involved in its production. Digestive biscuits are eaten with tea or coffee. Sometimes, the biscuit is dunked into the tea and eaten due to the biscuit's tendency to disintegrate when wet. Digestive biscuits are one of the top 10 biscuits in the United Kingdom for dunking in tea; the digestive biscuit is used as a cracker with cheeses, is included in "cracker selection" packets. In the UK, McVitie's digestive is the best selling biscuit, with 80 million packs sold annually. Digestives are popular in food preparation for making into bases for cheesecakes and similar desserts. Digestive biscuits are available, coated on the underside with milk, dark or white chocolate. Produced by McVitie's in 1925 in the UK as the Chocolate Homewheat Digestive, other varieties include the basic biscuit with chocolate shavings throughout, or a layer of caramel, mint chocolate, orange-flavoured chocolate, or plain chocolate.

American travel writer Bill Bryson described the chocolate digestive as "a British masterpiece". The McVitie's chocolate digestive is the most popular biscuit in the UK to dunk into tea. McVitie's digestive biscuits have become known among fans of the rock group The Beatles because they were the cause of an argument between George Harrison and John Lennon during a recording session for the group's 1969 album Abbey Road; the incident was recounted by recording engineer Geoff Emerick in his book Here and Everywhere: My Life Recording the Music of The Beatles. According to Emerick, Lennon's wife Yoko Ono was in the recording studio and at one point helped herself to Harrison's box of McVitie's while the Beatles were in the control room listening to a playback of the song they'd just recorded. Harrison got angry at Ono, his subsequent outburst caused Lennon to lose his temper in response. Chocolate digestives were the technical challenge to the bakers in series 3, episode 8 of The Great British Bake Off.

They were the technical challenge to the bakers in episode 2, season 2 of The Great Canadian Baking Show. In the ITV television show Doc Martin, the character Louisa Glasson likes to eat Chocolate digestives, her boyfriend/husband. Graham flour Marie biscuit Rich tea Emerick, Geoff. Here and Everywhere My Life Recording the Music of The Beatles. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-1-59240-179-6. Media related to Digestive biscuits at Wikimedia Commons Digestive Biscuits at www.foodsofengland.co.uk

Holbrook/Randolph station

Holbrook/Randolph is an MBTA Commuter Rail station in Randolph, Massachusetts. It serves the Middleborough/Lakeville Line, it is located at the junction of Center Streets near the border of Randolph and Holbrook. From 1984 to 1988, the Cape Cod & Hyannis Railroad stopped near the current station site. Holbrook/Randolph station opened in September 1997; the station is served by two MBTA Bus routes: 238: Holbrook/Randolph Commuter Rail Station - Quincy Center 240: Avon Square - Ashmont List of Old Colony Railroad stations MBTA - Holbrook/Randolph Station from Google Maps Street View

Bussen

The Bussen is a mountain in southern Germany, in the region of Upper Swabia, with an elevation of 787 metres. It is known as the Holy Mountain of Upper Swabia, it is situated on the border between the Swabian Upper Swabia proper. Being one of the most visited places of pilgrimage in Upper Swabia, it has views as far as the Alps more than 100 kilometres to the south; the Bussen is in the west of the district of Biberach in the state of Baden-Württemberg between Lake Federsee and the city of Riedlingen. It is one of the highest mountains in Upper Swabia. In clear weather conditions, it is possible to see the Münster in Ulm as well as the chain of mountains stretching from Füssen in southern Bavaria to the Säntis in Switzerland; the village of Offingen, part of the municipality of Uttenweiler, is situated on the southern slopes of theussen. When the mountain range of the Alps was formed during the tertiary period, the Bussen was part of the folding up process; the mountain is protected from erosion by a layer of limestone, up to 8 metres thick.

The mountain glaciers of the ice ages were not able to surmount it as a result of which the mountain was not levelled and still exists today. Due to its exposed location, the Bussen has been revered since prehistoric times; the Celts used the mountain for sacrifices during their fertility rites. A church on top of the mountain was first mentioned in a charter dating from the reign of Charlemagne in 805, when the church was transferred to the monastery of St. Gallen. From this time on, the Bussen has been known as a place of pilgrimage. During the 13th century, an imperial castle owned by the Hohenstaufen was mentioned. After the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, the castle irst passed into the possession of the Counts of Veringen, subsequently falling to the house of Habsburg. In 1387, the mountain was mortgaged to the Truchsess of Waldburg; the military and political function of the Bussen came to an end in 1633, when the castle was destroyed by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War. In 1786, the Waldburg dynasty sold the Lordship Bussen to Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis.

Following the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, the mediatisation and secularisation of numerous secular and ecclesiastical principalities within the former Holy Roman Empire, the Lordship was annexed by the newly formed Kingdom of Württemberg in 1806. A pilgrimage church was first mentioned in 805; the existing church was built in 1516 and is dedicated to St John the Baptist. The choir and the spire date from this period; the nave, was pulled down and rebuilt in a larger dimension during restoration and renovation works carried out between 1960 and 1963. Pilgrimages to the church in order to venerate the Virgin Mary, represented by a 16th-century Pietà, have been recorded since 1521. Beginning in the 1950s, the Bussen became the destination of a large pilgrimage procession during Pentecost. Baden-Württemberg Upper Swabia Upper Swabian Baroque Route Kolb, Gerhard. Alpenpanorama vom Bussen. 300 km Föhnsicht vom. Tübingen: Silberburg-Verlag. ISBN 3-87407-298-3. Kramer, Ferdinand. Der Bussen, heiliger Berg Oberschwabens, mit seiner Kirche und Geschichte, zur 1200-Jahrfeier der Bussenkirche 2005.

Bad Buchau: Federsee-Verlag. ISBN 3-925171-60-6. Paul, Josef. Offingen. Der Bussen und die Marienwallfahrtskirche. Passau: Kunstverlag Peda. ISBN 3-927296-36-8. Schneiders, Toni. Oberschwaben. Das Land um den Bussen mit seinen Städten und Barockkirchen. Lindau: Thorbecke. ASIN B0000BNGDH. Selig, Theodor. Um den Bussen. Heimatgeschichtliche Forschungen und Erzählungen. Bad Buchau: Federsee-Verlag. ISBN 3-925171-16-9. Uhl, Stefan. Die Burg auf dem Bussen und ihre Geschichte. Bad Buchau: Federsee-Verlag. ISBN 3-925171-36-3. Webpage of the spiritual centre on the Bussen Webpage of the municipality of Uttenweiler

S3M (file format)

The S3M format is an advanced module format, is the successor to the STM format used by the original Scream Tracker. Both formats are based on the original MOD format used on the Commodore Amiga computer; the S3M format has many differences compared to its predecessors. The format is a hybrid of digital synthesized instruments; the official format specification document covers space for 16 digital channels and 14 synthesized ones with two unused slots out of a total of 32. Separate volume channel in pattern data. Supports more instruments than MOD or STM. Default panning of channels can be specified by the composer. Extra-fine pitch slides are added Instruments are not limited to a fixed sample rate for a given note; the format stores the instrument's sample rate at middle C. The period table used by S3M is smaller than the one used by the MOD format and uses larger values in order to be able to compute the extra-fine pitch slides; the playback routines, use straightforward formulas to get the final period values used in playback.

The key formula for this takes into account the instrument's stored sample rate at middle C. One feature of the S3M format, used, is the format's support for FM instruments; these were designed to be played back on sound cards that included an OPL2 or compatible FM synthesis chip. More with the necessary CPU power available, it is possible to perform the same synthesis in software. Two examples of such software are the Adplug plugin for the Windows audio player Winamp and the open-source audio module tracker OpenMPT as of version 1.28.01.00. S3M files released on the Demoscene's music scene in the 1990s were played on PCs using dedicated mod/s3m players or using the tracker software; some more-common/contemporary music players can play these files, although fidelity to original sound and results can vary according to the individual file. Software includes: Foobar 2000 VLC media player XMPlay ModPlug Player AIMP Winamp JetAudio Module file

List of Juventus F.C. records and statistics

Juventus Football Club is an Italian professional association football club based in Turin, Piedmont that competes in Serie A, the top football league in the country. The club was formed in 1897 as Sport Club Juventus by a group of Massimo D'Azeglio Lyceum young students and played its first competitive match on 11 March 1900, when it entered the Piedmont round of the IIIº Federal Championship; this list encompasses the major honours won by Juventus and records set by the club, their managers and their players. The individual records section includes details of the club's leading goalscorers and those who have made most appearances in first-team competitions; the club's players have received, among others, a record 10 Serie A Footballer of the Year, the award given by the Italian Footballers' Association, eight Ballon d'Or awards and four FIFA World Player of the Year awards, more than any other Italian club and third overall in the latter two cases. Italy's most successful club of the 20th century and the most successful club in the history of Italian football, Juventus have won the Italian League Championship, the country's premier football club competition and organised by Lega Nazionale Professionisti Serie A, a record 35 times and have the record of consecutive triumphs in that tournament.

They have won the Coppa Italia, the country's primary single-elimination competition, a record 13 times, becoming the first team to retain the trophy with their triumph in the 1959–60 season, the first to win it in three consecutive seasons from the 2014–15 season to the 2016–17 season, went on to win it a fourth consecutive time in 2017–18. In addition, the club holds the record for Supercoppa Italiana wins with eight, the most recent coming in 2018. Overall, Juventus have won 67 official competitions, more than any other Italian club: 56 domestic trophies and 11 official international competitions, making them, in the latter case, the second most successful Italian club in European competition; the club is fifth in Europe and eleventh in the world with the most international titles won recognised by their respective continental football confederation and Fédération Internationale de Football Association. In 1977, the Torinese side become the first in Southern Europe to have won the UEFA Cup and the first—and only to date—in Italian football history to achieve an international title with a squad composed by national footballers.

In 1993, the club won its third competition's trophy, an unprecedented feat in the continent until and the most for an Italian club. Juventus was the first Italian club to achieve the title in the European Super Cup, having won the competition in 1984, the first European club to win the Intercontinental Cup in 1985, since it was restructured by Union of European Football Associations and Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol's organizing committee five years beforehand; the club has earned the distinction of being allowed to wear three Golden Stars on its shirts representing its league victories: the tenth of, achieved during the 1957–58 season, the twentieth in the 1981–82 season and the thirtieth in the 2013–14 season. Juventus were the first Italian team to have achieved the national double four times, in the 1959–60, 1994–95, 2014–15 and 2015–16 seasons. In the 2015–16 season, Juventus won the Coppa Italia for the 11th time and their second-straight title, becoming the first team in Italy's history to complete Serie A and Coppa Italia doubles in back-to-back seasons.

In 1985, Juventus became the first club in the history of European football to have won all three major UEFA competitions, the European Champion Clubs' Cup, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and the UEFA Cup, being the only one to reach it with the same coach. After their triumph in the Intercontinental Cup in the same year, Juventus became the first football team ever—remain the only one at present—to have won all possible official confederation tournaments. Only in the 1910s the club has not won a unique case in the country. In terms of overall official trophies won, Juventus' most successful decade was the 2010s. In that period the club won fifteen competitions, ahead the 1990s. Italian Football Championship/Serie AWinners: 1905, 1925–26, 1930–31, 1931–32, 1932–33, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1949–50, 1951–52, 1957–58, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1966–67, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1974–75, 1976–77, 1977–78, 1980–81, 1981–82, 1983–84, 1985–86, 1994–95, 1996–97, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2002–03, 2004–05, 2005–06, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18, 2018–19 Runners-up: 1903, 1904, 1906, 1937–38, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1962–63, 1973–74, 1975–76, 1979–80, 1982–83, 1986–87, 1991–92, 1993–94, 1995–96, 1999–2000, 2000–01, 2008–09 Coppa ItaliaWinners: 1937–38, 1941–42, 1958–59, 1959–60, 1964–65, 1978–79, 1982–83, 1989–90, 1994–95, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2017–18 Runners-up: 1972–73, 1991–92, 2001–02, 2003–04, 2011–12 Supercoppa Italiana Winners: 1995, 1997, 2002, 2003, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018 Runners-up: 1990, 1998, 2005, 2014, 2016, 2017, 2019 Serie B Winners: 2006–07 European Champions' Cup/UEFA Champions LeagueWinners: 1984–85, 1995–96 Runners-up: 1972–73, 1982–83, 1996–97, 1997–98, 2002–03, 2014–15, 2016–17 UEFA Cup Winners' CupWinners: 1983–84 UEFA CupWinners: 1976–77, 1989–90, 1992–93 Runner-up: 1994–95 UEFA Intertoto CupWinners: 1999 UEFA Super CupWinners: 1984, 1996 Intercontinental C

PadrĂ³n Real

The Padrón Real, known after 2 August 1527 as the Padrón General, was the official and secret Spanish master map used as a template for the maps present on all Spanish ships during the 16th century. It was kept in Spain by the Casa de Contratación. Ship pilots were required to use a copy of the official government chart, or risk the penalty of a 50 doblas fine; the map included a large-scale chart that hung on the wall of the old Alcázar of Seville. Well-known official cartographers and pilots who contributed to and used the map included Amerigo Vespucci, Diogo Ribeiro, Sebastian Cabot, Alonzo de Santa Cruz, Juan Lopez de Velasco; the Padrón Real was improved from its first version in 1507/08. It was produced by the Seville-based Spanish organization, the Casa de Contratación, established in 1503. All returning ships had to report any details of new lands or discoveries they had made to the Casa de Contratación, together with latitudes and longitudes; the ship's officers were put under oath. The pilots at the Casa de Contratación plotted this information on their maps.

When a new ship was setting out, they would be given charts which were copied from the master map, the Padrón Real, called the Padrón General. Diego Ribeiro, who entered Spanish service in 1518, prepared several versions of the chart, during 1525 to 1532, after Ferdinand Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe or after Spanish explorations in North America. Other revisions to the royal chart were directed by royal chartmakers Alonso de Chaves during 1536 and by Alonzo de Santa Cruz in 1542. None of these maps have survived, but there were copies made for foreign princes and dignitaries, some of them still exist. For example, in the Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana in Florence, there is a map believed to be copied from the Padrón Real called the "Salviati Planisphere"; this planisphere map was given by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to Cardinal Giovanni Salviati, the papal nuncio, in 1526. In the archive of the Marchesi Castiglione in Mantua, there is another similar world map, produced about the same time and given by the Emperor to Count Baldassare Castiglione.

There are a few other examples of these world maps copied from the Padrón Real that were given to various German princes. The most impressive copy of the Padrón Real is in the Vatican Library, was given to the Pope by Charles V of Spain in 1529; the large Vatican map is on vellum, thought to be one of the presentation copies made in the 1520s when Spain and Portugal were in a boundary dispute. The chart has a number of rhumb lines and compass roses found in medieval portolan navigation charts of the Mediterranean; the coastlines have many toponyms identifying particular places as well as claiming them for Spain. Ribeiro's map has rudimentary latitude lines, a line marking the equator, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn, as well as the Arctic and Antarctic circles all of which are new innovations of the era, it contains no imagined information. The Padrón Real was similar in principle to the Portuguese secret master map, the Padrão Real, developed by the Portuguese organization Casa da Índia, or House of Índia, established in Lisbon in 1500, lasted until 1755.

This enterprise was a huge undertaking, it was taken seriously. Without good navigational aids, the ability of Spain to exploit and profit from its discoveries would have been limited; the Casa de Contratación had a large number of cartographers and navigators, record keepers and others involved in producing and managing the Padrón Real. The famous Amerigo Vespucci, who made at least two voyages to the New World, was a pilot working at the Casa de Contratación until his death in 1512. A special position was created for Vespucci, the "pilot major" in 1508, he had the responsibility of training new pilots for ocean voyages. His nephew Juan Vespucci inherited his famous uncle's maps and nautical instruments, was appointed to Amerigo's former position as official Spanish government pilot at Seville. In 1524, Juan Vespucci was appointed Examiner of Pilots, replacing Sebastian Cabot, leading an expedition in Brazil. In the 1530s and 1540s, the principal mapmakers in the Casa de Contratación working on the Padrón General included Alonso de Santa Cruz, Sebastian Cabot, Pedro de Medina.

Mapmaker Diego Gutiérrez was named cosmographer in the Casa de la Contratación by royal appointment on October 22, 1554, after the death of his father Diego in January 1554, worked on the Padrón General. In 1562 Diego Gutierrez, published a remarkable map entitled "Americae... Descriptio" in Antwerp; the reason it was published in Antwerp instead of Spain was that the Spanish engravers did not have the necessary skill to print such a complicated document. Other cosmographers included Alonso de Chaves, Francisco Falero, Jerónimo de Chaves, Sancho Gutiérrez. In the late 16th century, Juan Lopez de Velasco was cosmographer major in Seville, he produced a master map and twelve subsidiary maps portraying the worldwide Spanish Empire in cartographic form. This feat surpassed anything done by other European powers at that time. However, this marked the end of Spain's supremacy in mapmaking. After the work of Velasco, others such as the English and French were better able to organize and present geographic information