Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum. Digital transmission by radio waves includes digital broadcasting, digital audio radio services. In digital broadcasting systems, the analog audio signal is digitized, compressed using an audio coding format such as AAC+ or MP2, transmitted using a digital modulation scheme; the aim is to increase the number of radio programs in a given spectrum, to improve the audio quality, to eliminate fading problems in mobile environments, to allow additional datacasting services, to decrease the transmission power or the number of transmitters required to cover a region. However, analog radio is still more popular and listening to radio over IP is growing in popularity. In 2012 four digital wireless radio systems are recognized by the International Telecommunication Union: the two European systems Digital Audio Broadcasting and Digital Radio Mondiale, the Japanese ISDB-T and the in-band on-channel technique used in the US and Arab world and branded as HD Radio.
An older definition, still used in communication engineering literature, is wireless digital transmission technologies, i.e. microwave and radio frequency communication standards where analog information signals as well as digital data are carried by a digital signal, by means of a digital modulation method. This definition includes broadcasting systems such as digital TV and digital radio broadcasting, but two-way digital radio standards such as the second generation cell-phones and short-range communication such as digital cordless phones, wireless computer networks, digital micro-wave radio links, deep space communication systems such as communications to and from the two Voyager space probes, etc. A less common definition is radio receiver and transmitter implementations that are based on digital signal processing, but may transmit or receive analog radio transmission standards, for example FM radio; this may reduce distortion induced in the electronics. It allows software radio implementations, where the transmission technology is changed just by selecting another piece of software.
In most cases, this would however increase the energy consumption of the receiver equipment. Digital audio radio service standards may provide terrestrial or satellite radio service. Digital radio broadcasting systems are designed for handheld mobile devices, like mobile-TV systems and unlike other digital TV systems which require a fixed directional antenna; some digital radio systems provide in-band on-channel solutions that may coexist with or simulcast with analog AM or FM transmissions, while others are designed for designated radio frequency bands. The latter allows one wideband radio signal to carry a multiplex of several radio-channels of various bitrates as well as data services and other forms of media; some digital broadcasting systems allow single-frequency network, where all terrestrial transmitters in a region sending the same multiplex of radio programs may use the same frequency channel without self-interference problems, further improving the system spectral efficiency. While digital broadcasting offers many potential benefits, its introduction has been hindered by a lack of global agreement on standards and many disadvantages.
The DAB Eureka 147 standard for digital radio is coordinated by the World DMB Forum. This standard of digital radio technology was defined in the late 1980s, is now being introduced in some European countries. Commercial DAB receivers began to be sold in 1999 and, by 2006, 500 million people were in the coverage area of DAB broadcasts, although by this time sales had only taken off in the UK and Denmark. In 2006 there are 1,000 DAB stations in operation. There have been criticisms of the Eureka 147 standard and so a new'DAB+' standard has been introduced; the DRM standard has been used for several years to broadcast digitally on frequencies below 30 MHz. There is now the extended standard DRM+, designed for VHF bands. Tests of DRM+ has been made in countries such as in Brazil, France, Sri Lanka, the UK, Italy, as well as Sweden. DRM+ is regarded as a more transparent and less costly standard than DAB+ and thus a better choice for local radio. Although DAB+ has been introduced in Australia the government has concluded 2011 that a preference for DRM and DRM+ above HD Radio could be used to supplement DAB+ services in local and regional areas.
To date the following standards have been defined for one-way digital radio: Eureka 147 DAB+ ISDB-TSB Internet radio T-DMB V-Radio FM band in-band on-channel: HD Radio FMeXtra Digital Radio Mondiale extension AM band in-band on-channel: HD Radio Digital Radio Mondiale for the short and long wave-bands Satellite radio: WorldSpace in Asia and Africa Sirius XM Radio in North America MobaHo! in Japan and the Republic of Korea Systems designed for digital TV: DMB DVB-H ISDB-T Low-bandwidth digital data broadcasting over existing FM radio: Radio Data System Radio pagers: FLEX ReFLEX POCSAG NTT Digital Video Broadcasting Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting Digital Multimedia Broadcasting Digital Terrestrial Television to fixed roof-top antennas: DVB-T ISDB-T ATSC T-DMB Mobile TV reception in
The Jane Collective or Jane known as the Abortion Counseling Service of Women's Liberation, was an underground service in Chicago, Illinois affiliated with the Chicago Women's Liberation Union that operated from 1969 to 1973, a time when abortion was illegal in most of the United States. The foundation of the organization was laid when Heather Booth helped her friend's sister obtain a safe abortion in 1965. Other women with unwanted pregnancies began to contact Booth after learning via word-of-mouth that she could help them; when the workload became more than what she could manage, she reached out to other activists in the women's liberation movement. The collective sought to address the increasing number of unsafe abortions being performed by untrained providers. Since illegal abortions were not only dangerous but expensive, the founding members of the collective believed that they could provide women with safer and more affordable access to abortions; the organization directed the women to male doctors.
After a few years, they learned that one of their most-used doctors had lied about having medical credentials. This created a conflict in the group. Others realized that if a man without medical credentials could perform a safe abortion they could learn as well. A few of their number learned how to perform surgical abortions, with the dilation and curettage method most used. Members of the group performed an estimated 11,000 abortions to low-income women who could not afford to travel to the places where abortion was legal, as well as women of color. In 1972, one of the Jane Collective apartments was raided by the police, seven of its members were arrested; each was charged with eleven counts of abortion and conspiracy to commit abortion, carrying a maximum prison sentence of 110 years. Their attorney was able to delay court proceedings in anticipation of the Supreme Court's decision on Roe v. Wade; as the attorney hoped, the Court's decision in Roe in 1973 struck down many abortion restrictions in the US, the charges against the Jane Collective members were dropped.
As women now had access to legal abortion, the Collective disbanded shortly afterwards. While their abortions sometimes resulted in complications, none of their clients were known to die from their abortions. By the mid-1800s, abortion was illegal in every US state. In the state of Illinois, at the time the Jane Collective formed, abortion was considered felony homicide. However, in the 1960s, it was estimated that a third of US women who wanted no more children would have at least one unintended pregnancy by the end of their childbearing years. In the 1950s and 1960s, it was estimated that 200,000–1.2 million illegal abortions occurred annually. Women sometimes died as a result of these procedures, accounting for 17% of all deaths attributed to childbirth and pregnancy in 1965. Low-income women had high rates of obtaining illegal abortions, at 8% of those surveyed in New York City, with the majority attempting a self-induced abortion and only 2% involving physicians. In New York City, non-white and Puerto Rican women were more at risk from illegal abortions: abortion accounted for half of all their pregnancy-related deaths, in contrast to 25% of pregnancy-related deaths for white women.
Nationwide, the abortion-related mortality rate for non-white women was twelve times greater than that of white women from 1972–1974. Abortion remained illegal in each state until Colorado was the first to decriminalize abortion in some circumstances in 1967. In 1970, four states—Washington, New York and Alaska—repealed laws against abortion, making it legal before the age of viability. Traveling to obtain legal abortion became easier for the affluent, as they no longer had to travel to destinations such as the United Kingdom. Traveling to obtain an abortion was cost prohibitive for those who could not afford the procedure, let alone travel and lodging expenses. For those who could procure an illegal abortion, results were mixed; some women experienced sepsis. Others paid for abortions only to still be pregnant afterwards from a botched procedure. In 1965, University of Chicago student Heather Booth learned that her friend's sister had an unwanted pregnancy that left her distraught and nearly suicidal.
Booth had not given much thought to abortion access. To seek assistance for her friend's sister, Booth contacted the Medical Committee for Human Rights, who connected her with civil rights leader and surgeon T. R. M. Howard. Howard worked at the Friendship Medical Center in Chicago, Booth sent her friend to his facility. Word spread that Booth was able to help women obtain safe abortions, she soon began receiving calls from other women. Operating under the pseudonym "Jane", Booth began taking such phone calls at her college dormitory, referring more clients to Howard, who performed the abortions for $500. Booth switched to an abortionist alternately referred to as "Mike" or "Nick". Booth continued to refer patients for abortions, averaging one per week for low-income women and women of color; this continued until 1968 when she was out of college, married and employed full-time. With less time to devote to connecting women with abortion providers, she recruited and trained ten other women to help her.
She transferred her leadership role to Jody Parsons. The organization, founded in Hyde Park, adopted the name Abortion Counseling Service of Women's Liberation, proclaiming that they were for "every woman having as many children as
The 2014–15 Euro Hockey League was the eighth season of the Euro Hockey League, Europe's premier club field hockey tournament organized by the European Hockey Federation. Round One was held in Barcelona, Spain from 10 to 12 October 2014 and the knockout stage was held in Bloemendaal, Netherlands from 1 to 6 April 2015; the final was played between UHC Hamburg and Oranje Zwart at HC Bloemendaal in Bloemendaal, Netherlands. Oranje Zwart beat Hamburg 6–5 in a shoot-out to win their first Euro Hockey League title. Harvestehude were the title holders, but were eliminated by Dragons in the round of 16. Round one was held from 10 until 12 October 2014 in Spain. In each group, teams played against each other once in a round-robin format; the pool winners advanced to the round of 16. If a game was won, the winning team received 5 points. A draw resulted in both teams receiving 2 points. A loss gave the losing team 1 point unless the losing team lost by 3 or more goals they received 0 points; the knockout stage was played in Bloemendaal, Netherlands.