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Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor is a specialized microprocessor chip, with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing. DSPs are fabricated on MOS integrated circuit chips, they are used in audio signal processing, telecommunications, digital image processing, radar and speech recognition systems, in common consumer electronic devices such as mobile phones, disk drives and high-definition television products. The goal of a DSP is to measure, filter or compress continuous real-world analog signals. Most general-purpose microprocessors can execute digital signal processing algorithms but may not be able to keep up with such processing continuously in real-time. Dedicated DSPs have better power efficiency, thus they are more suitable in portable devices such as mobile phones because of power consumption constraints. DSPs use special memory architectures that are able to fetch multiple data or instructions at the same time. DSPs also implement data compression technology, with the discrete cosine transform in particular being a used compression technology in DSPs.

Digital signal processing algorithms require a large number of mathematical operations to be performed and on a series of data samples. Signals are converted from analog to digital, manipulated digitally, converted back to analog form. Many DSP applications have constraints on latency. Most general-purpose microprocessors and operating systems can execute DSP algorithms but are not suitable for use in portable devices such as mobile phones and PDAs because of power efficiency constraints. A specialized DSP, will tend to provide a lower-cost solution, with better performance, lower latency, no requirements for specialised cooling or large batteries; such performance improvements have led to the introduction of digital signal processing in commercial communications satellites where hundreds or thousands of analog filters, frequency converters and so on are required to receive and process the uplinked signals and ready them for downlinking, can be replaced with specialised DSPs with significant benefits to the satellites' weight, power consumption, complexity/cost of construction and flexibility of operation.

For example, the SES-12 and SES-14 satellites from operator SES launched in 2018, were both built by Airbus Defence and Space with 25% of capacity using DSP. The architecture of a DSP is optimized for digital signal processing. Most support some of the features as an applications processor or microcontroller, since signal processing is the only task of a system; some useful features for optimizing DSP algorithms are outlined below. By the standards of general-purpose processors, DSP instruction sets are highly irregular. Both traditional and DSP-optimized instruction sets are able to compute any arbitrary operation but an operation that might require multiple ARM or x86 instructions to compute might require only one instruction in a DSP optimized instruction set. One implication for software architecture is that hand-optimized assembly-code routines are packaged into libraries for re-use, instead of relying on advanced compiler technologies to handle essential algorithms. With modern compiler optimizations hand-optimized assembly code is more efficient and many common algorithms involved in DSP calculations are hand-written in order to take full advantage of the architectural optimizations.

Multiply–accumulates operations used extensively in all kinds of matrix operations convolution for filtering dot product polynomial evaluation Fundamental DSP algorithms depend on multiply–accumulate performance FIR filters Fast Fourier transform related ISA and instructions: SIMD VLIW superscalar architecture Specialized instructions for modulo addressing in ring buffers and bit-reversed addressing mode for FFT cross-referencing DSPs sometimes use time-stationary encoding to simplify hardware and increase coding efficiency. Multiple arithmetic units may require memory architectures to support several accesses per instruction cycle -- supporting reading 2 data values from 2 separate data buses and the next instruction simultaneously. Special loop controls, such as architectural support for executing a few instruction words in a tight loop without overhead for instruction fetches or exit testing -- such as zero overhead looping and hardware loop buffers. Saturation arithmetic, in which operations that produce overflows will accumulate at the maximum values that the register can hold rather than wrapping around.

Sometimes various sticky bits operation modes are available. Fixed-point arithmetic is used to speed up arithmetic processing Single-cycle operations to increase the benefits of pipelining Floating-point unit integrated directly into the datapath Pipelined architecture Highly parallel multiplier–accumulators Hardware-controlled looping, to reduce or eliminate the overhead required for looping operations In eng

Tora-san's Matchmaker

Tora-san's Matchmaker is a 1993 Japanese comedy film directed by Yoji Yamada. It stars Kiyoshi Atsumi as Torajirō Kuruma, Keiko Matsuzaka as his love interest or "Madonna". Tora-san's Matchmaker is the forty-sixth entry in the popular, long-running Otoko wa Tsurai yo series. Kiyoshi Atsumi as Torajirō Chieko Baisho as Sakura Keiko Matsuzaka as Yoko Sakaide Hidetaka Yoshioka as Mitsuo Suwa Shimojo Masami as Kuruma Tatsuzō Chieko Misaki as Tsune Kuruma Hisao Dazai as Boss Gajirō Satō as Genkō Keiroku Seki as Ponshū For their work in Tora-san's Matchmaker, the Japan Academy Prize awarded Yoji Yamada for Best Director and Screenplay, Yoshitaka Asama for Best Screenplay, Isao Suzuki for Best Sound. Nominated at the Japan Academy Prize were Yutaka Yokoyama and Mitsuo Degawa for Best Sound and Iwao Ishii for Best Editing; the German-language site molodezhnaja gives Tora-san's Matchmaker three and a half out of five stars. Tora-san's Matchmaker was released theatrically on December 25, 1993. In Japan, the film has been released on videotape in 1994 and 1996, in DVD format in 2000 and 2008.

Otoko wa tsurai yo: Torajiro no endan on IMDb "Tora-san's Matchmaker". Www.molodezhnaja.ch. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 男はつらいよ 寅次郎の縁談. allcinema.net. Retrieved 2010-02-01. "男はつらいよ 寅次郎の縁談". Japanese Cinema Database. Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 男はつらいよ 寅次郎の縁談. Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 男はつらいよ 寅次郎の縁談. Kinema Junpo. Archived from the original on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2010-02-01. Tora-san's Matchmaker at www.tora-san.jp

Francis van Aarssens

Baron Francis van Aarssens or Baron François van Aerssen, from 1611 on lord of Sommelsdijk, was a diplomat and statesman of the United Provinces. He was born in Brussels, the son of Cornelis van Aarsens a statesman, his talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of France. He took a considerable part in the negotiations of the Twelve Years' Truce in 1609, his conduct of affairs having displeased the French king, he was recalled from his post by Oldenbarneveldt in 1614, after the French ambassador Benjamin Aubery du Maurier had demanded Aarsens recall. Such was the hatred he henceforth conceived against his former benefactor, that he did his utmost to effect Oldebarneveldt's ruin. However, he was not a member of the court that convicted Oldenbarnevelt in the Trial of Oldenbarnevelt and Hogerbeets as Chisholm mistakenly reports, he afterwards became the confidential counselor of Maurice, Prince of Orange, afterwards of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, in their conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic.

He was sent on special embassies to Venice and England, displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Cardinal Richelieu ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time. He died, aged 69, in The Hague; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Aarssens, Francis van". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. Ouvré, H.. "Aubéry du Maurier. Étude sur l'histoire de la France et de la Hollande, 1566-1636. Thèse pour le doctorat des lettres présentée à la faculté de Paris". Google Books. Paris: Auguste Durand. Retrieved 13 April 2019. Van Aerssen family archive inventory "Aarsens, Frans van". New International Encyclopedia. 1905