Digital television

Digital television is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier analog television technology which used analog signals. At the time of its development it was considered an innovative advancement and represented the first significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s. Modern digital television is transmitted in high definition with greater resolution than analog TV, it uses a widescreen aspect ratio in contrast to the narrower format of analog TV. It makes more economical use of scarce radio spectrum space. A transition from analog to digital broadcasting began around 2000. Different digital television broadcasting standards have been adopted in different parts of the world; this standard has been adopted in Europe, Africa and Australia, for a total of 60 countries. Advanced Television System Committee uses eight-level vestigial sideband for terrestrial broadcasting; this standard has been adopted by 6 countries: the United States, Mexico, South Korea, the Dominican Republic and Honduras.

Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting is a system designed to provide good reception to fixed receivers and portable or mobile receivers. It utilizes two-dimensional interleaving, it supports hierarchical transmission of up to three layers and uses MPEG-2 video and Advanced Audio Coding. This standard has been adopted in Japan and the Philippines. ISDB-T International is an adaptation of this standard using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, adopted in most of South America and Portuguese-speaking African countries. Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting adopts time-domain synchronous OFDM technology with a pseudo-random signal frame to serve as the guard interval of the OFDM block and the training symbol; the DTMB standard has been adopted in the People's Republic including Hong Kong and Macau. Digital Multimedia Broadcasting is a digital radio transmission technology developed in South Korea as part of the national IT project for sending multimedia such as TV, radio and datacasting to mobile devices such as mobile phones, laptops and GPS navigation systems.

Digital television's roots have been tied closely to the availability of inexpensive, high performance computers. It was not until the 1990s. Digital television was not feasible due to the impractically high bandwidth requirements of uncompressed digital video, requiring around 200 Mbit/s bit-rate for a standard-definition television signal, over 1 Gbit/s for high-definition television. Digital TV became feasible in the early 1990s due to a major technological development, discrete cosine transform video compression. DCT coding is a lossy compression technique, first proposed for image compression by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, was adapted into a motion-compensated DCT video coding algorithm, for video coding standards such as the H.26x formats from 1988 onwards and the MPEG formats from 1991 onwards. Motion-compensated DCT video compression reduced the amount of bandwidth required for a digital TV signal. DCT coding compressed down the bandwidth requirements of digital television signals to about 34 Mpps bit-rate for SDTV and around 70–140 Mbit/s for HDTV while maintaining near-studio-quality transmission, making digital television a practical reality in the 1990s.

A digital TV service was proposed in 1986 by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone and the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunication in Japan, where there were plans to develop an "Integrated Network System" service. However, it was not possible to implement such a digital TV service until the adoption of discrete cosine transform video compression technology made it possible in the early 1990s. In the mid-1980s, as Japanese consumer electronics firms forged ahead with the development of HDTV technology, as the MUSE analog format was proposed by Japan's public broadcaster NHK as a worldwide standard, Japanese advancements were seen as pacesetters that threatened to eclipse U. S. electronics companies. Until June 1990, the Japanese MUSE standard—based on an analog system—was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration. Between 1988 and 1991, several European organizations were working on DCT-based digital video coding standards for both SDTV and HDTV; the EU 256 project by the CMTT and ETSI, along with research by Italian broadcaster RAI, developed a DCT video codec that broadcast SDTV at 34 Mbit/s bit-rate and near-studio-quality HDTV at about 70–140 Mbit/s bit-rate.

RAI demonstrated this with a 1990 FIFA World Cup broadcast in March 1990. An American company, General Instrument demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal in 1990; this led to the FCC being persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed. In March 1990, when it became clear that a digital standard was feasible, the FCC made a number of critical decisions. First, the Commission declared that the new TV standard must be more than an enhanced analog signal, but be able to provide a genuine HDTV signal with at least twice the resolution of existing television images. To ensure that viewers who did not wish to buy a new digital television set could continue to receive conventional telev


The Basketligaen is the highest professional basketball league in Denmark. The original men's first division was founded in 1957 and the current league was founded in 1998. All-time record holder in league titles is Bakken Bears, which has captured 15 titles in its history, of which 4 was won back to back from 2011 to 2014. BMS is the only team with 5 titles in a row, starting in 1986 through 1990; the main TV partner of the league is TV2 Sport. The league consists with no relegation rules; as of 31st of August. As of 31st of August; the All-time Basketligaen table is an overall record of all match results of every team that has played in Basketligaen since 1958. Last updated June 2018. Source:, Last updated June 1, 2018. For a complete list, see List of Basketligaen career stat leaders. Stats since 2002. Last updated June 1, 2018. Stats since 2002. Official Site League Page

Richmond Theatre fire

The Richmond Theatre fire occurred in Richmond, United States on Thursday, December 26, 1811. It devastated the Richmond Theatre, located on the north side of Broad Street between what is now Twelfth and College Streets; the fire, which killed 72 people including many government officials, was the worst urban disaster in American history at the time. The Monumental Church was erected on the site as a memorial to the fire. A previous building at the same location was known as the first Academy of Fine Arts and Sciences in America, subsequently the site was known as "The Theatre Square." Chevalier Quesnay de Beaurepaire, a French officer who served in the American Revolutionary War, had developed the idea for the academy but the plan was abandoned due to the war. Richmond's first theatre, a barn-like building, opened its doors on October 10, 1786 for the first time with a performance of School for Scandal; the Virginia Ratifying Convention of 1788 was held in this building beginning on June 3 for three weeks "after first convening in the temporary capitol at Cary and fourteenth streets."

Among the many individuals in attendance were James Madison, John Marshall, James Monroe, Edmund Pendleton, George Wythe, George Nicholas, Edmund Randolph, George Mason, Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry. This building was destroyed by fire in 1811. A new multi-story brick theatre was erected around 1810 on what was at the time the north side of H Street. There was an orchestra section, a first balcony, an upper balcony, with narrow doorways; the performance on the evening of December 26, 1811 at the Richmond Theatre was a benefit for Alexander Placide and his daughter. The program was a double billing: first, a play entitled The Father, or Family Feuds, after it, a Pantomime entitled Raymond and Agness, or The Bleeding Nun; the benefit had been scheduled for December 23, but was postponed due to the death of one of the company's players, Eliza Poe, as well as Placide's own illness and foul weather. It being Christmas time and the last opening of the season, the auditorium on December 26 was packed with an excited audience of 598 people, with 518 adults and 80 children to view the pantomime, which commenced after the play was finished.

The fire started after the curtain fell following the first act of the pantomime, when the chandelier was lifted toward the ceiling with the flame still lit. The lamp became entangled in the cords used to lift the chandelier and it touched one of the items used in the front scenes, which caught fire; as soon as the boy worker, operating the cords saw the flames, he fled the building. The flames rose up the spread from one hanging scene to the other. In addition to the hangings were the borders that provided the outlines of buildings and skies, among other set pieces. Pine planks fixed over rafters with no plastering and ceiling spread the flames, which fell from the ceiling and spread rapidly; the impact of the fire was worsened because the stage curtain hid the initial flames from the audience. The theatre had multiple exits: a little known side-door was used by those in the orchestra and back stage while an upper balcony exit was a clear way out. In the panic of the fire, many people were pushed and fell, they were unable to escape.

Many people jumped out of the windows of the theatre. Others who were assembled near the window were afraid to do so; the editor of the Richmond Standard, present at the scene, urged people to jump. Credited with helping save lives was Gilbert Hunt, a former slave who, having purchased his freedom, was working as a blacksmith at a shop near the theatre. Along with Dr. James McCaw, a physician, attending the theatre that evening, Hunt was credited with saving close to a dozen people. McCaw would lower them from the burning second story, Hunt would catch them. Hunt saved McCaw, who jumped just as a burning section of wall was about to fall on him. Today Hunt is memorialized by a historical marker on the site. A book, entitled Gilbert Hunt, the City Blacksmith was published in his honor and to provide financial assistance for him in his old age, it has been claimed that Peter Francisco saved over thirty people from the theater during the fire, having been in attendance at the performance. Of the 72 who died in the fire, 54 were women and 18 were men.

Among the victims were Virginia's sitting governor, George William Smith, former U. S. Senator Abraham B. Venable. Killed were Benjamin Botts, of Dumfries, his wife, their son, John Botts became a U. S. Congressman and prominent unionist during the American Civil War. Dr. Robert Greenhow the husband of noted spy Rose Greenhow, survived the fire along with his father. Another survivor was former representative John G. Jackson serving in the Virginia General Assembly. George Tucker, who became the University of Virginia's first Professor of Moral Philosophy, narrowly escaped with his life, after being struck in the head by a timber which left a permanent scar. In his autobiography, Tucker claimed to have saved several women from the conflagration. Sarah Henry Campbell, daughter of Patrick Henry, was rescued from the flames by Alexander Scott, became his wife. Many members of the upper echelons of Richmond society were in attendance on the night of the fire, many were killed.