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Digital television transition in the United States

The digital transition in the United States was the switchover from analog to digital broadcasting of terrestrial television television programming. According to David Rehr president and CEO of the National Association of Broadcasters, this transition represented "the most significant advancement of television technology since color TV was introduced." For full-power TV stations, the transition went into effect on June 12, 2009, with stations ending regular programming on their analog signals no than 11:59 p.m. local time that day. Under the Digital Transition and Public Safety Act of 2005, full-power broadcasting of analog television in the United States was planned to have ceased after February 17, 2009. To help U. S. consumers through the conversion, the Act established a federally sponsored DTV Converter Box Coupon Program. The DTV Delay Act changed the mandatory analog cutoff date to June 12, although stations were permitted to cease analog transmissions before the new mandatory cutoff date.

The legislation was enacted on February 4, 2009, on February 11, 2009, President Barack Obama signed it into law. The purpose of the extension was to help the millions of households who had not been able to get their coupons for converters because demand for coupons exceeded the funding provided for in the initial bill, leaving millions on a waiting list to receive coupons. Funding for extra coupons was provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. By midnight on the original cut-off date of February 17, 2009, 641 stations representing 36 percent of U. S. full-power broadcasters were transmitting in digital. Analog broadcasting did not cease following the June 12 deadline: under the provisions of the Short-term Analog Flash and Emergency Readiness Act 120 full-power stations maintained analog "nightlight" service, ending no than July 12. In a separate category, low power television stations were permitted to continue analog broadcasts for several more years. On July 15, 2011, the FCC posted the required transition deadlines for low power television.

Stations broadcasting on channels 52 to 69 were required to vacate those channels by December 31, 2011, all analog television transmitters were required to shut down by September 1, 2015. On April 24, 2015, it was announced that the conversion date for standard LPTVs and translators still broadcasting in analog had been suspended until further notice, due to economic problems that might have arisen from the then-upcoming spectrum auction. After the auction's completion in 2017, the FCC announced on May 17 of that year that all analog low-power stations and transmitters must convert by July 13, 2021; the Congressional deadline to transition to digital broadcasts was pushed back several times. Congress passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996 with the original transition date of December 31, 2006. However, the transition to digital television was set back three times: first to December 31, 2008 to February 17, 2009, finally to June 12, 2009. All U. S. full-power analog TV broadcasts were required by law to end on June 12, 2009.

Since March 1, 2007, all new television devices that receive signals over-the-air, including pocket-sized portable televisions, personal computer video capture card tuners, DVD recorders, have been required to include digital ATSC tuners. Prior to this, the requirement was phased-in starting with larger screen sizes; until the transition was completed, most U. S. broadcasters transmitted their signals in both analog and digital formats, though a few were digital-only. Digital stations transmitted on another channel, assigned to each full-power broadcaster in a three-round digital channel election; the transition from the analog NTSC format to the digital ATSC format was required to be completed on February 17, 2009, as set by Congress in the Digital Transition and Public Safety Act of 2005. Following the analog switch-off, the FCC reallocated channels 52 through 69 for other communications traffic, completing the reallocation of broadcast channels 52–69 that began in the late 1990s; these channels were auctioned off in early 2008, with the winning bidders taking possession of them in June 2009.

Four channels from this portion of the broadcast spectrum were held for reallocation to public safety communications. Some of the remaining freed up frequencies will be used for advanced commercial wireless services for consumers, such as Qualcomm's planned use of former UHF channel 55 for its MediaFLO service. For U. S. cable television, the FCC voted 5–0 on September 12, 2007 to require operators to make local broadcasts available to their users in analog. This requirement lasts until 2012; this was necessary since many cable companies, including major ones like Comcast, have been taking analog channels away from customers. In 2007, a bill in the U. S. Congress called, it would have allowed all television stations within 80 kilometers of the Mexican border, in areas such as San Diego and the Rio Grande Valley, to keep their analog signals active for another five years. The bill did not pass the House; the SAFER Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Bush in December 2008. The act has been called the "analog nightlight" act, allows analog stations on channels that did not conflict with post-transition digital stations the opti

Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization

The Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization, or SPARRSO, is a state agency concerned with astronomical research and the application of space technology in Bangladesh. Sparrso works with JAXA, NASA and the ESA in environmental and meteorological research. Using Bangabandu-1 satellite, SPARRSO monitors agro-climatic conditions and water resources in Bangladesh. Broad Category of SPARRSO Activities Category 1: Operational Activities towards National Interest Category 2: Research & Technological Development Activities Category 3: Activities to Support National Development Category 4: Nation Building Mile Stone Activities of SPARRSO Category 5: Human Resource Development on RS & GIS Technology 1. SPARRSO has been applying peacefully space and remote sensing technology, in the field of Agriculture, Fisheries, Cartography, Water Resources, Land use, Environment, Oceanography, Education, science-based Knowledge and other related space research areas, it perform research activities for developing this technology and its practical application.

2. Provides necessary information and disseminates research results to the Government and different relevant user agencies. 3. It provides the Government about the development of space and remote sensing technology of different countries and gives advice for formulation of national policy to the Government. 4. Conducts training, technical research and monitor on space and remote sensing technology and cooperates national or international organization or institutes in the relevant matter. 5. Framing development project to perform research activities on space and remote sensing technology and implement it taking prior approval from the Government. 6. Take any measures regarding the above-mentioned work at any time as it feels necessary. At present, there are total 17 working divisions in SPARRSO, they are: 1. Atmospheric Division 2. Agriculture Division 3. Agro-hydrometeorology Division 4. Forestry Division 5. Water Resources Division 6. Oceanography Division 7. Fisheries Division 8. Cartography Division 9.

Ground Station Division 10. Photographic Division 11. Ocean Physics Division 12. Instrumentation and Data Processing Division 13. Ground Truth Division 14. Geology Division 15. Rocket Technology Development Division 16. Space Physics & Rocket Dynamics Division 17. Regional Remote Sensing Center Here is the list of total ground stations at SPARRSO: Geostationary Satellite MTSAT-2 of Japan FY-2D & FY-2E of China WINDS of Japan. Polar Orbiting Satellite. NOAA Series of USA Terra & Aqua of USA. MetOp of Europe SPARRSO conducts research works on various aspects of geo-disciplinary subject areas of RS-GIS technologies; the research items include technological development on RS-GIS algorithms aims at better techniques for geoinformation retrieval along with effective approaches towards fruitful application of such technology. Bangabandhu-1 ISRO List of government space agencies Official website of SPARRSO Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization at Banglapedia

Quirijn Gunning

Quirijn Willem Marinus Gunning is a Dutch international cricketer who made his debut for the Dutch national side in June 2013. He is a right-arm medium-pace bowler. Gunning was born in Amsterdam, plays his club cricket for VRA Amsterdam, he played for the Netherlands under-19s at the 2009 Under-19 World Cup Qualifier, but failed to take a wicket in his four matches. Gunning's senior debut for the Netherlands came against Nottinghamshire in the 2013 Yorkshire Bank 40, an English limited-overs competition, his first-class debut less than two weeks against Ireland in the Intercontinental Cup. After that game, Gunning did not return to the Dutch line-up until June 2015, when he appeared in another Intercontinental Cup fixture against Papua New Guinea. In June 2018, he was named in the Netherlands' Twenty20 International squad for the 2018 Netherlands Tri-Nation Series, but he did not play. Quirijn Gunning at CricketArchive Quirijn Gunning at ESPNcricinfo

Nikolay Andreyev

For the Soviet-era Russian pictorialist, see Nikolay Andreyev Nikolay Andreyevich Andreyev was a Russian sculptor, graphic artist and stage designer. As a young man Andreyev studied with Sergey Volnukhin and in 1902 became associated with the Peredvizhniki group of realists. Andreyev's brother V. A. Andreyev was a sculptor. A native of Moscow, Andreyev was the designer of two Moscow statues known for their removal. One is the seated bronze figure of Gogol, with bronze friezes of Gogol's greatest characters surrounding the base, finished in 1909 and placed on Gogol Boulevard. Criticized for its impressionistic style and dark mood, said to be hated by Stalin himself, it was moved in 1952 amid controversy, replaced with a straightforward Soviet-style representation of Gogol by sculptor Nikolai Tomsky. Andreyev's figure of "Freedom" was erected with a 26-meter obelisk in Tverskaya Street in 1919, to commemorate the Soviet Constitution, it was blown up in 1941 and replaced with the equestrian statue of Yuri Dolgorukiy, by sculptor Sergei Orlov, completed in 1954.

Andreyev's work is associated with the Soviet Socialist realism style, he's known for his extensive studies of "Leniniana", producing some 100 sculptures and 200 graphic works of Lenin from 1920 through 1932. He produced a large number of portraits of Soviet leaders, including Stalin and Lunacharsky. Andreyev created the first post-1917 artistic representation of Stalin, dated 1 May 1922 and autographed by Stalin himself; this drawing was executed in the realist style including Stalin's stiffened arm. This was the last time Stalin was portrayed with his imperfection; the drawing was criticized by the Great Leader, questioning Andreyev's knowledge of human anatomy. Andreyev is buried in the city's most famous cemetery, Novodevichy. News article on the destruction of the "Statue of Liberty" Plamper, The Stalin Cult: a study in the alchemy of power, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2012

Diane James

Diane Martine James is a British politician, a Brexit Party Member of the European Parliament. She was leader-elect of the UK Independence Party but resigned before formalising her leadership, used to be one of three UKIP Members of the European Parliament for South East England. James was born in Bedford in 1959, was a councillor on Waverley Borough Council from 2007 until 2015, when she lost the seat to the Conservative Party, she was elected to the European Parliament in 2014. Following the resignation of Nigel Farage, she was elected leader of UKIP in September 2016 as his successor, she resigned from the leadership of the party on 4 October 2016, 18 days after being elected. On 21 November 2016, James announced that she was leaving UKIP and would henceforth sit as an Independent; the length of her tenure was met with significant press ridicule. James was born in Bedford in 1959, where her father was her mother a housewife, she was educated at Rochester Grammar School and Thames Valley University, Slough.

James spent three decades working in the health industry, where she established an international consultancy firm. She is fluent in both German. James was elected to Waverley Borough Council as an Independent, representing Ewhurst ward, after falling out with local Conservatives in 2007, she announced she was joining the UK Independence Party shortly after the 2011 local elections, but said that she would not stand down and fight a by-election. She lost her seat in 2015 after standing as the UKIP candidate in that year's elections, her fellow UKIP councillors all lost their seats at the same time. James came second in the 2013 Eastleigh by-election with 27.8% of the vote, an increase of 24.2% on the 2010 figure. She was elected to the European Parliament in the 2014 election. James was the party's Home Affairs spokesperson, represented UKIP on the BBC's Question Time, took part in debates at the Cambridge Union Society. In December 2014, she was selected by UKIP in North West Hampshire to be its parliamentary candidate, having been given a 1.2% chance of winning.

However, a few hours after making a speech at the 2015 UKIP Spring Conference in Margate, she stepped down from the Westminster candidacy "for personal reasons". In 2016, she said that Russian President Vladimir Putin was one of her political heroes: "I admire him from the point of view that he's standing up for his country."She joined the Brexit Party in early 2019. Following the resignation of UKIP leader Nigel Farage, James stood in the election to succeed him in August 2016, she emerged as one of the frontrunners. On 16 September she was announced as the new leader. On 4 October 2016, James confirmed that she would not be pursuing the leadership of the party despite winning the leadership election. James issued a statement saying that she had decided not to become party leader, because "It has become clear that I do not have sufficient authority, nor the full support of all my MEP colleagues and party officers to implement changes I believe necessary and upon which I based my campaign." Upon signing the document that notified the Electoral Commission of her election as UKIP leader, James added the Latin term vi coactus after her signature.

The Commission was unable to process the document due to her use of the words. She resigned her party membership on 21 November 2016, stating "it was time to move on" and that her relationship with UKIP had become "increasingly difficult", although she would continue to sit in the European Parliament as an Independent. Following her resignation, the leadership of UKIP passed back to Nigel Farage, selected as the interim Party leader. On 8 April 2017, James stated she would consider standing for a seat in the British Parliament as a Conservative at the next general election. Ten days Theresa May called a snap election, in which James did not stand. Media related to Diane James at Wikimedia Commons

Friedrich Gauermann

Friedrich Gauermann was an Austrian painter. The son of the landscape painter Jacob Gauermann, he was born at Miesenbach near Gutenstein in Lower Austria, he was an early representative of the Veristic style devoted to nature in all its diversity. It was the intention of his father that Gauermann should devote himself to agriculture, but the example of an elder brother, however, died early, fostered his inclination towards art. Under his father's direction he began studies in landscape, he diligently copied the works of the chief masters in animal painting which were contained in the academy and court library of Vienna. In the summer he made art tours in the districts of Styria and Salzburg. Two animal pieces which he exhibited at the Vienna Exhibition of 1824 were regarded as remarkable productions for his years, led to his receiving commissions in 1825 and 1826 from Prince Metternich and Caraman, the French ambassador, his reputation was increased by his picture The Storm, exhibited in 1829, from that time his works were much sought after and obtained correspondingly high prices.

His Field Labourer was regarded by many as the most noteworthy picture in the Vienna exhibition of 1834, his numerous animal pieces have entitled him to a place in the first rank of painters of that class of subjects. The peculiarity of his pictures is the representation of human and animal figures in connexion with appropriate landscapes and in characteristic situations so as to manifest nature as a living whole, he excels in depicting the free life of animals in wild mountain scenery. Along with great mastery of the technicalities of his art, his works exhibit patient and keen observation and correct handling of details, bold and clear colouring, he died at Vienna on 7 July 1862. Many of his pictures have been engraved, after his death a selection of fifty-three of his works was prepared for this purpose by the Austrian Kunstverein, his art has influenced among others the works of Joseph Heicke. Friedrich Gauermann at Gallery of Art Art Renewal Center Museum: Artist Information for Friedrich Gauermann Biography and Works by Friedrich Gauermann This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Gauermann, Friedrich". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press