Getxo is a town located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, in Spain. It is part of Greater Bilbao, has about 80,000 inhabitants. Getxo is an affluent residential area, as well as being the third largest municipality of Biscay. Getxo was a parish a rural area, including a large beach at the mouth of the Estuary of Bilbao, centered on the little fishing village of Algorta; the parish council met at the church of Getxoko Andra Mari or Santa María de Getxo, not far from the headland called Punta Galea. The town's coat of arms has an oak with two cauldrons chained to its branches and the motto Kaltea Dagianak Bizarra Lepoan. With industrialisation in the 19th century, some parts of Getxo evolved into residential areas for the rich bourgeois class. A residential area called; the village of Algorta grew around the church of Saint Nicholas and the canalisation of the firth, provided for the colonisation of the beach, where a district called Areeta in Basque and Las Arenas was built.
Near Areeta / Las Arenas, on the other side of the road to Bilbao, there grew a working-class district called Erromo, similar to the one that grew near Neguri: Neguri Langile. In the 20th century, urban development reached the rural areas of Getxoko Andra Mari. Getxo, as well as the surrounding area known as Uribe-Kosta, grew in the last decades of the 20th century. While in the early 1980s the town had only 50,000 inhabitants, it has now more than 83,000; the surrounding towns of Leioa and Sopelana have multiplied their population in the same period. Getxo was hit by the Basque Conflict several times, with the town being the location of many ETA attacks; the deadliest of these was an ambush in October 1978 when three civil guards were killed and the most recent the car bomb attack on May 19, 2008. Many activists of the organisation have been born in Getxo, such as Arkaitz Goikoetxea, it is located 14 km north of Bilbao, in the province and historical Territory of Biscay, in the community of the Basque Country, in the north of Spain.
It has an area of 11.64 square kilometres. It borders in the north with Sopelana, in the east with Berango and Leioa, in the south with Portugalete and in the west with the Bay of the Cove; the municipality encompasses the neighborhoods of Las Arenas, Romo and Santa María de Getxo. But for the inhabitants of Getxo there is a more thorough division: Las Arenas: Las Mercedes, Santa Ana, Zugazarte y Antiguo Golf. Neguri: Neguri, San Ignacio. Algorta: Algorta centre, María Cristina, Arrigunaga, Villamonte, La Humedad, Fadura, Usategui, Portu Zaharra / Puerto Viejo and Bidezábal. Aiboa Santa María de Guecho / Getxoko Andra Mari: Aixerrota, Punta Galea, Avenida del Ángel, La Venta y Azkorri. RomoThe founding nucleus of the town of Getxo, the elizate or anteiglesia is what is known as Santa María or Andra Mari, a group of country houses or "baserris" around Saint Mary's church. Las Arenas and Neguri arose in the late nineteenth century as residential areas for the Basque industrial bourgeoisie. Neguri neighborhood is characterized by the palaces in which lived the elite of the bourgeoisie and where nowadays many of the people with more resources of Getxo live.
The name of Neguri was coined by Resurrección María de Azkue, since it was called Aretxetaurre. Neguri comes from the merger of two Basque words: negu and uri: Neguko hiri, the winter city designed, as has been noted, for the Basque bourgeoisie; the neighborhood of Algorta is the district of largest population of Getxo. The greatest expansion was in the 70s when middle-class families decided to find a more comfortable place to live rather than in the neighborhoods of the left bank of the Nervion. Romo neighborhood was built in the beginning to house the working class separated by the train barriers from Las Arenas. Nowadyas reaches the traffic circle of Romo; the district was shaped like a horseshoe. It borders the neighbourhood of Ibaiondo, so much so that the road from the roundabout Romo until the bank of the estuary of Bilbao is the municipal border between Getxo and Leioa. One sidewalk belongs to each municipality; the neighborhood of Santa María de Getxo stood longer as a rural area until the last third of the 20th century.
It still has several farmhouses, arable fields and pastures and but there are many villas and houses built in the 1990s. This romanesque church built in the 12th century took in the first inhabitants; this church suffered diverse reformations and the church that nowadays we can admire is from the 17th century based on the Baroque period. Inside the church is a sculpture of the Virgin and her son; this monument is the only antique windmill. The construction of the windmill was undertaken between 1726 and 1727 due to a huge drought and was focused on corn and feed production; the windmill, ones in lack of use, was set up as a home during all the 19th century. The name of Aixerrota comes from basque Aixe "wind" and errota "mill"; the construction of this windmill was motivated due to the drought, originated in Biscay at the beginning of the 18th century. It produces two types of flour: ordinary; the first historic date make reference to the windmill property is
Basauri is a major municipality of Biscay, in the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community in northern Spain. The town is a part of the Greater Bilbao conurbation, it is an industrial town that includes monuments such as the tower-house of Ariz. It holds the only prison in the province, located where the rivers Ibaizabal meet; the municipality has 42,971 inhabitants. Basauri is located in the metropolitan region of the Greater Bilbao, on both sides of the river Nervión and the lower valley of the river Nervión and Ibaizabal. Basauri is located at joining point of the two most important rivers of Biscay, forming a small river plain a series of meanders have been built, now engaged in their most industrial facilities. Basauri joins the roads coming from Orduña-Urduña and Durango following the course of the two rivers. A neighborhood took its name from the joining of both paths: Bidebieta. From the river area where the municipality was born, the land rises culminating in the mountain Malmasín of clayey nature, in the border with Arrigorriaga.
Bordered on the north by Bilbao and Galdakao, on the south and west by Arrigorriaga and on the east Galdakao and Zaratamo. Basauri is in an oceanic climate zone and humid. Rainfall is well distributed throughout the year. Temperatures are moderate throughout the year, with small thermal fluctuations. Several elements influenced. Being a communications hub, Basauri was a important factor to consider, its proximity to the mines of Ollargan Morro and Miravilla and the Basauri-Galdakao Group's mines caused an increase of population for the municipality. The conversion of the mills into baking industry contributed to this increase, but the element that most contributed to the population development was the installation in 1892 of the first major industry, "La Basconia". The rapid growth that underwemt the municipality, made its population multiplied by 24.6 in the period 1900-1975. But the largest increases in population started in the 1950s with the installation of new industries which created between 1950 and 1960 a population growth of the 97%, which continued in the next decade with an increase of the 80%.
In 1984 it started a slow but progressive population decline, although it had declined in 1979 with the industrial crisis, the year in which it was indicated the historical maximum population of 55,648 inhabitants. In the last estimate by the NSI, 16 September 2007, the population of Basauri rose to 43,250 inhabitants. Basauri became independent from Arrigorriaga in 1510 or at least, is the date taken as official, because there is no document to verify that at that date any meetings were held between mayors of both towns. Basauri did not get representation in the General Assembly of Guernica until 1858. Since it remained the largest population center and town hall in the neighborhood of San Miguel de Basauri until 1902, when it was approved the transfer of the town hall to Arizgoiti, as this area of growing population and equidistant from the two furthest points of the municipality: Finaga. Basauri was until the end of the 19th century a predominantly rural people, until that time when the factory of Basconia came and with it the industrialization of the town, which went in 50 years from a few thousands of inhabitants to having 55,000 in 1978.
Thousands of families from all regions of Spain nurtured Basauri with new people and buildings, radically changing its image and urbanism. The name Basauri means'population in the forest.' Basa, meaning'forest' and uri,'population'. The only town with the same name known today is called Bajauri in the County of Treviño; some place names of Basauri are: Ariz, Arizgoiti and Arizbarren Basozelai, Sarratu, Bizkotxalde Pozokoetxe, Iruaretxeta, Abaroa, Gaztañabaltza, Errekalde, Arteaga, Uribarri and Bidebieta (which appear as Dos Caminos at the train station and made many think that it was the original name of the town. The district now called Kalero, it is Calero and although some authors have seen in the name the Castilian translation of Kareaga, it refers to the fact that in this place it was located a holding of limestone for the manufacture of lime and those places in Spanish are called'Calero'. There are two areas or neighborhoods called Kareaga: Kareaga Goikoa and Kareaga Behekoa and now called'El Calero', since in both areas had lime plants.
Moreover, there are Soloarte, Kantarazarra, Iturrigorri and others. The festivities of San Fausto in October are the patron saint festivities of the municipality; every major neighborhood forming Basauri, celebrates each year their festivities but the most popular festivals in this town are those held in honor of San Fausto every, taking as an amulet the Escarabillera, zurracapote as typical drink, prepared by the fifteen crews belonging to Herriko Taldeak, served in a jug to anyone coming to them. Zurracapote is a drink similar to sangria as it is made with red wine, cinnamon, some kind of liquor, sugar and, according to the legend, so shameful condiments that many would not want to know; the Escarabillera is a character based on women and men in Basauri would dress in times of greatest need at the beginning of century. Those clothes were worn to walk along tracks where steam trains as they circulated or heaps of smelters
Urkiola Natural Park
Urkiola Natural Park is a protected area located in the southeastern corner of Biscay and Álava in the northern Basque Country, Spain. It is a protected area of 5,958 hectares, it was declared a Natural Park on 29 December 1989. The Park's highest mountain summit is Amboto at 1,337 metres; this mountain has a strong mythological significance. Is the main dwelling of Mari, a figure of Basque mythology. Urkiola Natural Park and Gorbea Natural Park form an important environmental unit. Landscape features and easy access have been fundamental to sports use. Urkiola Natural Park has a perimeter of 83.8 kilometres. The Natural Park is located in seven in Biscay and one in Álava; the landscape of Urkiola Park consists of limestone masses. These rocks have steep slopes, with cliffs. Karst plains support a diverse and rugged landscape consisting of different proportions of shrubs, rocks and pine forests. Mining activity is important in its vicinity. While mineral extraction has been a traditional activity within the land that makes up the Urkiola Natural Park, the mines were closed long ago.
LImestone quarries, opencast mines that have a great impact on the landscape, have remained active since the formation of Urkiola Natural Park. The abundance of limestone and rainfall in the area has led to a rich karstic relief, with many caves with prehistoric remains of human occupation and fissures; the climate is warm oceanic, with high rainfall with a clear decrease in the summer. Most of the park is about 600 metres above sea level; the annual rainfall is around 1,500 millimetres. The temperature is mild, with a marine influence, a range between 7 °C mean minimum and maximum average 15 °C, with an annual average of 11 °C; the vegetation of Urkiola Natural Park presents typical features of the Cantabrian-Atlantic provinces of the Euro-Siberian region, with features of the Mediterranean region. The vegetation is: Altitudes above 1,000 metres, where there is presence of boreal-alpine floral elements. Large area of limestone rock mass which favour the development of sub-Mediterranean floral elements.
The park's vegetation has been influenced by human exploitation through centuries of occupation. The height and geology determine the type of vegetation. Have cataloged a total of 694 taxa, among which 156 are classified as being of special interest because of their special endemism. In the Urkiola Natural Park there aren't own unique species; the fauna of Urkiola Natural Park consists of typical Euro-Siberian species. Others are Mediterranean origin, Ethiopian Eastern and cosmopolitan; the distribution is the following: Euro-Siberian: 83%. Mediterranean: 13%. Cosmopolitan 3%. Ethiopian Eastern: 1%.126 species of vertebrates have been catalogued, excluding Chiroptera, The following table shows the distribution according to their class: In the park are a number of protected species, 64 are included in the "National Catalogue of Endangered Species". There are 12 that can be hunted; the Birds Directive of the European Community protects 19 species while the Habitats Directive protects the other 15. There are 106 species that are protected by the Berne Convention, 30 for the Bonn Convention and 15 by the Washington Convention.
The "Basque Catalogue of Threatened Species" includes 36 species. Urkiola Natural Park contains traces of human occupation since prehistoric times; the caves in the gorge of Atxarte, in the massif of Anboto attest to this. Some ceramic fragments from the Roman Empire and Middle Ages are to be found in the remains of walls in the park. Logging in Urkiola Natural Park has taken place since time immemorial, in particular beech pollard used for making charcoal, oaks used for firewood, pine plantations for the production of paper pulp. Between 1990 and 2006 185 hectares of forest have been planted in different species, including 148 hectares of hardwood beech and oak, 37 hectares of conifers Douglas fir, radiata pine and Sitka spruce. Livestock and pastoral activity has contributed to the formation of the current landscape of the park. Livestock consists of sheep and horses; the sheep are for producing milk for cheese and curds. The cattle and horses are raised for meat. Hunting and fishing activities have little relevance within the Urkiola Natural Park.
Around the park hunting is provided in some specific areas where it is for migratory species like woodcock and thrush. Hunted species include hares, which maintain a high population, there is some wild boar and partridge. Fishing is non-existent within the Park area. Urkiola Natural Park Official Website Parque Natural de Urkiola en la web de la Diputación Foral de Bizkaia Parque Natural de Urkiola, Información sobre Urkiola Escalada en Atxarte
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Portugalete is a town lying to the west of Bilbao in the province of Biscay in the Autonomous Community of Basque Country, northern Spain. The town is part of Bilbao's metropolitan area, it is located on the left bank. Its land area is only 3.21 km², resulting in a population density of 15,908.4 persons/km², the fifth-most densely populated municipality in Spain. In 1300 Portugalete became the main competitor port for Bilbao, but it lost its predominant position in 1511 when the trade privileges were granted to the Port of Bilbao instead of Portugalete. Despite its name, it is not near the Spanish border with Portugal and its name is not etymologically related with that country: it derives, from a phonetic adaptation of its Basque name to the Spanish language; the city has a transporter bridge. The car ferry is suspended from a frame by wires attached to wheels on tracks above the cabin and moves from one side of the River Nervión to the other via a traction system; this bridge was declared a World Heritage Site on 13 July 2006.
The festivals last four days, from 14 to 17 August, the main festivities occurring on 15 and 16 August, San Roque Day. The people sing the song "La Diana Portugaluja" outside the Town Hall in the morning of 15 August to mark the eve of San Roque Day. Monuments in Portugalete include the 15th century Basílica of Santa María, Salazar's Tower, the town hall in addition to the old mediaeval arches and streets in the older part of the city. Official website PORTUGALETE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)
The National Statistics Institute is the official agency in Spain that collects statistics about demography and Spanish society. It is an autonomous organization in Spain responsible for overall coordination of statistical services of the General State Administration in monitoring and supervision of technical procedures; every 10 years, this organisation conducts a national census. The last census took place in 2011. Through the official website one can follow all the updates of different fields of study; the oldest statistics agency of Spain and the predecessor of the current agency was the General Statistics Commission of the Kingdom, created on November 3, 1856 during the reign of Isabella II. The so-then Prime Minister Narváez approved a decree creating this body and ordering that people with recognized ability in this matter were part of it. On May 1, 1861, the Commission change its name to General Statistics Board and their first work was to do a population census. By a decree of September 12, 1870, Prime Minister Serrano created the Geographic Institute and in 1873 this Institute change its name to Geographic and Statistic Institute assuming the competences of the General Statistics Board.
In 1890, the titularity of the agency was transferred from the Prime Minister's Office to the Ministry of Development. Between 1921 and 1939, change its name many times. In the same way, the agency was transferred from a ministry to another, passing through the Deputy Prime Minister's Office, the Ministry of the Presidency and the Ministry of Labour; the National Statistics Institute was created following the Law of December 31, 1945, published in the BOE of January 3, 1946, with a mission to develop and refine the demographic and social statistics existing, creating new statistics and coordination with the statistical offices of provincial and municipal areas. At the end of 1964 the first computer was installed at the INE, it was a first-generation IBM 1401, for which a team was formed consisting of four statistics faculty and ten technicians. In the four years following it was possible that said. INE Website
Comarcas of Spain
In Spain traditionally and some autonomous communities are divided into comarcas. Some comarcas have a defined status, are regulated by law and their comarcal councils have some power. In some other cases their legal status is not formal for they correspond to natural areas, like valleys, river basins and mountainous areas, or to historical regions overlapping different provinces and ancient kingdoms. In such comarcas or natural regions municipalities have resorted to organizing themselves in mancomunidad, like the Taula del Sénia, the only legal formula that has allowed those comarcas to manage their public municipal resources meaningfully. There is a comarca, the Cerdanya, divided between two states, the southwestern half being counted as a comarca of Spain, while the northeastern half is part of France. In English, a comarca is equivalent to a district, area or zone. Alto Almanzora Poniente Almeriense Níjar Los Vélez Levante Almería Bahía de Cádiz Bajo Guadalquivir called Costa Noroeste Campo de Gibraltar La Janda Campiña de Jerez called Marco de Jerez Sierra de Cádiz Alto Guadalquivir Campiña de Baena Campiña Este - Guadajoz Campiña Sur Los Pedroches Subbetica Valle del Guadiato Valle Medio del Guadalquivir Granadin Alpujarra Comarca de Alhama Comarca de Baza Comarca de Guadix Comarca de Huéscar Comarca de Loja Granadin Coast Los Montes Lecrin Valley Vega de Granada Andévalo Condado de Huelva Cuenca Minera de Huelva Costa Occidental de Huelva Huelva Sierra de Huelva Alto Guadalquivir - Cazorla La Campiña El Condado Área Metropolitana de Jaén La Loma Las Villas Norte Sierra Mágina Sierra de Segura Sierra Sur de Jaén Antequera Axarquía Costa del Sol Occidental Málaga Serranía de Ronda Valle del Guadalhorce Aljarafe Bajo Guadalquivir Campiña Estepa Marisma Sierra Norte Sierra Sur La Vega Alto Gállego Bajo Cinca called Baix Cinca Cinca Medio Hoya de Huesca called Plana de Uesca Jacetania La Litera called La Llitera Monegros Ribagorza Sobrarbe Somontano de Barbastro Bajo Martín Jiloca Cuencas Mineras Andorra-Sierra de Arcos Bajo Aragón Comunidad de Teruel Maestrazgo Sierra de Albarracín Comarca, named after the Sierra de Albarracín mountain range Gúdar-Javalambre Matarraña called Matarranya Aranda Bajo Aragón-Caspe called Baix Aragó-Casp Campo de Belchite Campo de Borja Campo de Cariñena Campo de Daroca Cinco Villas Comunidad de Calatayud Ribera Alta del Ebro Ribera Baja del Ebro Tarazona y el Moncayo Valdejalón Zaragoza Avilés Caudal Eo-Navia Gijón / Xixón Nalón Narcea Oriente Oviedo / Uviéu Serra de Tramuntana Es Raiguer Es Pla Migjorn Llevant Menorca Eivissa Formentera Añana Aiara / Ayala Agurain / Salvatierra Vitoria-Gasteiz Zuia Arabako Mendialdea / Montaña Alavesa Arabako Errioxa / Rioja Alavesa Arratia-Nerbioi Busturialdea Durangaldea Enkarterri Greater Bilbao Lea-Artibai Uribe Bidasoa-Txingudi Debabarrena Debagoiena Goierri Donostialdea Tolosaldea Urola Kosta Fuerteventura Lanzarote Las Palmas El Hierro La Gomera La Palma Tenerife Valle de Güímar Valle de la Orotava Icod Daute Isla Baja Isora-Teno Tenerife Sur Tenerife Sur Acentejo Metropolitana-Anaga Comarca de Santander Besaya Saja-Nansa Costa occidental Costa oriental Trasmiera Pas-Miera Asón-Agüera Liébana Campoo-Los Valles Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Moianès Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental Alt Empordà Baix Empordà Baixa Cerdanya Garrotxa Gironès Osona Pla de l'Estany Ripollès Selva Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Baixa Cerdanya Garrigues Noguera Pallars Jussà Pallars Sobirà Pla d'Urgell Segarra Segrià Solsonès Urgell Val d'Aran Alt Camp Baix Camp Baix Ebre Baix Penedès Conca de Barberà Montsià Priorat Ribera d'Ebre Tarragonès Terra Alta Llanos de Albacete Campos de Hellín La Mancha del Júcar-Centro La Manchuela Monte Ibérico–Corredor de Almansa Sierra de Alcaraz y Campo de Montiel Sierra del Segura Campo de Montiel.
Alcarria conquense. La Mancha de Cuenca. Manchuela conquense. Serranía Alta. Serranía Baja. Serranía Media-Campichuelo. Campiña de Guadalajara Campiña del Henares La Alcarria La Serranía Señorío de Molina-Alto Tajo Campo de San Juan La Jara La Campana de Oropesa Mancha Alta de Toledo Mesa de Ocaña Montes de Toledo La Sagra Sierra de San Vicente Tierras de Talavera Torrijos La Moraña Comarca de Ávila Comarca de El Barco de Ávila - Piedrahíta Comarca de Burgohondo - El Tiemblo - Cebreros Comarca de Arenas de San Pedro Merindades Páramos La Bureba Ebro Odra-Pisuerga Alfoz de Burgos Montes de Oca Arlanza Sierra de la Demanda Ribera del Duero La Montaña de Luna La Montaña de Riaño La Cabrera Astorga El Bierzo Tierras de León La Bañeza El Páramo Esla-Campos Sahagún Cerrato Palentino Montaña Palentina Páramos Valles Tierra de Campos Comarca de Vitigudino Comarca de Ciudad Rodrigo La Armuña Las Villas Tierra de Peñaranda Tierra de Cantalapiedra Tierra de Ledesma Comarca de Guijuelo Tierra de Alba Sierra de Béjar Sierra de Francia Campo de Salamanca An official classification establishes three comarcas: Segovia.
Cuéllar. Sepúlveda.or sometimes four: Tierra de Pinares. Segovia. Sepúlveda. Tierra de Ayllón. However, historic approaches establish six comarcas: Tierra de Pinares. Tierra de Ayllón. Tierras de Cantalejo y