Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock, composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A related rock is dolostone, which contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg2. In fact, in old USGS publications, dolostone was referred to as magnesian limestone, a term now reserved for magnesium-deficient dolostones or magnesium-rich limestones. About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones; the solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime, as a soil conditioner, or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.
Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as foraminifera; these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, leave these shells behind when they die. Other carbonate grains composing limestones are ooids, peloids and extraclasts. Limestone contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, varying amounts of clay and sand carried in by rivers; some limestones do not consist of grains, are formed by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i.e. travertine. Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters; this produces speleothems, such as stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance; the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock building upon past generations. Below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not form in deeper waters.
Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments. Calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors with weathered surfaces. Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation. Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock; when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams where there are waterfalls and around hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite.
Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls. Coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the mountain building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble. Limestone is a parent material of Mollisol soil group. Two major classification schemes, the Folk and the Dunham, are used for identifying the types of carbonate rocks collectively known as limestone. Robert L. Folk developed a classification system that places primary emphasis on the detailed composition of grains and interstitial material in carbonate rocks. Based on composition, there are three main components: allochems and cement; the Folk system uses two-part names. It is helpful to have a petrographic microscope when using the Folk scheme, because it is easier to determine the components present in each sample; the Dunham scheme focuses on depositional textures. Each name is based upon the texture of the grains. Robert J. Dunham published his system for limestone in 1962.
Dunham divides the rocks into four main groups based on relative proportions of coarser clastic particles. Dunham names are for rock families, his efforts deal with the question of whether or not the grains were in mutual contact, therefore self-supporting, or whether the rock is characterized by the presence of frame builders and algal mats. Unlike the Folk scheme, Dunham deals with the original porosity of the rock; the Dunham scheme is more useful for hand samples because it is based on texture, not the grains in the sample. A revised classification was proposed by Wright, it adds some diagenetic patterns and can be summarized as follows: See: Carbonate platform About 10% of all sedimentary rocks are limestones. Limestone is soluble in acid, therefore forms many erosional landforms; these include limestone pavements, pot holes, cenotes and gorges. Such erosion landscapes are known
The Šar Mountains or Sharr Mountains, form a mountain range in the Balkans that extends from Kosovo and the northwest of North Macedonia, to northeastern Albania. The mountain is colloquially called Šara and forms part of a national park in Kosovo; the section within the territory of Kosovo was declared a national park. In Antiquity, the mountains were known as Scodrus, or Scordus. Which evolved into its modern name. In the early 16th century, it was recorded. Sometimes the range is called Carska planina, as a reference to the capitals and monasteries of the Serbian Empire located in the region. In the medieval period, Serbs called the mountain Mlečni, meaning "Milk mountain", because of the major milk production on the mountain and the vast herds of cattle and sheep. In the golden bull issued by Emperor Dušan on 20 September 1349, he says: "I bequest all of mine estates and areas around the Mlečni mountain, the Durlev estates and all the metochions and all the wealth and treasure of that region".
The bull is kept in the Dubrovnik Archive. The mountain borders extend from the city of Prizren, following the two rivers of the Prizren Lumbardhi and the Lepenac. In the east it passes by the town of Kaçanik through the Kačanik Gorge and into Macedonia via the Polog valley; the border passes near the Vardar spring enters near the valley of Mavrovo. There the Radika river separates the mountain massif from the higher Mount Korab. After that, the border is mounting, reaching the point of junction of three state borders: Kosovo and Albania; the border now follows the road to the small, town of Restelica, the rivers of Globocica and the White Drin and reaches the city of Prizren. The Šar Mountains have a total area of 1600 km. 56,25% of that area is in the Republic of Macedonia, 43.12% in Kosovo, 0,63% in Albania. There are three plains Vraca and Rudoka; the system is about 80 km long and 10–20 km wide. The mountain massif was formed in the Tertiary Period; the peaks are covered with snow. It includes several high peaks: Titov Vrv Mal Turčin Bakardan Borislavec Great Rudoka Bistra - east summit Bistra - west summit Small Rudoka Džini Beg Lake Peak Karabunar White Lake Peak Maja e zezë Big Vraca Guzhbaba Isa Aga Black Peak Kobilica Piribeg Ljuboten Maja Livadh Zallina Small Vraca 41.8861°N 20.7375°E / 41.8861.
The Šar Mountains extend to Mount Korab in the southwest, pass into northeastern Albania with small part. Vegetation on the mountains includes crops up to around 1,000 m, forests up to 1,700 m, above that lie high pastures which encompass around 550 km2; the Šar Mountains are the largest compact area covered with pastures on the European continent. The dog breed; the snowy peaks of the Šar Mountains are depicted on the coat of arms of the city of Skopje, which in turn is incorporated in the city's flag. The Šar Mountains are located in the south and south-east of Kosovo, where 43.12% of the range is located. Many alpine and glacial mountain lakes are found on the Kosovar part of the Šar Mountains south of the village of Dragaš, the area of Shutman and the region north of Vraca; the Brezovica ski resort, with an elevation of 900 m to 2,524 m above sea level, is located north-east of the mountains. The mountain range in Kosovo is divided into three main zones:The zone of Ljuboten and Brezovica, the central zone of Prizren and the zone of Opoja and Gora.
The mountains border the Kosovo Plain to the Dukagjini Valley in the northwest. Kosovo consists of the most northern part of the mountain ridge; the Ljuboten peak and the mountain of Skopska Crna Gora create the Kačanik Gorge in Kosovo. The Šar Mountains are split from the Nerodimka Mountain by the Sirinić Valley; the Šar National Park is located in Kosovo. Villages and towns that are found near the mountain are: Prizren largest city located at the foot of the mountains. Kaçanik Dragaš Brezovica ŠtrpceLakes in the Kosovo part of the Šar Mountains are: Big Jažinačko Lake Small Jažinačko Lake Šutmansko Lake Lower Defsko Lake Štrbačko Lake Black Vir Lake Donji Vir Lake Blateško Lake Upper Defsko Lake Dinivodno LakeIn total, there are 70 glacial lakes on Šara; the remains of the Široko complex ar
Orjen is transboundary Dinaric Mediterranean limestone mountain range, that stretches cca 25 km between Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its highest peak is Veliki kabao; the Orjen Peak is the highest peak in the Sub-Adriatic Dinarides. The massif of Orjen lies east to south-east of Trebinje in Bosnia and Herzegovina and north-west of Risan in Bay of Kotor. From the town of Risan, situated at the innermost protected part of the bay, a well-engineered road, at first metalled, with many hairpin bends climbs to about 1600 m, over to the interior. At the main summit of Orjen and the surrounding ridges and high plateaus the action of quaternary glaciation is evident. During the Ice Age, long valley glaciers receded from Orjen to the Bay of Kotor and surrounding poljes. Hollowing U-shaped valleys and cirques in their course. Glaciers shaped jagged peaks and ridges. Glacial and karst type relief combine now in a unique coastal scenery. There are few places elsewhere in the Mediterranean; the Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor is a UNESCO World Heritage site, comprising the territory between Orjen and Lovćen, including all the small towns in the bays of Risan and Kotor with their natural setting.
With this privileged natural harbour the Bay of Kotor has been settled for millennia. Illyrians and Greeks established today's ports Risan and Kotor. Due to lack of potable water, the high mountain was never densely populated. Snow patches collected from deep pit holes were used late in the 20th century to provide the few hamlets with water. Today, wells are used instead. Mount Orjen is a block mountain lifted up as a horst and thus towering above the lowered Bay of Kotor and the high karst plateaux surrounding the Mount Orjen horst. With 1894 m difference between the lowest and the highest point, relief energy has a great role in the harsh environment. A hyperkarstic barren landscape of vast karren fields contrasts with species rich vegetation types, ranging from evergreen deciduous forests at lower altitudes to endemic calcareous Dinaric Fir and Pine forests in higher altitudes. Precipitation reaches 5000 l per m², amounts typical for tropical rainforests or the eastern Himalayas than the dry Mediterranean.
Lying at Europe's wettest coast, snow accumulates on karstic plateaux and as late as June small snow patches continue to lie in shaded places under the summits. Skiing is possible but no relevant infrastructures exist today. Orjen is a more important hiking destination. Three mountain huts provide basic accommodation. Orjen comprises transboundary area of about 400 km² between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, runs for 25 km from region around Trebinje in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the north-west, to Bay of Kotor in Montenegro in the south-east. Mount Orjen is composed of four high karstic plateaux divided by ridges. Three near parallel ridges collide in Orjens' culmination point; the ridges are arranged by elevation with the highest to the north screening the Bijela gora plateaux from the Mediterranean coast. The separated plateaux are the Krivošije to the East, Bijela gora to the North, Dobri do and Vrbanj to the West. Only few settlements are scattered in surrounding poljes; the poljes of Grahovo, Vrbanj and Grabalj are important for agricultural use and provide the only lines of communication in the karst.
Migration circled around Mount Orjen as a major obstacle between the coastal, Herceg Novi and Risan and the interior towns of Grahovo and Nikšić. Several dry river valleys are found on Orjen. Only in decades they react as short-living rivers when snow-melt combine. Flooding can be a problem and several poljes are renowned for their long inundation periods. Mediterranean mountains bear no glaciers any more except small snow fields in some shaded cirques of the Taurus range. During the pleistocene snowlines were not much lower as in today's Alps. Glaciers were only of local significance in the Mediterranean enabling frost sensitive vegetation types to survive the climate changes of the Quaternary. Among the once glaciated Mediterranean mountains Orjen was outstanding for one of the biggest ice cap in the region. A 150 km² covered 1/3 of the area. All part above 900 m were buried under a thick sheet of ice from where several glacial tonges descended to 500 m above sea level. Traces of glacial activity are evident in any part of Orjen as in the Bijela gora plateaux.
No glacial lakes survive today as they were extinguished due to the porosity of the karstified landscape. Many cirques, U-shaped valleys and moraines and jagged ridges and summits bear the evidence of the glacial erosion. In stoneage and Bronze Age humans settled in the Orjen region; this early human activity is depicted by rock paintings of deerhunt and humans in Lipci in Risan bay. A major Bronze Age excavation site is at Popovo polje to the north of Mount Orjen. Mount Orjen is built up from pure Cretaceous limestone; as precipitation and temperatures are high and vegetation is abundant karstification processes are evolved. Lapies and caves resolve from the solution of the limestone; the solution process is the faster the more water. Vegetation and soilformation play a role in the process. A major disadvantage is that the water is percolating fast in the porous rocks and does not form brooks and rivers despite the heavy amounts of precipitation. An overall dryness is characteristic, unsuitable for settling.
Thus the region has been depopulated for a long time. Only during times of repression the unfavourable high mountains were populated by Montenegrin tribes. Durin
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is called the Age of Reptiles and the Age of Conifers; the Mesozoic is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic and succeeded by the Cenozoic. The era is subdivided into three major periods: the Triassic and Cretaceous, which are further subdivided into a number of epochs and stages; the era began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest well-documented mass extinction in Earth's history, ended with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, another mass extinction whose victims included the non-avian dinosaurs. The Mesozoic was a time of significant tectonic and evolutionary activity; the era witnessed the gradual rifting of the supercontinent Pangaea into separate landmasses that would move into their current positions during the next era. The climate of the Mesozoic was varied, alternating between cooling periods. Overall, the Earth was hotter than it is today.
Dinosaurs first appeared in the Mid-Triassic, became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates in the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic, occupying this position for about 150 or 135 million years until their demise at the end of the Cretaceous. Birds first appeared in the Jurassic; the first mammals appeared during the Mesozoic, but would remain small—less than 15 kg —until the Cenozoic. The flowering plants arose in the Triassic or Jurassic and came to prominence in the late Cretaceous when they replaced the conifers and other gymnosperms as the dominant trees; the phrase "Age of Reptiles" was introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Pterodactylus. Mesozoic means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal" or "living being"; the name "Mesozoic" was proposed in 1840 by the British geologist John Phillips. Following the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic extended 186 million years, from 251.902 to 66 million years ago when the Cenozoic Era began.
This time frame is separated into three geologic periods. From oldest to youngest: Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous The lower boundary of the Mesozoic is set by the Permian–Triassic extinction event, during which 90% to 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrates became extinct, it is known as the "Great Dying" because it is considered the largest mass extinction in the Earth's history. The upper boundary of the Mesozoic is set at the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, which may have been caused by an asteroid impactor that created Chicxulub Crater on the Yucatán Peninsula. Towards the Late Cretaceous, large volcanic eruptions are believed to have contributed to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. 50% of all genera became extinct, including all of the non-avian dinosaurs. The Triassic ranges from 252 million to 201 million years ago, preceding the Jurassic Period; the period is bracketed between the Permian–Triassic extinction event and the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, two of the "big five", it is divided into three major epochs: Early and Late Triassic.
The Early Triassic, about 252 to 247 million years ago, was dominated by deserts in the interior of the Pangaea supercontinent. The Earth had just witnessed a massive die-off in which 95% of all life became extinct, the most common vertebrate life on land were lystrosaurus and euparkeria along with many other creatures that managed to survive the Permian extinction. Temnospondyls would be the dominant predator for much of the Triassic; the Middle Triassic, from 247 to 237 million years ago, featured the beginnings of the breakup of Pangaea and the opening of the Tethys Sea. Ecosystems had recovered from the Permian extinction. Algae, sponge and crustaceans all had recovered, new aquatic reptiles evolved, such as ichthyosaurs and nothosaurs. On land, pine forests flourished, as did groups of insects like mosquitoes and fruit flies. Reptiles began to get bigger and bigger, the first crocodilians and dinosaurs evolved, which sparked competition with the large amphibians that had ruled the freshwater world mammal-like reptiles on land.
Following the bloom of the Middle Triassic, the Late Triassic, from 237 to 201 million years ago, featured frequent heat spells and moderate precipitation. The recent warming led to a boom of dinosaurian evolution on land as those one began to separate from each other, as well as first pterosaurs. During the Late Triassic, some advanced cynodonts gave rise to the first Mammaliaformes. All this climatic change, resulted in a large die-out known as the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event, in which many archosaurs, most synapsids, all large amphibians became extinct, as well as 34% of marine life, in the Earth's fourth mass extinction event; the cause is debatable. The Jurassic ranges from 200 million years to 145 million years ago and features three major epochs: The Early Jurassic, the Middle Jurassic, the L
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley; the countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania and Herzegovina, Italy and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast, it is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas; the prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally; the Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin.
The surface water temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 12 °C in winter moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era; the plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast; the western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity; the sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic and threatened ones.
The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire; the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania; the former disintegrated during the 1990s. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Bosnian-Herzegovinian, Montenegrin waters are still disputed.
Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast. Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year; the largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year. The origins of the name Adriatic are linked to the Etruscan settlement of Adria, which derives its name from the Illyrian adur meaning water or sea. In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum or, less as Mare Superum, " upper sea"; the two terms were not synonymous, however. Mare Adriaticum corresponds to the Adriatic Sea's extent, spanning from the Gulf of Venice to the Strait of Otranto; that boundary became more defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete.
Mare Superum on the other hand encompassed both the modern Adriatic Sea and the sea off the Apennine peninsula's southern coast, as far as the Strait of Sicily. Another name used in the period was Mare Dalmaticum, applied to waters off the coast of Dalmatia or Illyricum; the names for the sea in the languages of the surrounding countries include Albanian: Deti Adriatik. In Croatian and Slovene, the sea is referred to as Jadran; the Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea, bordered in the southwest by the Apennine or Italian Peninsula, in the northwest by the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in the northeast by Slovenia, Croatia, B
Mount Korab is the highest peak of the eponymous mountain range and the fourth highest mountain in the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,764 metres. The summit of the Korab mountain range in the Albanian-Macedonian border, Korab is the highest peak of Albania and the Republic of North Macedonia and one of only two summits in Europe, which are the highest point for more than one country; the Korab is the 18th most prominent mountain peak in the European continent and the third on the Balkan Peninsula. Korab is situated within the Korab-Koritnik Nature Park, it is noted for its rich flora, including species such as Bosnian pine, European beech, Coppicing forest, Alder forest. The peak lies adjacent to the Šar Mountains. Mount Korab is pictured in the national emblem of North Macedonia; the Korab range stretches over 40 kilometres in a north-south direction between the lower section of the Black Drin and its tributary Radika. It is located around the border triangle of Albania, North Macedonia and Kosovo, southwest of the Šar Mountains.
The peak is a rugged mountain massif and consists of shale and limestone of the Paleozoic period with block structures, as well as damaged gypsum rocks of Permo Triassic. On the west side, the mountain falls steeply over rock walls; the north side consists of craggy rocks. A kind of double peak, that of Korab II 2,756 metres is about 150 metres northwest of the peak within Albanian territory. On the same ridge are two other peaks rising over 2,700 metres such as Shulani i Radomires and Korab III; the southeast, stretching from a few rock bands broken meadows to the summit is accessed by simply, by shepherds with their flocks of sheep. In addition to the Korab peak, there are several other equally high elevations. North of the twin peaks are numerous other nameless equally high rock towers; the peak located about 2 kilometres southwest, Korab-gate reaches 2,727 metres. A few hundred yards south is another peak Maja e Moravës, only a little lower at 2,718 metres; the peaks are ruptured by radial tectonics in the shape of blocks that end in the Radika Valley on North Macedonia's side.
These blocks have steep slopes that reach up to 500 m. In its highest part, above 2,000 m, the climate includes some alpine flora elements; the mountain is home to spectacular Korab Falls in the upper valley of the Dlaboka River. During spring time, the waterfall reaches a height of over 130 meters, which makes it the highest in North Macedonia; the state border intersects Great Korab. Ascent from the Macedonian side involves entering the Macedonian-Albanian boundary area, for which a special permit is required from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of North Macedonia, although people track on Korab without it; the two main passes in the Korab ridge include the Little Korab Gate 2,465 m and Big Korab Gate 2,062 m. The mountain has a number of sub-peaks; these include Korab II 2,756 m, Korab III 2,724 m, Korab Gates 2,727 m, Maja e Moravës 2,718 m, Shulani i Radomirës 2,716 m and Small Korab 2,683 m. There are no formal restrictions on climbing the mountain from the Albanian side; the area is now more stable than it has been in recent times.
It is possible to drive as far as the local village of Radomira, but the local infrastructure is not good. A four-wheel drive vehicle with high clearance may be required. There are no accurate and up to date maps, local signposting is poor, hikers may have to overcome the additional problem of aggressive dogs. An international expedition to climb Mount Korab is organized each September by the mountain club PSD "Korab" in Skopje. Korab-Koritnik Nature Park Geography of Albania Protected areas of Albania Geography of North Macedonia List of non-Alpine European Ultras Korab and Macedonia Mount Korab on SummitPost Korab climb on YouTube