Soup is a liquid food served warm or hot, made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, or water. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a broth. In traditional French cuisine, soups are classified into two main groups: clear soups and thick soups; the established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch. Other ingredients used to thicken soups and broths include egg, lentils and grains. Soups are similar to stews, in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two. Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 20,000 BC. Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of waterproof containers. Animal hides and watertight baskets of bark or reeds were used before this. To boil the water hot rocks were used.
This method was used to cook acorns and other plants. The word soup comes from French soupe, which comes through Vulgar Latin suppa from a Germanic source, from which comes the word "sop", a piece of bread used to soak up soup or a thick stew; the word restaurant was first used in France in the 16th century, to refer to a concentrated, inexpensive soup, sold by street vendors, advertised as an antidote to physical exhaustion. In 1765, a Parisian entrepreneur opened a shop specializing in such soups; this prompted the use of the modern word restaurant for the eating establishments. In the US, the first colonial cookbook was published by William Parks in Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1742, based on Eliza Smith's The Compleat Housewife. A 1772 cookbook, The Frugal Housewife, contained an entire chapter on the topic. English cooking dominated early colonial cooking. In particular, German immigrants living in Pennsylvania were famous for their potato soups. In 1794, Jean Baptiste Gilbert Payplat dis Julien, a refugee from the French Revolution, opened an eating establishment in Boston called "The Restorator", became known as the "Prince of Soups".
The first American cooking pamphlet dedicated to soup recipes was written in 1882 by Emma Ewing: Soups and Soup Making. Portable soup was devised in the 18th century by boiling seasoned meat until a thick, resinous syrup was left that could be dried and stored for months at a time. Commercial soup became popular with the invention of canning in the 19th century, today a great variety of canned and dried soups are on the market. Canned soup can be prepared by heating in a pan, rather than cooking anything, it can be made in the microwave. Such soups can be used as a base for homemade soups, with the consumer adding anything from a few vegetables to eggs, cream or pasta. Doctor John T. Dorrance, a chemist with the Campbell Soup Company, invented condensed soup in 1897. Canned soup can be condensed, in which case it is prepared by adding water, or it can be "ready-to-eat", meaning that no additional liquid is needed before eating. Condensing soup allows soup to be packaged into a smaller can and sold at a lower price than other canned soups.
The soup is doubled in volume by adding a "can full" of water or milk, about 10 US fluid ounces. Since the 1990s, the canned soup market has burgeoned, with non-condensed soups marketed as "ready-to-eat", so they require no additional liquid to prepare. Microwaveable bowls have expanded the "ready-to-eat" canned soup market more, offering convenience, making for popular lunch items. In response to concerns over the negative health effects of excessive salt intake, some soup manufacturers have introduced reduced-salt versions of popular soups. Today, Campbell's Tomato, Cream of Mushroom, Chicken Noodle are three of the most popular soups in America. Americans consume 2.5 billion bowls of these three soups alone each year. Other popular brands of soup include Progresso. Dry soup mixes are sold by many manufacturers, are reconstituted with hot water; the first dried soup was bouillon cubes. East Asian-style instant noodle soups include ramen and seasonings, are marketed as a convenient and inexpensive instant meal, requiring only hot water for preparation.
Western-style dried soups include vegetable, chicken base, potato and cheese flavors. In French cuisine, soup is served before other dishes in a meal. In 1970, Richard Olney gave the place of the entrée in a French full menu: "A dinner that begins with a soup and runs through a fish course, an entrée, a sorbet, a roast, salad and dessert, that may be accompanied by from three to six wines, presents a special problem of orchestration". Chè, a Vietnamese cold dessert soup containing sugar and coconut milk, with many different varieties of other ingredient
The kids' meal or children's meal is a fast food combination meal tailored to and marketed to children. Most kids' meals come in colourful bags or cardboard boxes with depictions of activities on the bag or box and a plastic toy inside; the standard kids' meal comprises a burger or chicken nuggets, a side item, a soft drink. The first kids' meal, emerged at Burger Chef in 1973 and succeeded. Discerning the popularity of the kids' meal, McDonald's introduced its Happy Meal in 1978, other fast food corporations, including Burger King, followed suit with their own kids' meals; some fast food corporations considered youngsters their "most important" customers, owing to the success of the kids' meal. Their effectiveness has been ascribed to the fact that the patronage of youngsters means the patronage of a family and to the allure of the toys, which are in collectable series. In 2006, $360 million of the expenditures of fast food corporations was for toys in kids' meals, which numbered over 1.2 billion.
In recent years, the popularity of the kids' meal has receded, with a study by NPD Group indicating that there was a 6% decrease in kids' meals sales in 2011. Explanations include parents' realization that kids' meals are unhealthy, parents' desire to save money, as well as kids' outgrowing the meals earlier than before. Youngsters have "become more sophisticated in their palates" and seek items from the regular menu but in smaller servings. Kids' meal toys are no longer appealing to the technology-oriented youth, who prefer video games; the kids meal toys of Wendy's and Chick-Fil-A are no longer appealing to ages 8–12. Kids' meals have evolved in response to offering healthier selections and greater variety. In 2011, nineteen food chains participating in the Kids Live Well initiative—including Burger King, Denny's, IHOP, Chili's, Friendly's, Chevy's, El Pollo Loco—pledged to "offer at least one children's meal that has fewer than 600 calories, no soft drinks and at least two items from the following food groups: fruits, whole grains, lean proteins or low-fat dairy".
There have been concerns from food critics about the nutritional value of the kids' meal. A 2010 study by the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity inspecting the kids' meals of twelve US food chains concluded that of 3,039 entrée combinations, twelve satisfied the advised levels of fat and calories for preschool kids and fifteen those for older kids. Burger King has run kids meal promotions featuring toys of characters from PG-13 films at least four times, such as Small Soldiers in 1998, Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith in 2005, the Simpsons movie in 2007, One of the McDonald's toys featuring Minions characters in 2015 has caused controversy because parents have confused the gibberish talking minion with profanity; this was said to have taught young children an invalid language. As a result, the minion toys promotion was ended early, in July 2015. In the United States, kids' meals have been blamed for ingraining unhealthy dietary habits in youngsters and augmenting child obesity.
In 2010, Santa Clara County, California implemented a ban on toys accompanying kids' meals that fail nutritional standards. San Francisco County enacted the same ban, similar ones have been proposed or considered in other cities or states across the country. Conversely, legislators in Arizona prohibited such restrictions, Florida state senators proposed the same. Outside the United States and Brazil have considered such measures. Chile has banned toys in kids' meals altogether. List of restaurant terminology
Brunch is a combination of breakfast and lunch eaten during the late morning to early afternoon served from 10am up to 2pm, has some form of alcoholic drink served with it. The word is a portmanteau of lunch. Brunch originated in England in the late 19th century and became popular in the United States in the 1930s; the 1896 supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary cites Punch magazine which wrote that the term was coined in Britain in 1895 to describe a Sunday meal for "Saturday-night carousers" in the writer Guy Beringer's article "Brunch: A Plea" in Hunter's Weekly' Instead of England's early Sunday dinner, a postchurch ordeal of heavy meats and savory pies, why not a new meal, served around noon, that starts with tea or coffee and other breakfast fixtures before moving along to the heavier fare? By eliminating the need to get up early on Sunday, brunch would make life brighter for Saturday-night carousers, it would promote human happiness in other ways as well. "Brunch is cheerful and inciting."
Beringer wrote. "It is talk-compelling. It puts you in a good temper, it makes you satisfied with yourself and your fellow beings, it sweeps away the worries and cobwebs of the week." It is sometimes credited to reporter Frank Ward O'Malley who wrote for the New York newspaper The Sun from 1906 until 1919 based on the typical mid-day eating habits of a newspaper reporter. Some colleges and hotels serve brunch; such brunches are serve-yourself buffets, but menu-ordered meals may be available instead of, or with, the buffet. The meal involves standard breakfast foods such as eggs, bacon, fruits, pancakes, waffles and the like; the United States and United Kingdom militaries serves weekend brunch in the dining facilities. They offer both breakfast and lunch options and are open from about 09:00-13:00; the dim sum brunch is popular in Chinese restaurants worldwide. It consists of a variety of stuffed buns and other savory or sweet food items that have been steamed, deep-fried, or baked. Customers pick small portions from passing carts, as the kitchen continuously produces and sends out more freshly prepared dishes.
Dim sum is eaten at a mid-morning, and/or mid-afternoon teatime. Brunch is prepared by restaurants and hotels for special occasions, such as weddings, Valentine's Day, Mother's Day, Christmas day or Easter Sunday; the Office québécois de la langue française accepts "brunch" as a valid word but provides a synonym déjeuner-buffet. Note that, however, in Quebec, déjeuner alone means "breakfast". In Quebec, the word—when Francized—is pronounced; the Chinese word “早午饭” is defined as brunch. The combination of “早饭” and “午饭” is “早午饭”, as known as brunch. In many regions of Canada, in particular in Southern Ontario, brunch is popular on Sundays when families will host relatives or friends in their dining room; the typical brunch can go late into the afternoon. Montreal-style bagels may be served alongside egg dishes, waffles or crepes, smoked meat or fish, salads and dessert. Many restaurants offer brunch service as well, is where the idea of Buffets took on mass appeal. In the mid 1980s, with the price of food going down, some restaurants within Toronto started serving all you can eat buffet-style Brunch.
Original restaurants in the south west area of Scarborough within Toronto alone included Town and Country Restaurant, Boy on a Dolphin, Mother Tuckers, which much on became a small franchise, on with the opening of Hot House Cafe, whose Sunday Buffet branch, became well known. Going out for Brunch became more popular with the gentrification of the inner areas of Toronto by the mid 2000s, when smaller trendy restaurants started offering Brunch, such as restaurants in the area now known as Leslieville neighbourhood, sometimes called the brunch capital of Toronto as many renowned establishments serve brunch in that neighbourhood. In Canada, brunch is served in restaurants. In both cases, brunch consists of the same dishes as would be standard in an American brunch, namely coffee, fruit juices, breakfast foods including pancakes and french toast. Brunches may include foods not associated with breakfast, such as roasted meats, soup, smoked salmon and salads such as Cobb salad; when served in a private home or a restaurant, a brunch may be served buffet style, in which trays of foods and beverages are available and guests can serve themselves and select the items they want in an "all-you-can-eat" fashion.
Restaurant brunches may be served from a menu, in which guests select specific items which are served to them by waitstaff. Restaurant brunch meals range from inexpensive brunches available at diners and family restaurants to expensive brunches served at high-end restaurants and bistros. In South Africa, brunch is a favourite activity of many families, it is globally-distinctive in that only fruit are consumed. "The Birth of Brunch: Where Did This Meal Come From Anyway?" Smithsonian.com Wikibooks Cookbook
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for
Dauphine of France
The Dauphine of France was the wife of the Dauphin of France. The position was analogous to the Princess of Wales. Dauphine of Auvergne List of Angevin consorts Countesses and Duchesses of Maine List of consorts of Alençon List of consorts of Bourbon List of consorts of Vendôme Countess of Artois Countess of Provence List of consorts of Lorraine List of Princesses of Condé List of consorts of Montpensier List of consorts of Conti List of consorts of Étampes Countess of Évreux Countess of Champagne List of consorts of Joinville
The Diary of a Nobody
The Diary of a Nobody is an English comic novel written by the brothers George and Weedon Grossmith, with illustrations by the latter. It originated as an intermittent serial in Punch magazine in 1888–89 and first appeared in book form, with extended text and added illustrations, in 1892; the Diary records the daily events in the lives of a London clerk, Charles Pooter, his wife Carrie, his son William Lupin, numerous friends and acquaintances over a period of 15 months. Before their collaboration on the Diary, the brothers each pursued successful careers on the stage. George originated nine of the principal comedian roles in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas over 12 years from 1877 to 1889, he established a national reputation as a piano sketch entertainer and wrote a large number of songs and comic pieces. Before embarking on his stage career, Weedon had worked as an illustrator; the Diary was the brothers' only mature collaboration. Most of its humour derives from Charles Pooter's unconscious and unwarranted sense of his own importance, the frequency with which this delusion is punctured by gaffes and minor social humiliations.
In an era of rising expectations within the lower-middle classes, the daily routines and modest ambitions described in the Diary were recognised by its contemporary readers, provided generations with a glimpse of the past that it became fashionable to imitate. Although its initial public reception was muted, the Diary came to be recognised by critics as a classic work of humour, it has never been out of print, it helped to establish a genre of humorous popular fiction based on lower or lower-middle class aspirations, was the forerunner of numerous fictitious diary novels in the 20th century. The Diary has been the subject of several stage and screen adaptations, including Ken Russell's "silent film" treatment of 1964, a four-part TV film scripted by Andrew Davies in 2007, a praised stage version in 2011, in which an all-male cast of three played all the parts; the Diary of a Nobody was the work of George Grossmith and his brother Weedon Grossmith, the sons of a court reporter and part-time stage entertainer named George.
The younger George followed his father, first as a reporter and on the stage. The brothers were fascinated with the stage at an early age. In 1864, at 17 and 10, they hosted a complex programme of musical and dramatic entertainment in their parents' garden at Haverstock Hill; this included a 20-minute burlesque version of Hamlet. By 1877 the younger George Grossmith had established himself as a comic piano sketch entertainer in provincial institutes and literary societies. In that year he was seen by Arthur Sullivan and, separately, by W. S. Gilbert, in performances of their one-act comic opera Trial by Jury. Impressed, they engaged him to play the comic lead in The Sorcerer. Thereafter, Grossmith created the leading comic role in each of Gilbert and Sullivan's long-running comic operas until The Yeomen of the Guard, which closed in 1889. While appearing in the operas, Grossmith continued his piano entertainment career at private parties and matinees and composing his own material, he became the most successful comic entertainer of his day, writing numerous operettas, around 100 piano sketches, some 600 songs and short piano pieces, three books.
For Punch magazine in 1884 he provided a series of short sketches based on his experiences as a court reporter at Bow Street Magistrates' Court. In 1889, Grossmith ended his connection with Gilbert and Sullivan to pursue his piano sketch career full-time and continued to perform until 1908, he died in 1912. As an artist Weedon Grossmith exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery, he contributed illustrations to Punch and the prestigious Art Journal. He was dissatisfied with his financial prospects as an artist, by 1885 was pursuing an alternative career as an actor, he continued his career on the stage with considerable success until 1918, making his name playing roles he described as "cowards and snobs", as browbeaten small men under the thumb of authority. He wrote several plays, of which The Night of the Party was his most successful, from 1894 was engaged in the management of two West End theatres, he died in 1919. The literary scholar Peter Morton, who published an annotated edition of the Diary in 2009, suggests that many of the events depicted in it were drawn from the brothers' own home experiences, that Weedon, "something of a scapegrace compared with his perfectionist brother", was the model for Lupin.
The diary begins on 3 April of an unstated year, runs for 15 months. In a short prologue, readers are informed that Charles Pooter and his wife Caroline have just moved to a new home at "The Laurels", Brickfield Terrace, Holloway. Mr Pooter is a City of London clerk with Perkupps an accountancy or private banking firm; the couple's 20-year-old son William works as a bank clerk in Oldham. The first entries describe the Pooters' daily lives and introduce their particular friends, such as their neighbour Gowing, the enthusiastic bicyclist Cummings, the Jameses from Sutton. From the beginning a pattern is set whereby the small vexations of the Pooters' daily lives are recounted, many of them arising from Pooter's unconscious self-importance and pomposity. Trouble with servants and office juniors occur along with minor social embarrassments and humiliations; the rare formal social events in the Pooters' live
A banquet is a formal large meal or feast involving main courses and desserts. The meal tends to serve a purpose such as a charitable gathering, a ceremony, or a celebration involved either preceding or following speeches in honor of the topic or guest of honour. Despite the controversy surrounding the origins of feasting, numerous theories have been suggested. According to archaeologist Brian Hayden, feasts were an important social event either facilitated by or featuring the surplus of food, resulting in the experience gaining social and political ties and a competitive element to display one's own wealth. Whilst Bendall suggests the importance of luxury foods, Hayden argues the likelihood that animal meat and rice were part of these luxury goods. Banqueting, as a notion, has manifested itself in a variety of forms throughout history. In Ancient Greece, symposia, an early kind of banquet, formed a routine part of life involving the celebratory drinking of wine and performances of poetry and music.
Banquets persisted in popularity over the years including Belshazzar's Feast, Last Supper, Manchu Han Imperial Feast, Mead halls. By the Middle Ages, the event had become more structured, with comprehensive ritualised elements were involved in the traditional three-course menu, which could have up to 25 dishes in each course; the structure was altered to two courses, with the pre-existing third course changed to the serving of fruit and nuts. Banqueting rooms varied with location, but tended to be on an intimate scale, either in a garden room, banquet hall or inside such as the small banqueting turrets in Longleat House. A contemporary banquet may serve many purposes to formal business dinners. Business banquets are a popular way to strengthen bonds between their partners, it is common. A luau is one variety of banquet used in Hawaii; the Nei Mongol provincial government in China levies a tax on banquets. Banquet hall Beefsteak List of dining events Party Albala, Ken; the banquet: Dining in the Great Courts of late Renaissance Europe.
Board of Trustees, University of Illinois. ISBN 0-252-03133-4