In an essay, article, or book, an introduction is a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing. This is followed by the body and conclusion; the introduction describes the scope of the document and gives the brief explanation or summary of the document. It may explain certain elements that are important to the essay if explanations are not part of the main text; the readers can have an idea about the following text before they start reading it. Ln technical writing, the introduction includes one or more standard subsections: abstract or summary, preface and foreword. Alternatively, the section labeled introduction itself may be a brief section found side-by-side with abstract, etc.. In this case the set of sections that come before the body of the book are known as the front matter; when the book is divided into numbered chapters, by convention the introduction and any other front-matter sections are unnumbered and precede chapter 1. Keeping the concept of the introduction the same, different documents have different styles to introduce the written text.
For example, the introduction of a Functional Specification consists of information that the whole document is yet to explain. If a Userguide is written, the introduction is about the product. In a report, the introduction gives a summary about the report contents. Dramatic structure Lead paragraph Executive summary Foreword Preamble Preface Prologue Epigraph Leora Freedman. "Introductions and Conclusions". University of Toronto
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though novelists write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional novelists, thus make a living writing novels and other fiction, while others aspire to support themselves in this way or write as an avocation. Most novelists struggle to get their debut novel published, but once published they continue to be published, although few become literary celebrities, thus gaining prestige or a considerable income from their work. Novelists come from a variety of backgrounds and social classes, this shapes the content of their works. Public reception of a novelist's work, the literary criticism commenting on it, the novelists' incorporation of their own experiences into works and characters can lead to the author's personal life and identity being associated with a novel's fictional content. For this reason, the environment within which a novelist works and the reception of their novels by both the public and publishers can be influenced by their demographics or identity.
Some novelists have creative identities derived from their focus on different genres of fiction, such as crime, romance or historical novels. While many novelists compose fiction to satisfy personal desires and commentators ascribe a particular social responsibility or role to novel writers. Many authors use such moral imperatives to justify different approaches to novel writing, including activism or different approaches to representing reality "truthfully". Novelist is a term derivative from the term "novel" describing the "writer of novels"; the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes other definitions of novelist, first appearing in the 16th and 17th centuries to refer to either "An innovator. However, the OED attributes the primary contemporary meaning of "a writer of novels" as first appearing in the 1633 book "East-India Colation" by C. Farewell citing the passage "It beeing a pleasant observation to note the order of their Coaches and Carriages.. As if it had bin the spoyles of a Tryumph leading Captive, or a preparation to some sad Execution" According to the Google Ngrams, the term novelist first appears in the Google Books database in 1521.
The difference between professional and amateur novelists is the author's ability to publish. Many people take up novel writing as a hobby, but the difficulties of completing large scale fictional works of quality prevent the completion of novels. Once authors have completed a novel, they will try to get it published; the publishing industry requires novels to have accessible profitable markets, thus many novelists will self-publish to circumvent the editorial control of publishers. Self-publishing has long been an option for writers, with vanity presses printing bound books for a fee paid by the writer. In these settings, unlike the more traditional publishing industry, activities reserved for a publishing house, like the distribution and promotion of the book, become the author's responsibility; the rise of the Internet and electronic books has made self publishing far less expensive and a realistic way for authors to realize income. Novelists apply a number of different methods to writing their novels, relying on a variety of approaches to inspire creativity.
Some communities encourage amateurs to practice writing novels to develop these unique practices, that vary from author to author. For example, the internet-based group, National Novel Writing Month, encourages people to write 50,000-word novels in the month of November, to give novelists practice completing such works. In the 2010 event, over 200,000 people took part – writing a total of over 2.8 billion words. Novelists don't publish their first novels until in life. However, many novelists begin writing at a young age. For example, Iain Banks began writing at eleven, at sixteen completed his first novel, "The Hungarian Lift-Jet", about international arms dealers, "in pencil in a larger-than-foolscap log book". However, he was thirty before he published his first novel, the controversial The Wasp Factory in 1984; the success of this novel enabled Banks to become a full-time novelist. An important writers' juvenilia if not published, is prized by scholars because it provides insight into an author's biography and approach to writing.
Novelists publish as early as their teens. For example, Patrick O'Brian published his first novel, Caesar: The Life Story of a Panda-Leopard, at the age of 15, which brought him considerable critical attention. Barbara Newhall Follett's The House Without Windows, was accepted and published in 1927 when she was 13 by the Knopf publishing house and earned critical acclaim from the New York Times, the Saturday Review, H. L. Mencken; these works will achieve popular success as well. For example, though Christopher Paolini's Eragon, was not a great critical success, but its popularity among readers placed it on the New York Times Children's Books Best Seller list for 121 weeks. First-time novelists of any age find themselves unable to get works published, because of a number of reasons reflecting the inexperience of the author and the economic realities of publishers. Authors mus
Albert Camus was a French philosopher and journalist. His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism, he wrote in his essay The Rebel that his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism while still delving into individual freedom. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature at the age of 44 in 1957, the second youngest recipient in history. Camus did not consider himself to be an existentialist despite being classified in that way in his lifetime. In a 1945 interview, Camus rejected any ideological associations: "No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked."Camus was born in French Algeria to a Pied-Noir family and studied at the University of Algiers, from which he graduated in 1936. In 1949, Camus founded the Group for International Liaisons to "denounce two ideologies found in both the USSR and the USA". Albert Camus was born on 7 November 1913 in French Algeria, his mother was of Spaniard descent, could only hear out of her left ear.
His father, Lucien, a poor French-Algerian agricultural worker, was wounded in the Battle of the Marne in 1914 during World War I, while serving as a member of a Zouave infantry regiment. Lucien died from his wounds in a makeshift army hospital on 11 October. Camus and his mother, an illiterate house cleaner, lived without many basic material possessions during his childhood in the Belcourt section of Algiers. In 1923, Camus gained acceptance into the Lycée Bugeaud and was admitted to the University of Algiers. After contracting tuberculosis in 1930, he had to stop playing football: he had been a goalkeeper for a prominent Algerian university team. In addition, he was only able to study part-time. To earn money, he took odd jobs: as a private tutor, car parts clerk, assistant at the Meteorological Institute, he completed his licence de philosophie in 1936. Camus joined the French Communist Party in early 1935, seeing it as a way to "fight inequalities between Europeans and'natives' in Algeria."
He did not suggest he was a Marxist or that he had read Das Kapital, but did write, "We might see communism as a springboard and asceticism that prepares the ground for more spiritual activities." In 1936, the independence-minded Algerian Communist Party was founded. Camus joined the activities of the Algerian People's Party, which got him into trouble with his Communist party comrades, who in 1937 denounced him as a Trotskyite and expelled him from the party. Camus became associated with the French anarchist movement; the anarchist André Prudhommeaux first introduced him at a meeting in 1948 of the Cercle des Étudiants Anarchistes as a sympathiser familiar with anarchist thought. Camus wrote for anarchist publications such as Le Libertaire, La révolution Prolétarienne, Solidaridad Obrera, the organ of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Camus stood with the anarchists when they expressed support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany, he again allied with the anarchists in 1956, first in support of the workers' uprising in Poznań, later with the Hungarian Revolution.
Camus was irreligious. "I do not believe in God and I am not an atheist." ~Notebooks 1951–1959. He told Le Monde in 1956, "I would agree with Benjamin Constant, who thought a lack of religion was vulgar and hackneyed." In 1934, Camus married Simone Hié, but the marriage ended as a consequence of infidelities on both sides. In 1935, he founded Théâtre du Travail, renamed Théâtre de l'Equipe in 1937, it lasted until 1939. From 1937 to 1939 he wrote for Alger-Républicain, his work included a report on the poor conditions for peasants in Kabylie, which cost him his job. From 1939 to 1940, he wrote for a similar paper, Soir-Republicain, he was rejected by the French army because of his tuberculosis. In 1940, Camus married a pianist and mathematician. Although he loved her, he had argued passionately against the institution of marriage, dismissing it as unnatural. After Francine gave birth to twins and Jean, on 5 September 1945, he continued to joke to friends that he was not cut out for marriage. Camus had numerous affairs an irregular and public affair with the Spanish-born actress María Casares, with whom he had an extensive correspondence.
In the same year, Camus began to work for Paris-Soir magazine. In the first stage of World War II, during the so-called Phoney War, Camus was a pacifist. While in Lyon during the Wehrmacht occupation, on 15 December 1941, Camus read about the Paris execution of Gabriel Péri, he moved to Bordeaux with the rest of the staff of Paris-Soir. In the same year he finished The Stranger, his first novel, The Myth of Sisyphus, he returned to Oran, Algeria, in 1942. Camus was once asked by his friend Charles Poncet which he preferred, the theatre. Camus is said to have replied, "Football, without hesitation."Camus played as goalkeeper for Racing Universitaire d'Alger junior team from 1928 to 1930. The sense of team spirit and common purpose appealed to Camus enormously
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
The Myth of Sisyphus
The Myth of Sisyphus is a 1942 philosophical essay by Albert Camus. The English translation by Justin O'Brien was first published in 1955. In the essay Camus introduces his philosophy of the absurd, man's futile search for meaning and clarity in the face of an unintelligible world devoid of God and eternal truths or values. Does the realization of the absurd require suicide? Camus answers, "No, it requires revolt." He outlines several approaches to the absurd life. The final chapter compares the absurdity of man's life with the situation of Sisyphus, a figure of Greek mythology, condemned to repeat forever the same meaningless task of pushing a boulder up a mountain, only to see it roll down again; the essay concludes, "The struggle itself... is enough to fill a man's heart. One must imagine Sisyphus happy"; the work can be seen in relation to other absurdist works by Camus: the novel The Stranger, the plays The Misunderstanding and Caligula, the essay The Rebel. The essay is organized in four chapters and one appendix.
Camus undertakes the task of answering what he considers to be the only question of philosophy that matters: Does the realization of the meaninglessness and absurdity of life require suicide? He begins by describing the absurd condition: we build our life on the hope for tomorrow, yet tomorrow brings us closer to death and is the ultimate enemy. Once stripped of its common romanticism, the world is a foreign and inhuman place; this is the absurd condition and "from the moment absurdity is recognized, it becomes a passion, the most harrowing of all." It is not the world, absurd, nor human thought: the absurd arises when the human need to understand meets the unreasonableness of the world, when the "appetite for the absolute and for unity" meets "the impossibility of reducing this world to a rational and reasonable principle." He characterizes a number of philosophies that describe and attempt to deal with this feeling of the absurd, by Heidegger, Shestov and Husserl. All of these, he claims, commit "philosophical suicide" by reaching conclusions that contradict the original absurd position, either by abandoning reason and turning to God, as in the case of Kierkegaard and Shestov, or by elevating reason and arriving at ubiquitous Platonic forms and an abstract god, as in the case of Husserl.
For Camus, who set out to take the absurd and follow it to its final conclusions, these "leaps" cannot convince. Taking the absurd means acknowledging the contradiction between the desire of human reason and the unreasonable world. Suicide also must be rejected: without man, the absurd cannot exist; the contradiction must be lived. However, the absurd can never be permanently accepted: it requires constant confrontation, constant revolt. While the question of human freedom in the metaphysical sense loses interest to the absurd man, he gains freedom in a concrete sense: no longer bound by hope for a better future or eternity, without a need to pursue life's purpose or to create meaning, "he enjoys a freedom with regard to common rules". To embrace the absurd implies embracing all that the unreasonable world has to offer. Without a meaning in life, there is no scale of values. "What counts is not the best living but the most living." Thus, Camus arrives at three consequences from acknowledging the absurd: revolt and passion.
How should the absurd man live? No ethical rules apply, as they are all based on higher powers or on justification. "Integrity has no need of rules.'Everything is permitted' is not an outburst of relief or of joy, but rather a bitter acknowledgment of a fact." Camus goes on to present examples of the absurd life. He begins with the serial seducer who lives the passionate life to the fullest. "There is no noble love but that which recognizes itself to be both short-lived and exceptional." The next example is the actor. "He demonstrates to. In those three hours he travels the whole course of the dead-end path that the man in the audience takes a lifetime to cover." Camus's third example of the absurd man is the conqueror, the warrior who forgoes all promises of eternity to affect and engage in human history. He chooses action over contemplation, aware of the fact that nothing can last and no victory is final. Here Camus explores artist. Since explanation is impossible, absurd art is restricted to a description of the myriad experiences in the world.
"If the world were clear, art would not exist." Absurd creation, of course must refrain from judging and from alluding to the slightest shadow of hope. He analyzes the work of Dostoevsky in this light The Diary of a Writer, The Possessed and The Brothers Karamazov. All these works start from the absurd position, the first two explore the theme of philosophical suicide. However, both The Diary and his last novel, The Brothers Karamazov find a path to hope and faith and thus fail as absurd creations. In the last chapter, Camus outlines the legend of Sisyphus who defied the gods and put Death in chains so that no human needed to die; when Death was liberated and it came time for Sisyphus himself to die, he concocted a deceit which let him escape from the underworld. After capturing Sisyphus, the g
Corriere della Sera
The Corriere della Sera is an Italian daily newspaper published in Milan with an average daily circulation of 410,242 copies in December 2015. First published on 5 March 1876, Corriere della Sera is one of Italy's oldest newspapers and is Italy's most read newspaper, its masthead has remained unchanged since its first edition in 1876. It reached a circulation of over 1 million under editor and co-owner Luigi Albertini, 1900-1925, he was a strong opponent of Socialism, of clericalism, of Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti, willing to compromise with those forces. Albertini's opposition to the Fascist regime forced the other co-owners to oust him 1925. Today its main competitors are Turin's La Stampa. Corriere della Sera was first published on Sunday 5 March 1876 by Eugenio Torelli Viollier. In 1899 the paper began to offer Domenica del Corriere. In the 1910s and 1920s, under the direction of Luigi Albertini, Corriere della Sera became the most read newspaper in Italy, maintaining its importance and influence into the present century.
It was Corriere della Sera which introduced comics in Italy in 1908 through a supplement for children, namely Corriere dei Piccoli. The newspaper's headquarters has been in the same buildings since the beginning of the 20th century, therefore it is popularly known as "the Via Solferino newspaper" after the street where it is still located; as the name indicates, it was an evening paper. During the fascist regime in Italy Corriere della Sera funded the Mussolini Prize, awarded to the writers Ada Negri and Emilio Cecchi among the others. Mario Borsa, a militant anti-fascist, was appointed the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera in May 1945, he was fired because of his political leanings in August 1946 and was replaced by Guglielmo Emanuel, a right-wing journalist. Emanuel served in the post until 1952. In the 1950s Corriere della Sera was the organ of the conservative establishment in Italy and was anti-communist and pro-NATO; the paper was functional in shaping the views of the Italian upper and middle classes during this period.
The owners of the Corriere della Sera, the Crespi family, sold a share to RCS Media in the 1960s and was listed in the Italian stock exchange. Its main shareholders were Mediobanca, the Fiat group and some of the biggest industrial and financial groups in Italy. In 1974 the RCS Media moved on to control the majority of the paper. Alberto Cavallari was the editor-in-chief of the paper during the early 1980s. In 1981 the newspaper was laterally involved in the P2 scandal when it was discovered that the secret Freemason lodge had the newspaper's editor Franco Di Bella and the former owner Angelo Rizzoli on its member lists. In September 1987 the paper launched a weekly magazine supplement, the first in its category in Italy. From 1987 to 1992 the editor-in-chief of Corriere della Sera was Ugo Stille; the 1988 circulation of Corriere della Sera was 715,000 copies, making it the second most read newspaper in Italy. The paper started its Saturday supplement, IO Donna, in 1996. In 1997 Corriere della Sera was the best-selling Italian newspaper with a circulation of 687,000 copies.
Corriere della Sera had a circulation of 715,000 copies in 2001. In 2002 it fell to 681,000 copies. In 2003, its editor Ferruccio de Bortoli resigned from the post; the journalists and opposition politicians claimed the resignation was due to the paper's criticism of Silvio Berlusconi. In 2004, Corriere della Sera launched an online English section focusing on Italian current affairs and culture; the same year it was the best-selling newspaper in Italy with a circulation of 677,542 copies. Its circulation in December 2007 was 662,253 copies, it is one of the most visited Italian-language news websites, attracting over 1.6 million readers every day. The online version of the paper was the thirteenth most visited website in the country. On 24 September 2014 Corriere della Sera changed its broadsheet format to the Berliner format; the "Third Page" used to feature a main article named Elzeviro, which over the years has published contributions from all the editors as well as major novelists and journalists.
On Monday, Corriere is published along with a weekly finance and business magazine. On Thursday, it is published with a current events magazine. On Sunday, it is published along with a weekly literary supplement; the Italian novelist Dino Buzzati was a journalist at the Corriere della Sera. Other notable contributors include Eugenio Montale, Curzio Malaparte, Gabriele D'Annunzio, Enzo Bettiza, Italo Calvino, Alberto Moravia, Amos Oz, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Guido Piovene, Giovanni Spadolini, Oriana Fallaci, Alessandra Farkas, Lando Ferretti, Brunella Gasperini, Enzo Biagi, Indro Montanelli, Giovanni Sartori, Paolo Brera, Francesco Alberoni, Tracy Chevalier, Goffredo Parise, Sergio Romano, Sandro Paternostro, Alan Friedman, Tommaso Landolfi, Alberto Ronchey and Paolo Mieli. Editors Columnist & Journalists Corriere dei Piccoli a children's supplement of the Corriere della Sera. List of non-English newspapers with English language subsections Media of Italy Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers.
Pp. 104–110. Corriere Canadese - the defunct Canadian newspaper where the infamous Vincent C. Torrieri worked. Wwwenglishtraining.it Official website
Radio drama is a dramatised, purely acoustic performance. With no visual component, radio drama depends on dialogue and sound effects to help the listener imagine the characters and story: "It is auditory in the physical dimension but powerful as a visual force in the psychological dimension."Radio drama achieved widespread popularity within a decade of its initial development in the 1920s. By the 1940s, it was a leading international popular entertainment. With the advent of television in the 1950s, radio drama began losing its audience, however, in most countries it remains popular. Recordings of OTR survive today in the audio archives of collectors and museums, as well as several online sites such as Internet Archive. By the 21st century, radio drama had a minimal presence on terrestrial radio in the United States, with much American radio drama being restricted to rebroadcasts of programmes from previous decades. However, other nations still have thriving traditions of radio drama. In the United Kingdom, for example, the BBC produces and broadcasts hundreds of new radio plays each year on Radio 3, Radio 4, Radio 4 Extra.
Like the USA, Australia ABC has abandoned broadcasting drama but in New Zealand RNZ continues to promote and broadcast a variety of drama over its airwaves. Thanks to advances in digital recording and Internet distribution, radio drama experienced a revival around 2010. Podcasting offered the means of inexpensively creating new radio dramas, in addition to the distribution of vintage programs; the terms "audio drama" or "audio theatre" are sometimes used synonymously with "radio drama". Audio drama can be found on CDs, cassette tapes, webcasts as well as broadcast radio; the Roman playwright "Seneca has been claimed as a forerunner of radio drama because his plays were performed by readers as sound plays, not by actors as stage plays. Radio drama traces its roots back to the 1880s: "In 1881 French engineer Clement Ader had filed a patent for ‘improvements of Telephone Equipment in Theatres’". English-language radio drama seems to have started in the United States. A Rural Line on Education, a brief sketch written for radio, aired on Pittsburgh's KDKA in 1921, according to historian Bill Jaker.
Newspaper accounts of the era report on a number of other drama experiments by America's commercial radio stations: KYW broadcast a season of complete operas from Chicago starting in November 1921. In February 1922, entire Broadway musical comedies with the original casts aired from WJZ's Newark studios. Actors Grace George and Herbert Hayes performed an entire play from a San Francisco station in the summer of 1922. An important turning point in radio drama came when Schenectady, New York's WGY, after a successful tryout on August 3, 1922, began weekly studio broadcasts of full-length stage plays in September 1922, using music, sound effects and a regular troupe of actors, The WGY Players. Aware of this series, the director of Cincinnati's WLW began broadcasting one-acts in November; the success of these projects led to imitators at other stations. By the spring of 1923, original dramatic pieces written specially for radio were airing on stations in Cincinnati and Los Angeles; that same year, WLW and WGY sponsored scripting contests, inviting listeners to create original plays to be performed by those stations' dramatic troupes.
Listings in The New York Times and other sources for May 1923 reveal at least 20 dramatic offerings were scheduled, either as in-studio productions or by remote broadcast from local theaters and opera houses. An early British drama broadcast was of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream on 2LO on 25 July 1923Serious study of American radio drama of the 1920s and early 1930s is, at best limited. Unsung pioneers of the art include: WLW's Fred Smith. Elizabeth McLeod's 2005 book on Gosden and Correll's early work is a major exception, as is Richard J. Hand's 2006 study of horror radio, which examines some programs from early 1930s. Another notable early radio drama, one of the first specially written for the medium in the UK, was A Comedy of Danger by Richard Hughes, broadcast by the BBC on January 15, 1924, about a group of people trapped in a Welsh coal mine. One of the earliest and most influential French radio plays was the prize-winning "Marémoto", by Gabriel Germinet and Pierre Cusy, which presents a realistic account of a sinking ship before revealing that the characters are actors rehearsing for a