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Dionysiaca

The Dionysiaca is an ancient Greek epic poem and the principal work of Nonnus. It is an epic in 48 books, the longest surviving poem from antiquity at 20,426 lines, composed in Homeric dialect and dactylic hexameters, the main subject of, the life of Dionysus, his expedition to India, his triumphant return to the west; the poem is thought to have been written in the late 4th and/or early 5th century. The Dionysiaca appears to be incomplete, some scholars believe that a 49th book was being planned when Nonnus stopped work on the poem, although others point out that the number of books in the Dionysiaca is the same as the 48 books of the Iliad and Odyssey combined, it has been conjectured that conversion to Christianity or death caused Nonnus to abandon the poem after some revisions. Editors have pointed out various inconsistencies and the difficulties of Book 39 which appears to be a disjointed series of descriptions, as evidence of the poem's lack of revision. Others have attributed these problems to copyists or editors, but most scholars agree on the poem's incompleteness.

The primary models for Nonnus are the Cyclic poets. The influence of Euripides' Bacchae is significant, as is the influence of the other tragedians whose Dionysiac plays do not survive, his debt to poets whose work survives only in disjointed fragments is far harder to gauge, but it is that he alludes to earlier poets' treatments of the life of Dionysus, such as the lost poems by Euphorion, Peisander of Laranda's elaborate encyclopedic mythological poem and Soteirichus. Reflections of Hesiod's poetry the Catalogue of Women, of Pindar, Callimachus can all be seen in the work of Nonnus. Theocritus' influence can be detected in Nonnus' focus on pastoral themes. Virgil and Ovid seem to have influenced Nonnus' organization of the poem. Nonnus seems to have been an important influence for the poets of Late Antiquity Musaeus, Colluthus and Dracontius. Although it is difficult to determine whether Claudian influenced Nonnus or Nonnus influenced Claudian, the two poets have some striking similarities in their treatments of Persephone.

Nonnus remained continuously important in the Byzantine world, his influence can be found in Genesius and Planudes. In the Renaissance, Poliziano popularized him to the West, Goethe admired him in the 18th century, he was admired by Thomas Love Peacock in 19th-century England. The metrics of Nonnus have been admired by scholars for the poet's careful handling of dactylic hexameter and innovation. While Homer has 32 varieties of hexameter lines, Nonnus only employs 9 variations, avoids elision, employs weak caesurae, follows a variety of euphonic and syllabic rules regarding word placement, it is remarkable that Nonnus was so exacting with meter because the quantitative meter of classical poetry was giving way in Nonnus' time to stressed meter. These metrical restraints encouraged the creation of new compounds and coined words, Nonnus' work has some of the greatest variety of coinages in any Greek poem; the poem is notably varied in its organization. Nonnus does not seem to arrange his poem in a linear chronology.

The poem states as its guiding principle poikilia, diversity in narrative and organization. The appearance of Proteus, a shapeshifting god, in the proem serves as a metaphor for Nonnus' varied style. Nonnus employs the style of the epyllion for many of his narrative sections, such as his treatment of Ampelus in 10–11, Nicaea in 15–16, Beroe in 41–43; these epyllia are inserted into the general narrative framework and are some of the highlights of the poem. Nonnus employs synkrisis, throughout his poem, most notably in the comparison of Dionysus and other heroes in Book 25; the complexity of organization and the richness of the language have caused the style of the poem to be termed Nonnian "Baroque." The size of Nonnus' poem and its late date between Imperial and Byzantine literature have caused the Dionysiaca to receive little attention from scholars. The contributor to the Encyclopædia Britannica, noting the poem's "vast and formless luxuriance, its beautiful but artificial versification, its delineation of action and passion to the entire neglect of character," remarked, "His chief merit consists in the systematic perfection to which he brought the Homeric hexameter.

But the correctness of the versification renders it monotonous. His influence on the vocabulary of his successors was very considerable," expressing the 19th-century attitude to this poem as a pretty and disorganized collection of stories; as with many other late classical poets, newer scholarship has avoided the value-laden judgments of 19th-century scholars and attempted to reassess and rehabilitate Nonnus' works. There are two main focuses of Nonnian scholarship today: structure. Nonnus' compendious accounts of Dionysiac legend and his use of variant traditions and lost sources have encouraged scholars to use him as a channel to recover lost Hellenistic poetry and mythic traditions; the edition of Nonnus in the Loeb Classical Library includes a "mythological introduction" which charts the "decline" of Dionysiac mythology in the poem and implies that the work's only value is as a repository of lost mythology. Nonnus remains an important source of mythology and information to those researching classical religion, Hellenistic poetry, Late Antiquity.

However, scholars have focused more positively on No

Hideyo Sugimoto

Hideyo Sugimoto is a Japanese professional golfer. Sigimoto was born in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan in 1938, he started to play golf at the age of 17, turned professional in 1959. He was one of the best Japanese golfers of the 1960s and early 1970s, winning well over a dozen events between the Japanese and Asian circuits. One of his first successes was at the 1963 Yomiuri International, the final tournament on the Asia Golf Circuit, where he finished runner-up to American Doug Sanders. In the year, in August, he would record another runner-up performance against an international field, finishing solo second to Kel Nagle at the Lake Karrinyup Bowl in Perth, Australia; the following year he would win the country's national open. In 1968, Sugimoto decided to join the PGA Tour, he qualified for the Masters and U. S. Open and made the cut in 9 of 14 events but, unlike his performances in Asia, he did not record any high finishes and would not remain a member of the tour. In 1969, Sugimoto returned to Japan and had great success, winning six times in his home country and the Taiwan Open.

During this era, he would have great success with fellow Japanese star Takashi Murakami, winning three events with him. His first win on the Japan Golf Tour, the 1973 All Nippon Doubles, was with Murakami. Sugimoto would play on tour through the decade. One of his final top performances was at the 1978 Hiroshima Open where he would finish second to Masashi Ozaki in a playoff. 1973 All Nippon Doubles, Suntory Open 1964 Japan Open, Yomiuri International 1965 Grand Monarch 1966 Kanto Pro Championship, Golden Match 1969 Japan Open, All Nippon Doubles, Nippon Series, Aitaka Open, Rolex Tournament, Golden Match 1970 All Nippon Doubles, Kuzuha International 1969 Taiwan Open 1972 Philippine Open 1973 Malaysian Open Note: Sugimoto never played in The Open Championship or the PGA Championship. CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place World Cup: 1965, 1966, 1967 Hideyo Sugimoto at the Japan Golf Tour official site Hideyo Sugimoto at the PGA Tour official site

Ecuadorian centavo coins

Ecuadorian centavo coins were introduced in 2000 when Ecuador converted its currency from the sucre to the U. S. dollar. The coins are in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 centavos and are identical in size and value to their U. S. cent counterparts. They circulate within Ecuador alongside coins and banknotes from the USA. Although U. S. $1 coins are used in the U. S. they are used in Ecuador. Ecuador managed to introduce a $1 coin but decided to not release in common circulation, only in 2000 coin sets. Ecuador does not issue any banknotes, relying on U. S. issues. Ecuadorian centavos bear the numeric value along with the value spelled out in Spanish, the legend of the Banco Central del Ecuador; the exception is the one-cent coin, which rather than bearing a portrait, is printed with a map of the Americas and bears the legend "Ecuador, Luz de América". Coins bear the date Año 20xx, beginning in 2000. With the exception of the one-cent coin, the coins are nickel-plated steel; the coins are minted by the Royal Canadian Mint and the Casa de Moneda de Mexico.|....

"Ecuador, Luz de América". Centavo - article about the use of centavos worldwide Currency of Ecuador