Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials; some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty. Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft; the primary purpose of a diplomat, a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, he lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest.
However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed. From the Battle of Baideng to the Battle of Mayi, the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu, consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu sent word to Emperor Wen of Han that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese; the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; the Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty, there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa, Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza; the paiza were in three different types (
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for three centuries in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory corresponded to ancient Gaul and the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania; the semi legendary Merovech was supposed to have founded the Merovingian dynasty, but it was his famous grandson Clovis I who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. After the death of Clovis, there were frequent clashes between different branches of the family, but when threatened by its neighbours the Merovingians presented a strong united front. During the final century of Merovingian rule, the kings were pushed into a ceremonial role; the Merovingian rule ended in March 752 when Pope Zachary formally deposed Childeric III. Zachary's successor, Pope Stephen II, confirmed and anointed Pepin the Short in 754, beginning the Carolingian monarchy; the Merovingian ruling family were sometimes referred to as the "long-haired kings" by contemporaries, as their long hair distinguished them among the Franks, who cut their hair short.
The term "Merovingian" comes from medieval Latin Merovingi or Merohingi, an alteration of an unattested Old Dutch form, akin to their dynasty's Old English name Merewīowing, with the final -ing being a typical patronymic suffix. The Merovingian dynasty owes its name to the semi-legendary Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks; the victories of his son Childeric I against the Visigoths and Alemanni established the basis of Merovingian land. Childeric's son Clovis I went on to unite most of Gaul north of the Loire under his control around 486, when he defeated Syagrius, the Roman ruler in those parts, he won the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alemanni in 496, at which time, according to Gregory of Tours, Clovis adopted his wife Clotilda's Orthodox Christian faith. He subsequently went on to decisively defeat the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507. After Clovis's death, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons; this tradition of partition continued over the next century.
When several Merovingian kings ruled their own realms, the kingdom—not unlike the late Roman Empire—was conceived of as a single entity ruled collectively by these several kings among whom a turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole kingdom under a single ruler. Leadership among the early Merovingians was based on mythical descent and alleged divine patronage, expressed in terms of continued military success. In 1906, the British Egyptologist Flinders Petrie suggested that the Marvingi recorded by Ptolemy as living near the Rhine were the ancestors of the Merovingian dynasty. Upon Clovis's death in 511, the Merovingian kingdom included all of Gaul except Burgundy and all of Germania magna except Saxony. To the outside, the kingdom when divided under different kings, maintained unity and conquered Burgundy in 534. After the fall of the Ostrogoths, the Franks conquered Provence. After this their borders with Italy and Visigothic Septimania remained stable. Internally, the kingdom was divided among Clovis's sons and among his grandsons and saw war between the different kings, who allied among themselves and against one another.
The death of one king created conflict between the surviving brothers and the deceased's sons, with differing outcomes. Conflicts were intensified by the personal feud around Brunhilda. However, yearly warfare did not constitute general devastation but took on an ritual character, with established'rules' and norms. Clotaire II in 613 reunited the entire Frankish realm under one ruler. Divisions produced the stable units of Austrasia, Neustria and Aquitania; the frequent wars had weakened royal power, while the aristocracy had made great gains and procured enormous concessions from the kings in return for their support. These concessions saw the considerable power of the king parcelled out and retained by leading comites and duces. Little is in fact known about the course of the 7th century due to a scarcity of sources, but Merovingians remained in power until the 8th century. Clotaire's son Dagobert I, who sent troops to Spain and pagan Slavic territories in the east, is seen as the last powerful Merovingian King.
Kings are known as rois fainéants, despite the fact that only the last two kings did nothing. The kings strong-willed men like Dagobert II and Chilperic II, were not the main agents of political conflicts, leaving this role to their mayors of the palace, who substituted their own interest for their king's. Many kings came to the throne at a young age and died in the prime of life, weakening royal power further; the conflict between mayors was ended when the Austrasians under Pepin the Middle triumphed in 687 in the Battle of Tertry. After this, though not a king, was the political ruler of the Frankish kingdom and left this position as a heritage to his sons, it was now the sons of the mayor that divided the realm among each other under the rule of a single king. After Pepin's long rule, his son Charles Martel assumed power, fighting against nobles and his own stepmother, his reputation for ruthlessness further undermined the king's position. Under Charles Martel's leadership, the Franks defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours in 732.
After the victory of 718 of the Bulgarian Khan Ter
Harry Bresslau was a German historian and scholar of state papers and of historical and literary muniments. He was died in Heidelberg. Harry Bresslau studied in Göttingen and Berlin: first Law, History. During his studies he was a teacher in the Auerbach Orphanage in Berlin, his most important teachers were Johann Gustav Droysen and Leopold von Ranke, whose assistant he became. In 1869 he took a doctorate at Göttingen with Ranke's pupil Georg Waitz, on the government of Emperor Konrad II. Before his academic inauguration, he became Senior teacher at the Frankfurt Philanthropin. After his inauguration, in 1877 Bresslau obtained an extraordinary-professorship at Berlin University, he was a convinced National Liberal, attached to German nationality, but was a Jew and unbaptized. Hence the path to a regular professorship in Prussia was barred from him; when Heinrich von Treitschke published his controversial writings against the Jews in 1879, Bresslau spoke and in a determined manner against his elder and senior professional colleagues though his position as extraordinary-professor had no permanent security.
Nonetheless in 1878 Bresslau had worked together with Treitschke, a year before his anti-semitic contribution to the Prussian Annals, in an election-committee of the National-Liberal Party. Bresslau believed in the possibility of a complete assimilation of German Jewry through an open affirmation of the ideal of German nationhood, thus he was one of the examples whom Treitschke brought forward as evidence for the proposal that an assimilation of the Jews might be possible. In 1890 Bresslau followed a calling to Strasbourg in Alsace, where he held a regular professorship of History in the University until 1912. There he developed a thorough-going teaching and research programme and made himself a leading National-Liberal advocate for German identity. Shortly after the end of the First World War, on 1 December 1918, the French expelled Bresslau from Strasbourg as a'militant pan-Germanist'; when in 1904 the Academic-Historical Society in Berlin, to which Bresslau had belonged for 25 years, turned itself into an association wearing badges or liveries, required other forms of co-operation from Bresslau, he bluntly refused.
Holsatia had introduced a veto against admission for Jewish students. Bresslau spent the final years of his life first in Hamburg in Heidelberg, his son was the zoologist Ernst Bresslau. His daughter was the medical missionary, social worker, public health advocate Helene Bresslau Schweitzer. Bresslau was involved from 1877 in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, from 1888 in its central planning. For the Diploma section of the Monumenta he edited the original charters of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor and of Konrad II. Bresslau's Handbuch der Urkundenlehre für Deutschland und Italien, has today not been superseded as the standard work on medieval Diplomas. For the Centenary of the Monumenta in 1919 Bresslau wrote the history of his last book; as research supervisor, Bresslau supervised over 100 doctoral dissertations. Under Bresslau's chairmanship in 1885, the Historical Commission for the History of the Jews in Germany was founded by the Union of German-Jewish Congregations. On the model of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica and the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, the relevant source-material was sought out and usefully assembled for research.
Bresslau obstructed the co-option of the popular historian Heinrich Graetz, because he believed that the official recognition of Graetz as a historical writer would dangerously aggravate the relationship between Jews and Christians. Graetz had evolved a sort of Judaeo-centric view of history, most criticized in the Berlin anti-semitism controversies. Bresslau himself was a leading exponent of positivist science; the Historical Commission published until 1892 the Journal for the History of the Jews in Germany. Harry Bresslau:'Autobiographical statement', in Sigfrid Steinberg, Die Geschichtswissenschaft der Gegenwart in Selbstdarstellungen, Vol. 2, 1926, pp. 29–83. Paul Fridolin Kehr,'Harry Bresslau'. In Neues Archiv 47, p. 251–266. Hans Liebeschütz, Das Judentum im deutschen Geschichtsbild von Hegel bis Max Weber. Peter Rück, Erinnerung an Harry Bresslau zum 150. Geburtstag. First issued at the day-conference on the 21 March 1998 in the Institute for Historical Auxiliary Sciences of the Philipps-University, Marburg.
ISBN 3-8185-0304-4 Peter Rück, in collaboration with Erika Eisenlohr and Peter Worm, Abraham Bresslau: Briefe aus Dannenberg 1835-1839. Mit einer Einleitung zur Familiengeschichte des Historikers Harry Bresslau und zur Geschichte der Juden in Dannenberg.. Peter Rück, in collaboration with Erika Eisenlohr and Peter Worm, Harry Bresslau: Berliner Kolleghefte 1866-1869. Nachschriften zu Vorlesungen von Momms
Sigillography is one of the auxiliary sciences of history. It refers to the study of seals attached to documents as a source of historical information, it concentrates on the social meaning of seals, as well as the evolution of their design. It has links to diplomatics, social history, the history of art. Antiquaries began to record historic seals in the 15th century, in the 16th and 17th centuries their study became a widespread antiquarian activity; the term sigillography is first found in the works of Jean Mabillon in the late 17th century, in those of Johann Michael Heineccius soon afterwards. Thought of as a branch of diplomatics, the discipline became an independent branch of historical studies. In the second half of the 19th century sigillography was further developed by German and French historians, among them Hermann Grotefend, Otto Posse, Louis-Claude Douet d'Arcq and Germain Demay. Sigillography is an important subdiscipline of Byzantine studies, involving the study of Byzantine lead seal impressions and the text and images thereon.
Its importance derives from both the scarcity of surviving Byzantine documents themselves, from the large number of extant seals. One of the largest compendiums of Byzantine seals can be found in the large-volume by Gustave Schlumberger, "Sigillographie de l'empire Byzantin", published in 1904. Sigillography features in the plot of "King Ottokar's Sceptre", one of The Adventures of Tintin
Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name. "Webster's" has become a genericized trademark in the U. S. for dictionaries of the English language, is used in English dictionary titles. Merriam-Webster is the corporate heir to Noah Webster's original works, which are in the public domain. Noah Webster, the author of the readers and spelling books which dominated the American market at the time, spent decades of research in compiling his dictionaries, his first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, appeared in 1806. In it, he popularized features which would become a hallmark of American English spelling and included technical terms from the arts and sciences rather than confining his dictionary to literary words. Webster was a proponent of English spelling reform for reasons both nationalistic. In A Companion to the American Revolution, John Algeo notes: "it is assumed that characteristically American spellings were invented by Noah Webster.
He was influential in popularizing certain spellings in America, but he did not originate them. Rather he chose existing options such as center and check on such grounds as simplicity, analogy or etymology". In William Shakespeare's first folios, for example, spellings such as center and color are the most common, he spent the next two decades working to expand his dictionary. In 1828, at the age of 70, Noah Webster published his American Dictionary of the English Language in two quarto volumes containing 70,000 entries, as against the 58,000 of any previous dictionary. There were 2,500 copies printed, at $20 for the two volumes. At first the set sold poorly; when he lowered the price to $15, its sales improved, by 1836 that edition was exhausted. Not all copies were bound at the same time. In 1841, 82-year-old Noah Webster published a second edition of his lexicographical masterpiece with the help of his son, William G. Webster, its title page does not claim the status of second edition noting that this new edition was the "first edition in octavo" in contrast to the quarto format of the first edition of 1828.
Again in two volumes, the title page proclaimed that the Dictionary contained "the whole vocabulary of the quarto, with corrections and several thousand additional words: to, prefixed an introductory dissertation on the origin and connection of the languages of western Asia and Europe, with an explanation of the principles on which languages are formed. B. L. Hamlen of New Haven, prepared the 1841 printing of the second edition; when Webster died, his heirs sold unbound sheets of his 1841 revision American Dictionary of the English Language to the firm of J. S. & C. Adams of Amherst, Massachusetts; this firm bound and published a small number of copies in 1844 – the same edition that Emily Dickinson used as a tool for her poetic composition. However, a $15 price tag on the book made it too expensive to sell so the Amherst firm decided to sell out. Merriam acquired rights from Adams, as well as signing a contract with Webster’s heirs for sole rights; the third printing of the second edition was by George and Charles Merriam of Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1845.
This was the first Webster's Dictionary with a Merriam imprint. Lepore demonstrates Webster's innovative ideas about language and politics and shows why Webster's endeavours were at first so poorly received. Culturally conservative Federalists denounced the work as radical—too inclusive in its lexicon and bordering on vulgar. Meanwhile, Webster's old foes, the Jeffersonian Republicans, attacked the man, labelling him mad for such an undertaking. Scholars have long seen Webster's 1844 dictionary to be an important resource for reading poet Emily Dickinson's life and work. One biographer said, "The dictionary was no mere reference book to her, he shows the ways in which American poetry has inherited Webster and drawn upon his lexicography in order to reinvent it. Austin explicates key definitions from both the Compendious and American dictionaries and brings into its discourse a range of concerns including the politics of American English, the question of national identity and culture in the early moments of American independence, the poetics of citation and of definition.
Webster's dictionaries were a redefinition of Americanism within the context of an emergent and unstable American socio-political and cultural identity. Webster's identification of his project as a "federal language" shows his competing impulses towards regularity and innovation in historical terms; the contradictions of Webster's project represented a part of a larger dialectical play between liberty and order within Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary political debates. Noah Webster's assistant, chief competitor, Joseph Emerson Worcester, Webster's son-in-law Chauncey A. Goodrich, published an abridgment of Noah Webster's 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language in 1829, with the same number of words and Webster's full definitions, but with truncated literary references and expanded etymology. Although it was more successful f
A document is a written, presented, or memorialized representation of thought. A document is a form, or written piece that trains a line of thought or as in history, a significant event; the word originates from the Latin documentum, which denotes a "teaching" or "lesson": the verb doceō denotes "to teach". In the past, the word was used to denote a written proof useful as evidence of a truth or fact. In the computer age, "document" denotes a textual computer file, including its structure and format, e.g. fonts and images. Contemporarily, "document" is not defined by its transmission medium, e.g. paper, given the existence of electronic documents. "Documentation" is distinct because it has more denotations than "document". Documents are distinguished from "realia", which are three-dimensional objects that would otherwise satisfy the definition of "document" because they memorialize or represent thought. While documents are able to have large varieties of customization, all documents are able to be shared and have the right to do so, creativity can be represented by documents, also.
History, examples, etc. all can be expressed in documents. The concept of "document" has been defined by Suzanne Briet as "any concrete or symbolic indication, preserved or recorded, for reconstructing or for proving a phenomenon, whether physical or mental."An cited article concludes that "the evolving notion of document" among Jonathan Priest, Briet, Schürmeyer, the other documentalists emphasized whatever functioned as a document rather than traditional physical forms of documents. The shift to digital technology would seem to make this distinction more important. Levy's thoughtful analyses have shown that an emphasis on the technology of digital documents has impeded our understanding of digital documents as documents. A conventional document, such as a mail message or a technical report, exists physically in digital technology as a string of bits, as does everything else in a digital environment; as an object of study, it has been made into a document. It has become physical evidence by those who study it.
"Document" is defined in library and information science and documentation science as a fundamental, abstract idea: the word denotes everything that may be represented or memorialized in order to serve as evidence. The classic example provided by Suzanne Briet is an antelope: "An antelope running wild on the plains of Africa should not be considered a document she rules, but if it were to be captured, taken to a zoo and made an object of study, it has been made into a document. It has become physical evidence being used by those who study it. Indeed, scholarly articles written about the antelope are secondary documents, since the antelope itself is the primary document." This opinion has been interpreted as an early expression of actor–network theory. Documents are sometimes classified as secret, private, or public, they may be described as drafts or proofs. When a document is copied, the source is denominated the "original". Standards are accepted for specific applications in various fields, e.g.: Academia: manuscript, thesis and journal Business: invoice, quote, RFP, contract, packing slip, report, spread sheet, MSDS, bill of lading, financial statement, nondisclosure agreement, mutual nondisclosure agreement, user guide Government and politics: application, certificate, constitutional document, gazette, identity document, license and white paper Media: mock-up and scriptSuch standard documents can be drafted based on a template.
The page layout of a document is the manner in which information is graphically arranged in the space of the document, e.g. on a page. If the appearance of the document is of concern, page layout is the responsibility of a graphic designer. Typography concerns the design of letter and symbol forms and their physical arrangement in the document. Information design concerns the effective communication of information in industrial documents and public signs. Simple textual documents may not require visual design and may be drafted only by an author, clerk, or transcriber. Forms may require a visual design for their initial fields, but not to complete the forms. Traditionally, the medium of a document was paper and the information was applied to it in ink, either by hand writing or by mechanical process. Today, some short documents may consist of sheets of paper stapled together. Documents were inscribed with ink on papyrus or parchment; the papyrus or parchment was rolled into a scroll or cut into sheets and bound into a codex.
Contemporary electronic means of memorializing and displaying documents include: Monitor of a desktop computer, tablet PC, et cetera. Digital documents require a specific file format in order to be presentable in a specific medium. Documents in all forms serve as material evidence in criminal and civil proceedings; the forensic analysis of such a document is
An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime, are kept to show the function of that person or organization. Professional archivists and historians understand archives to be records that have been and generated as a product of regular legal, administrative, or social activities, they have been metaphorically defined as "the secretions of an organism", are distinguished from documents that have been consciously written or created to communicate a particular message to posterity. In general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are unpublished and always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist; this means that archives are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can be found within library buildings.
A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science; the physical place of storage can be referred to an archives, or a repository. When referring to historical records or the places they are kept, the plural form archives is chiefly used; the computing use of the term'archive' should not be confused with the record-keeping meaning of the term. First attested in English in early 17th century, the word archive is derived from the French archives, in turn from Latin archīum or archīvum, the romanized form of the Greek ἀρχεῖον, "public records, town-hall, residence, or office of chief magistrates", itself from ἀρχή, amongst others "magistracy, government", which comes from the verb ἄρχω, "to begin, govern"; the word developed from the Greek ἀρχεῖον, which refers to the home or dwelling of the Archon, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted under the authority of the Archon.
The adjective formed from archive is archival. The practice of keeping official documents is old. Archaeologists have discovered archives of hundreds of clay tablets going back to the third and second millennia BC in sites like Ebla, Amarna, Hattusas and Pylos; these discoveries have been fundamental to know ancient alphabets, languages and politics. Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, ancient Romans. However, they have been lost, since documents written on materials like papyrus and paper deteriorated at a faster pace, unlike their stone tablet counterparts. Archives of churches and cities from the Middle Ages survive and have kept their official status uninterruptedly until now, they are the basic tool for historical research on these ages. England after 1066 developed archival research methods; the Swiss developed archival systems after 1450. Modern archival thinking has many roots from the French Revolution; the French National Archives, who possess the largest archival collection in the world, with records going as far back as 625 A.
D. were created in 1790 during the French Revolution from various government and private archives seized by the revolutionaries. Historians, lawyers, demographers and others conduct research at archives; the research process at each archive is unique, depends upon the institution that houses the archive. While there are many kinds of archives, the most recent census of archivists in the United States identifies five major types: academic, government, non-profit, other. There are four main areas of inquiry involved with archives: material technologies, organizing principles, geographic locations, tangled embodiments of humans and non-humans; these areas help to further categorize. Archives in colleges and other educational facilities are housed within a library, duties may be carried out by an archivist. Academic archives exist to serve the academic community. An academic archive may contain materials such as the institution's administrative records and professional papers of former professors and presidents, memorabilia related to school organizations and activities, items the academic library wishes to remain in a closed-stack setting, such as rare books or thesis copies.
Access to the collections in these archives is by prior appointment only. Users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students and staff, scholarly researchers, the general public. Many academic archives work with alumni relations departments or other campus institutions to help raise funds for their library or school. Qualifications for employment may vary. Entry-level positions require an undergraduate diploma, but archivists hold graduate degrees in history or library science. Subject-area specialization becomes more common in higher ranking positions. Archives located in for-profit institutions are those owned by a private business. Examples of prominent business archives in the United States include Coca-Cola (which owns the