The Director of the United States Mint is a presidential appointment that requires a Senate confirmation. David J. Ryder became director in April 2018, he served as the mint director from 1992 to 1993. When the position of the director is vacant, the senior career official of the mint serves as the acting director; until the appointment of Ryder as director, the Mint had been without an official director since the resignation of Edmund C. Moy in 2011. Richard A. Peterson was the longest-serving acting director in the Mint's history. Peterson served between January 2011 and March 2017. In July 2015, Matthew Rhett Jeppson was nominated by President Barack Obama to become the Mint's 39th director and was given the temporary title of principal deputy director. However, the nomination was never confirmed by the Senate. Jeppson stepped down as principal deputy director in January 2017 replaced by acting principal deputy director David Motl; the office of Director has existed since the creation of the Mint by the Coinage Act of 1792.
Appointed serving at the pleasure of the President of the United States, the Coinage Act of 1873 specified a five-year term for directors. The director operates with general directions provided by the United States Secretary of the Treasury. "Directors of the Mint: 1792–2011". United States Mint. Archived from the original on May 10, 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-10
Ecological debt refers to the accumulated debt of wealthier countries for having plundered poorer countries by the exploitation of their resources, the degradation of their natural habitat, the beggaring of local people and/or the free occupation of environmental space for waste discharge. The definition in itself has varied over the years and several scholars have attempted a greater specification of the concept. Within the ecological debt definition, two types of aspects are understood: the ecological damage caused over time by a country in one or other countries or to ecosystems beyond national jurisdiction through its production and consumption patterns; the term'ecological debt' first appeared on paper in 1985, in a yellow booklet with the title “Women in movement" made by the German ecofeminist Eva Quistorp and edited by the Green Party in Germany in 1985. The work was intended to be used for a workshop she gave on'women and ecology' in Nairobi during the United Nation Women’s Conference.
In 1992, the term appeared again in two reports published in different places around the world: “Deuda ecológica” by Robleto and Marcelo in Chile and “Miljöskulden” by Jernelöv in Sweden. Robleto and Marcelo's report, published by the critical NGO Instituto de Ecologia Politica, was a political and activist response to the global environmental negotiations happening during the Rio Summit, it shed light on the debate occurring in Latin America since the 1980s about the crucial nature's heritage, consumed and not returned. On the other hand, Jernelöv's report goal was to calculate the Swedish debt for future generation and was intended to serve nationally for the Swedish Environmental Advisory. Although the last one had less world-wide influence in the concept's debate, it is important to note that both reports have opposite approach in considering the ecological debt: Robleto and Marcelo's report expresses it in symbolic terms, focusing on the moral and political aspects, whereas Jernelöv's report tries to quantify and monetize it in economic terms.
In 1994, the Colombian lawyer Borrero, wrote a book on ecological debt. It referred to the environmental liabilities of Northern countries for the excessive per capita production of greenhouse gases and at present; the concept has been reused by some environmental organizations from the Global South. Campaigns on the ecological debt were launched since 1997 by Accion Ecologica of Ecuador and Friends of the Earth. Overall, the ecological debt'movement' was born of the convergence of three main factors during the 80s-90s: 1) the consequences of the debt crisis in the 70s due to the Volcker shocks or the drastic increase of interest rates. In 2009, ecofeminist scholar Ariel Salleh explained how the capitalist processes at work in the global North exploit nature and people ultimately sustaining a large ecological debt in her article, "Ecological Debt: Embodied Debt". At the 1992 Rio Earth Summit and corporate leaders from the global North introduced the supposed solution for the foreign debt crisis in the global South.
They proposed'debt for nature swaps', which means that those countries that possess abundant biodiversity and environmental resources would give them up to the global North in return for the World Bank reducing their debt. Feminist environmentalists, Indigenous activists, peasants from the Global South, exposed how the Global North is much more indebted to the Global South. Salleh justified this by explaining how the 500-year-long colonization process involving the extraction of resources has caused immense damage and destruction to the ecosystem of the Global South. In fact, scientists at the US National Academy for Sciences state that in the time period of 1961–2000, by analyzing the cost of greenhouse gas emissions created by the rich alone, it has become apparent that the rich have imposed climate changes on the poor that outweigh the poor's foreign debt. All of this environmental degradation amounts to ecological debt, seizing the people's livelihood resources in the Global South. In 2009 as well, Andrew Simms used the ecological debt in a more bio-physical way and defined it as the consumption of resources from within an ecosystem that exceeds the system's regenerative capacity.
This is seen in particular in non-renewable resources. In a general sense in his work, it refers to the depletion of global resources beyond the Earth's ability to regenerate them; the concept in this sense is based on the bio-physical carrying capacity of an ecosystem. The imperative of sustainability requires human society to live within the means of the ecological system to support life over the long term. Ecological debt is a feature of unsustainable economic systems. There have been several debates around the notion of ecological debt, this is because the concept arises from various social movements in response to the distributional injust
Barberton Chicken known as Serbian Fried Chicken, is a style of fried chicken native to the city of Barberton in Summit County, Ohio. It is a distinctive Serbian-American style served in several Serbian-owned restaurants in Barberton and nearby Norton and in other surrounding communities; the style of chicken has given the town national recognition, with some proclaiming Barberton to be the "Chicken Capital of the World" or the "Fried Chicken Capital of America." Barberton chicken began with Milchael and Smilka Topalsky, Serbian immigrants who arrived to America at the turn of the 20th century. Like many during the Great Depression, they became burdened with debt and were forced to sell their family farm, they opened a restaurant called Belgrade Gardens in 1933 in which they sold a distinctive style of fried chicken, along with a vinegar-based cole slaw, a rice and tomato sauce side dish seasoned with hot peppers, freshly cut french fries. Barberton lore holds that these were exact replicas of what the Topalskys had known back in Serbia as pohovana piletina, kupus salata and pomfrit.
Soon other restaurants emerged. Helen DeVore, who had worked for Belgrade Gardens, opened up Hopocan Gardens in 1946. White House Chicken Dinners was founded in 1950 by the Pavkov family, who owned the restaurant until the late 1980s when they sold it to the DeVore family; the Serbian-American Milich family opened Milich's Village Inn, in 1955. The Milich family announced in July 2014 that they would close down their restaurant on December 31. A month the location reopened under new ownership as Village Inn Chicken, still serving the signature fried poultry. Today, the four chicken houses serve over seven and a half tons of chicken per week; the chicken has become so popular that it is shipped around the United States to transplanted Ohioans. White House Chicken has expanded into several locations in northeastern Ohio, dropping the traditional sit-down style in favor of a fast food model. In August 2010, the Food Network recorded a segment of the show Food Feuds in Barberton. In that segment, Iron Chef Michael Symon declared Belgrade Gardens the winner over White House.
The basic tenets of Barberton chicken are simple, yet adhered to by the competing restaurants. They are as follows: "True" Barberton chicken is fresh, never frozen. Neither the chicken nor the breading is seasoned with anything; the birds are fried in lard. This gives the chicken a uniformly brown crust, crisp, yet chewy, while the meat is juicy; this has given Barberton chicken a reputation for being unhealthy. The cut of the bird is different from usual. Birds are cut into many pieces, including breasts, legs, wings and backs; this is rooted in the Great Depression, when creating the most pieces per chicken without yielding any waste was necessary. The backs yield little meat, are sometimes marketed as "chicken ribs" for their passing resemblance to beef or pork ribs. Karadjordje's Steak Fried chicken Koltnow, Ronald. Barberton Fried Chicken: An Ohio Original. American Palate. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 1467139726