Discus throw

The discus throw known as disc throw, is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than their competitors. It is an ancient sport. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated back to at least to 708 BC, it is part of the modern decathlon; the sport of throwing the discus traces back to it being an event in the original Olympic Games of Ancient Greece. The discus as a sport was resurrected in Magdeburg, Germany, by Christian Georg Kohlrausch and his students in the 1870s. Organized Men's competition was resumed in the late 19th century, has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first modern competition, the 1896 Summer Olympics. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games, the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics. Today the sport of discus is a routine part of modern track-and-field meets at all levels, retains a iconic place in the Olympic Games.

The first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body was František Janda-Suk from Bohemia. He invented this technique. After only one year of developing the technique he earned a silver medal in the 1900 Olympics. Women's competition began in the first decades of the 20th century. Following competition at national and regional levels it was added to the Olympic program for the 1928 games; the men's discus is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms and diameter of 22 centimetres, the women's discus has a weight of 1 kilogram and diameter of 18 centimetres. Under IAAF rules, Youth boys throw the 1.5 kilograms discus, the Junior men throw the unique 1.75 kilograms discus, the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kilogram discus. In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through to age 49; the 1.5 kilograms discus is thrown by ages 50–59, men age 60 and beyond throw the 1 kilogram discus. Women throw the 1 kilogram discus through to age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw.

The typical discus has sides made of plastic, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown can lead to a farther throw. A solid rubber discus is sometimes used. To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m diameter, recessed in a concrete pad by 20 millimetres. The thrower takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw, he spins anticlockwise around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum releases his throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown; the basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement.

The discus is spun off the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, anticlockwise for a left-handed thrower; as well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. A faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability; the technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more. The discus technique can be broken down into phases; the purpose is to transfer from the back to the front of the throwing circle while turning through one and a half circles. The speed of delivery is high, speed is built up during the throw. Correct technique involves the buildup of torque so that maximum force can be applied to the discus on delivery.

The thrower takes up their position in the throwing circle, distributing their bodyweight evenly over both feet, which are shoulder width apart. They crouch in order to adopt a more efficient posture to start from whilst isometrically preloading their muscles, they begin the wind-up, which sets the tone for the entire throw. Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance; this is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle. For a right handed thrower, the next stage is to move the weight over the left foot. From this position the right foot is raised, the athlete'runs' across the circle. There are various techniques for this stage where the leg swings out to a small or great extent, some athletes turn on their

Billy Jones (footballer, born 1987)

Billy Jones is an English professional footballer who plays as a right-back for Rotherham United in the Football League Championship. Jones started his career at Crewe Alexandra and made his professional debut in October 2003 in a 3–0 win over Derby County. After four season playing in Crewe's back-line and midfield, he moved to Preston North End in 2007, in 2011 made his first Premier League appearance with West Bromwich Albion. Born in Shrewsbury and educated at Belvidere School, Jones joined Crewe as a trainee following a recommendation to manager Dario Gradi from former Crewe centre half Dave Walton. Jones worked his way through the Crewe Academy ranks, in 2003 signed his first professional contract for the club; the English defender made his debut for the club aged 16 against Derby County on 18 October 2003, coming on as an 89th-minute substitute for Justin Cochrane. Jones went on to play a further 26 league games, which included his first goal for the club against Wigan Athletic, which won Crewe's Goal of the Season award.

Jones won Crewe's Young Player of the Year award. Jones played 20 league and two League Cup games during the 2004–05 season, but cemented his place as a first-team regular in the 2005–06 season, making 46 appearances and scoring seven goals as Crewe were relegated from the Football League Championship. Jones played in central midfield for most of the season before moving to a left-back role following the signing of midfielder Tony Grant during the January transfer window, his goal tally made him the club's top goalscorer, he won Crewe's Player of the Year award. Jones was joined by more experienced defenders for the 2006–07 season: ex-Aston Villa player Neil Cox and former Notts County centre-half Julien Baudet. Jones played his 100th league game for the club ten games into the season against Millwall. In October 2006, Jones rejected an extension to his Crewe contract, a week Crewe put Jones on the transfer list. Several clubs were linked with a move for the young defender, most notably Premiership club Manchester City, who were, according to the Daily Mirror, lining up a £1.5 million offer for him.

While Jones was joined by Jon Otsemobor and Luke Rodgers on the Crewe transfer list, he was in a different position because of his age. Crewe manager Dario Gradi said that he would take a chance on a tribunal, meaning that Jones would stay at Crewe until the end of his contract and the club would still get a fee for his transfer. Before the end of a season in which Jones made 47 appearances, scoring once, Crewe rejected offers from Stoke City and Everton for the 20-year-old defender. On 11 June 2007, after much deliberation over which Football League Championship side he was going to join after leaving Crewe, Jones joined Preston North End on a four-year contract. On 24 August 2007, the Football League tribunal considered Jones's transfer from Crewe to Preston and decided Preston had to pay Crewe an additional £50,000 on top of the original £200,000 transfer fee, making the first payment £250,000 overall. Additional clauses were introduced, with Preston to pay Crewe £200,000 at the start of the 2008–09 season, £62,500 when Jones reached his 15th, 30th, 45th and 60th first team appearances.

The Lancashire club would have to pay Crewe another £250,000 if The Lilywhites were promoted to the Premier League, if Jones was still at the club, and, if Preston were to sell Jones, 20% of the transfer fee would to paid to Crewe. Overall, if all the criteria were fulfilled, Preston would have to pay Crewe at least £1 million. However, Preston were not promoted, Jones left Preston on a free transfer. After the sale of Graham Alexander to Burnley, Jones became Preston's first choice right-back, but played in midfield roles. On 22 February 2011, as Preston fought to avoid relegation, Jones headed in a 96th-minute equaliser against Nottingham Forest to rescue a point at the City Ground, he was appointed club captain, succeeding Sean St Ledger. With around 10 games of the season yet to be played and the'Lilywhites' more than 10 points from safety, Jones announced that he would not sign a new contract if Preston failed to remain in the Championship. Despite a short surge towards the end of the season, Preston North End were relegated after a 1–0 home defeat to Cardiff City, with a further 2 games still remaining.

Jones was awarded with the Player of the Year for 2010–11 before his final game at Deepdale because he had been played out of position for a lot of games, due to Preston's lack of choice at the Left-Back Position. Jones captained Preston in their final game of the 2010–11 season: a 3–1 home victory against Watford. On 3 June 2011, Jones joined Premier League side West Bromwich Albion on a free transfer, having agreed a three-year contract. Jones made 17 Premier League appearances in his debut top-flight season; the former Preston full-back provided cover for Steven Reid, ruled out for the season, after picking up an ankle injury against Chelsea in March 2012. Jones was involved in six of Albion's ten Premier League clean sheets in his first season, including a 0–0 draw with future champions Manchester City on Boxing Day and a historic 1–0 triumph at Liverpool in April 2012. Jones scored his first goal for West Brom in a 1–1 draw against Newcastle United on 20 April 2013. On 28 May 2014, Jones joined Sunderland on a free transfer after he rejected a new contract at West Bromwich Albion.

He said "I'm happy to be here and I'm looking forward to getting back for pre-season and kicking on, I've played at the Stadium of Light a number of times so I know what great backing the club has. I knew I was signing for a massive club with everything in place to kick on up the league and carry on mov

West Palatine travelling music tradition

The West Palatine travelling music tradition were part of a tradition established by travelling musicians from a region of West Palatinate in Germany, now called Musikantenland. The tradition had its heyday between 1850 and the First World War. During this time, several thousand musicians travelled through the world and a livelihood for themselves and their families; the West Palatinate has always been one of the poorest agricultural regions of Germany. In the 19th century, transport links to industrial centres did not exist and harvests, such as those of 1816/17 or 1831, were poor resulting in famine; the region was badly impacted by the decline in mining on the Königsberg and Potzberg. For many families, the way out of this misery was either to emigrate or to work as migrant workers in the better-off regions of Europe; the economic boom in France during the reign of Napoleon, for example, attracted many Germans to southern France, where they found work in the ports. At the same time, migrant trades developed in various professions that sold home-made products abroad, such as brushes and brooms from Ramberg or shoes from the Pirmasens area.

The reasons why the inhabitants of the region that became the Musikantenland, betweenKusel, Kaiserslautern and Meisenheim devoted themselves to the presentation of music are not known. It is assumed that the significance of Electoral court in Mannheim as the music centre of Europe in the 18th century played an important role in this development. Miners, recruited from Saxony, Thuringia or the Alsace to extract the mineral resources at Königsberg and Potzberg and who played the folk music of their homeland in their free time, are said to have contributed to the musicality of the inhabitants of the Musikantenland; the names of the first musicians to travel around, who could thus be regarded as role models, are unknown, nor is it known when the first journeys were undertaken. Thecode civil introduced during the French period, which among other things brought commercial freedom, led to the fact that, from 1800 onwards, the secondary job title of "musician" is to be found more and more often. In the early days, the first musicians played at church festivals or other festivals in the surrounding area or in neighbouring countries.

Since it was economically worthwhile and more bands formed around 1830, so that the travelling area had to be extended as well. In the beginning, they travelled to areas where many Germans lived as emigrants or migrant workers, came as far as southern France or Spain; the number of passports issued for international travel increased from year to year. The Bavarian state government - the Palatinate had been part of the Kingdom of Bavaria since Congress of Vienna - became aware of the growing number of musicians. However, since it was alleviating the economic hardship in the West Palatinate, it was decided not to take action against it. Only school-age children, who accompanied their fathers or relatives more and more were banned from travelling. From 1850, it was trained musicians who played in the bands; the bands now travelled all over Europe and went overseas - Asia, Australia and above all America were worthwhile destinations. Everywhere, they were known as "Mackenbachers" if they came from other places.

Mackenbach was, however, a typical musicians' village. The number of musicians and bands grew steadily. In 1909 alone, 1,043 wandering musicians were identified from county of Kusel on the basis of passport applications. At that time it was possible to travel to some countries without a passport - in England only 100 gold marks and a valid employment contract needed to be shown - it is assumed that at the turn of the century around 2,500 musicians were on tour every year. Over time, the musicians became the standard of training improved. In English seaside resorts, wealthy citizens spent the summer months; the West Palatine musicians were welcome there, as long as they adapted to the increased demands of the audience. In order to be engaged by the baths and spas, their usual street clothes had to be exchanged for uniforms and contemporary pieces of music by well-known composers had to be included in the repertoire. To communicate with employers and officials, at least the conductor had to speak foreign languages.

Hubertus Kilian, for example, understood Italian and Spanish. There were bands that travelled on foot from place to place through the emigrant regions and played in town squares, but the proceeds from street performances alone were lower; those who were unable to converse in foreign languages and only had Palatine folk music in their programme could not hope for permanent employment. Another, crisis-proof sector was the circus, which offered work for some musicians after the First World War. In the 19th century, large circus companies developed. There was a great demand for musicians and many Palatines from Mackenbach, found well paid jobs at Hagenbeck, Sarrasani or Busch. In the hometowns, instrument-making developed as a flourishing industry, as did the businesses of the cloth makers and tailors. Music brought prosperity to the once impoverished region, many musicians returned as wealthy men, sometimes after years of absence; the start of the First World War marked the beginning of the end for touring music bands that had just reached its absolute climax.

Many men had to go to war, most of the job opportunities for musicians were eliminated and Germany's borders were blocked. Musicians who were caught out by the start of the war during a