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Track and field

Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running and throwing. The name is derived from where the sport takes place, a running track and a grass field for the throwing and some of the jumping events. Track and field is categorized under the umbrella sport of athletics, which includes road running, cross country running, racewalking; the foot racing events, which include sprints, middle- and long-distance events and hurdling, are won by the athlete who completes it in the least time. The jumping and throwing events are won by those who achieve height. Regular jumping events include long jump, triple jump, high jump and pole vault, while the most common throwing events are shot put, javelin and hammer. There are "combined events" or "multi events", such as the pentathlon consisting of five events, heptathlon consisting of seven events, decathlon consisting of ten events. In these, athletes participate in a combination of field events. Most track and field events are individual sports with a single victor.

Events are exclusively divided by gender, although both the men's and women's competitions are held at the same venue. If a race has too many people to run all at once, preliminary heats will be run to narrow down the field of participants. Track and field is one of the oldest sports. In ancient times, it was an event held in conjunction with festivals and sports meets such as the Ancient Olympic Games in Greece. In modern times, the two most prestigious international track and field competitions are the athletics competition at the Olympic Games and the IAAF World Athletics Championships; the International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body. Records are kept of the best performances in specific events, at world and national levels, right down to a personal level. However, if athletes are deemed to have violated the event's rules or regulations, they are disqualified from the competition and their marks are erased. In North America, the term track and field may be used to refer to other athletics events, such as cross country, the marathon and road running, rather than track-based events.

The sport of track and field has its roots in human prehistory. Track and field-style events are among the oldest of all sporting competitions, as running and throwing are natural and universal forms of human physical expression; the first recorded examples of organized track and field events at a sports festival are the Ancient Olympic Games. At the first Games in 776 BC in Olympia, only one event was contested: the stadion footrace; the scope of the Games expanded in years to include further running competitions, but the introduction of the Ancient Olympic pentathlon marked a step towards track and field as it is recognized today—it comprised a five-event competition of the long jump, javelin throw, discus throw, stadion footrace, wrestling. Track and field events were present at the Panhellenic Games in Greece around this period, they spread to Rome in Italy around 200 BC. After the period of Classical antiquity new track and field events began developing in parts of Northern Europe in the Middle Ages.

The stone put and weight throw competitions popular among Celtic societies in Ireland and Scotland were precursors to the modern shot put and hammer throw events. One of the last track and field events to develop was the pole vault, which stemmed from competitions such as the Fierljeppen contests in the Northern European Lowlands in the 18th century. Discrete modern track and field competitions, separate from general sporting festivals, were first recorded in the 19th century; these were organised by educational institutions, military organisations and sports clubs as competitions between rival establishments. Competitions in the English public schools were conceived as human equivalents of horse racing, fox hunting and hare coursing, influenced by a Classics-rich curriculum; the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt is the oldest running club in the world, with written records going back to 1831 and evidence that it was established by 1819. The school organised Paper Chase races in which runners followed a trail of paper shreds left by two "foxes".

The first definite record of Shrewsbury's Annual Steeplechase is in 1834, making it the oldest running race of the modern era. The school lays claim to the oldest track and field meeting still in existence, originating in the Second Spring Meeting first documented in 1840; this featured a series of throwing and jumping events with mock horse races including the Derby Stakes, the Hurdle Race and the Trial Stakes. Runners were named as though they were horses. 13 miles away and a decade the first Wenlock Olympian Games were held at Much Wenlock racecourse. Events at the 1851 Wenlock Games included a "half-mile foot race" and a "leaping in distance" competition. In 1865, Dr William Penny Brookes of Wenlock helped set up the National Olympian Association, which held their first Olympian Games in 1866 at The Crystal Palace in London; this national event was a great success. In response, that same year the Amateur Athletic Club was formed and held a championship for "gentlemen amateurs" in an attempt to reclaim the sport for the educated elite.

The "allcomers" ethos of the NOA won through and the AAC was reconstituted as the Amateur Athletic Association in 1880, the first national body for the sport

List of ice cream parlor chains

This is a list of notable ice cream parlor chains. Ice cream parlors are places that sell ice cream, sorbet and/or frozen yogurt to consumers. Ice cream is sold as regular ice cream and soft serve, dispensed by a machine with a limited number of flavors, it is customary for ice cream parlors to offer several ice cream items. Amorino Abbott's Frozen Custard Amy's Ice Creams Andy's Frozen Custard Angelo Brocato's Australian Homemade Bakdash Baskin-Robbins Beacon Drive In Ben & Jerry's Berthillon Big Gay Ice Cream Blue Bell Creameries Braum's Brigham's Ice Cream Brooklyn Ice Cream Factory Bruster's Ice Cream Cadwalader's Ice Cream Carl's Ice Cream Carvel Ciao Bella Gelato Company Cold Rock Ice Creamery Cold Stone Creamery Coolhaus Coppelia Cows Creamery Culver's Dairy Queen Emack & Bolio's Farrell's Ice Cream Parlour Fentons Creamery Fosters Freeze Four Seas Ice Cream Freddy's Frozen Custard & Steakburgers Friendly's G&D's Giolitti Good Times Burgers & Frozen Custard Graeter's Grido Helado Häagen-Dazs Handel's Homemade Ice Cream & Yogurt Happy Joe's Herrell's Ice Cream High's Dairy Store Jeni's Splendid Ice Creams KaleidoScoops Kopp's Frozen Custard Kawartha Dairy Company Lappert's Lares Ice Cream Parlor Laura Secord Chocolates Llaollao MADO MaggieMoo's Ice Cream and Treatery Marble Slab Creamery Margie's Candies Mauds Ice Creams Max and Mina's Meadows Frozen Custard Menchie's Frozen Yogurt Mikey Likes It Ice Cream Mr Whippy Natural Ice Cream New Zealand Natural Newport Creamery Oberweis Dairy Paletería La Michoacana Penn State University Creamery Rita's Italian Ice Salt & Straw San Francisco Creamery Sanders Confectionery Sarris Candies Shake Shack Shake's Frozen Custard Sonic Drive-In Sprinkles Ice Cream Steve's Ice Cream Strickland's Frozen Custard Swensen's TCBY Tastee-Freez Ted Drewes Toscanini's Tropical Sno Twistee Treat Vic's Ice Cream Wendy's Supa Sundaes Wheeler's Frozen Dessert Co.

Whitey's Ice Cream Bresler's Ice Cream Jahn's List of casual dining restaurant chains List of desserts List of fast food restaurants List of frozen yogurt companies List of ice cream brands List of ice cream flavors Lists of restaurants Media related to Ice cream parlors at Wikimedia Commons

Section 8 (video game)

Section 8 is a first-person shooter developed by TimeGate Studios and published by SouthPeak Games. It utilizes the Unreal Engine 3 and was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, it was released in September 2009 for Xbox 360 and PC, for the PlayStation 3 on March 25, 2010 in North America and April 15, 2010 in the PAL region. In Section 8, characters wear powered armor suits which provide damage absorption and augmented mobility. Players can use "overdrive" to move horizontally at superhuman speeds, or activate vertical thrusters to achieve new heights. Players are able to "burn-in" by dropping onto the battlefield from orbital dropships hovering at 15,000 feet from the surface, thus eliminating fixed spawn points. "Burning-in" creates the opportunity for the player to choose where they drop on the map, granting the game an increased aspect of unpredictability. This process is an interactive experience as players can be shot down upon entry by players and anti-aircraft turrets alike, though these situations can be avoided or mitigated by using the "air-brake" feature which allows the player to make mid-air adjustments.

Players are encouraged to work in teams to defend one another. They may deploy defensive structures such as Mini-Gun Turrets, Rocket Turrets, Anti-Air Turrets, Supply Depots, or Sensor Arrays to protect friendly-controlled objectives, or deploy vehicles such as Tanks or Heavy Armors which can operate to assault enemy-controlled objectives. Players can purchase these using "Requisition Points" which are awarded to the player for various feats they perform through play. Players are able to choose their primary and secondary weapons, such as assault rifles, pistols and sniper rifles, as well as grenades, knives, mortar launchers and healing units; the player is able to create their own player class through various stackable modules that determine the player's speed, stealth, or the regeneration of the limited-use jetpack. Excessive damage endured by the player to certain parts of their body, such as their legs, head, or chest, may disable or hinder the use of these enhancements. Dynamic Combat Missions, a type of mini-game, can be activated mid-combat by the player, can reward the player with Requisition Points when completed successfully.

Some DCMs will include protecting a convoy, capture intelligence, or assassinating an enemy character. Section 8 includes a single-player campaign mode called "Corde's Story" that allows the player to proceed as a character named Alex Corde of the 8th Armored Infantry; the first several missions take place on the arid planet New Madrid and move to a temperate planet. The single-player campaign consists of eight objective-based missions on the same maps as multiplayer that serve as a tutorial to the player for multiplayer play. Section 8 supports X-Server functionality, where players can run their own dedicated servers for Xbox 360 games using a Windows-based PC. An X Server can handle up to 32 players at once. Similar to this, the PlayStation 3 version supports TGNServer technology which allows players to host dedicated servers using a Windows-based PC with up to 32 players; the PC version features a 40-player maximum with dedicated servers, 32-player maximum with P2P servers. Computer-controlled characters may be used to fill remaining slots in multiplayer games for Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, PC.

The name "Section 8" is derived from an old United States military discharge regulation for reason of being mentally unfit for service, refers to the 8th Armored Infantry in the game because of their participation in near-suicidal missions. Section 8 takes place in the future after the human race has discovered interstellar travel and has colonized across the galaxy. At the time of the game, a group called the Arm of Orion, has begun to'disconnect' the outermost frontier planets from the main governing body, taking them over while keeping their presence hidden from the government; as space travel is slow, it takes weeks to communicate with or travel to a frontier world, affording the Arm with enough time to seize worlds and build their base of power preparing an ambush for the government forces that will respond. The government discovers the Arm of Orion, sends in the 8th Armored Infantry, including Alex Corde, on a mission to investigate, fight, the Arm invasion. TimeGate Studios cited Aliens and Blade Runner as major influences for the game.

An open beta for Section 8 was made available at FilePlanet. Access to the game's beta was limited to residents in the U. S and Canada, but the beta was made public. Attendees of Multiplay's i37 got a beta key despite being in the UK. A downloadable demo was released on Xbox Live on August 21, 2009; this multiplayer-only demo allows for online play on Xbox Live or offline play with AI-controlled bots on one map for indefinite playtime. There was speculation that a PlayStation 3 version would release alongside the Xbox 360 and PC versions, though it was not released during this time-frame. Speaking at Gamescom 2009, SouthPeak Games, the publisher, said that a PlayStation 3 version existed, but there were no dates yet on its release. On February 16, 2010, the game was announced as a PlayStation Network exclusive downloadable title, published by TimeGate Studios; the downloadable version would include the three bonus maps that were released for the Xbox 360 and PC versions, along with a number of other reported improvements.

This version includes the ability for 32-player games to be hosted on a PC. On March 25, 2010, the game was released on the PlayStation Network in North America, it was released in the PAL region on April 15, 2010