A dishwasher is a machine for cleaning dishware and cutlery automatically. Unlike manual dishwashing, which relies on physical scrubbing to remove soiling, the mechanical dishwasher cleans by spraying hot water between 45 and 75 °C, at the dishes, with lower temperatures used for delicate items. A mix of water and dishwasher detergent is pumped to one or more rotating spray arms, which blast the dishes with the cleaning mixture. Once the wash is finished, the water is drained, more hot water enters the tub by means of an electro-mechanical solenoid valve, the rinse cycle begins. After the rinse cycle finishes and the water is drained, the dishes are dried using one of several drying methods. A rinse-aid, a chemical to reduce surface tension of the water, is used to reduce water spots from hard water or other reasons. In addition to domestic units, industrial dishwashers are available for use in commercial establishments such as hotels and restaurants, where many dishes must be cleaned. Washing is conducted with temperatures of 65–71 °C and sanitation is achieved by either the use of a booster heater that will provide an 82 °C "final rinse" temperature or through the use of a chemical sanitizer.
The first mechanical dishwashing device was registered in 1850 in the United States by Joel Houghton. This device was cranked by hand while water sprayed onto the dishes; this device was both unreliable. Another patent was granted to L. A. Alexander in 1865, similar to the first but featured a hand-cranked rack system. Neither device was practical or accepted; the most successful of the hand-powered dishwashers was invented in 1886 by Josephine Cochrane together with mechanic George Butters in Josephine's tool shed in Shelbyville, Illinois when Cochrane wanted to protect her china while it was being washed. Her invention was unveiled at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, Illinois under the name of Lavadora but was changed to Lavaplatos as another machine invented in 1858 held that name. Cochrane's inspiration was her frustration at the damage to her good china that occurred when her servants handled it during cleaning. Europe's first domestic dishwasher with an electric motor was invented and manufactured by Miele in 1929.
In the United Kingdom, William Howard Livens invented a small, non-electric dishwasher suitable for domestic use in 1924. It was the first dishwasher that incorporated most of the design elements that are featured in the models of today. Drying elements were added to his design in 1940, it was the first machine suitable for domestic use, it came at a time when permanent plumbing and running water in the house was becoming common. Despite this, Liven's design did not become a commercial success, dishwashers were only sold as domestic utilities in the postwar boom of the 1950s, albeit only to the wealthy. Dishwashers were sold as standalone or portable devices, but with the development of the wall-to-wall countertop and standardized height cabinets, dishwashers began to be marketed with standardized sizes and shapes, integrated underneath the kitchen countertop as a modular unit with other kitchen appliances. By the 1970s, dishwashers had become commonplace in domestic residences in North America and Western Europe.
By 2012, over 75 percent of homes in the United States and Germany had dishwashers. In the late 1990s, manufacturers began offering various new energy conservation features in dishwashers. One feature was use of "soil sensors", a computerized tool in the dishwasher which measured food particles coming from dishes; when the dishwasher had cleaned the dishes to the point of not releasing more food particles the soil sensor would report the dishes being cleaned. The sensor operated with another innovation of using variable washing time. If dishes were dirty the dishwasher would run for a longer time than if the sensor detected them to be clean. In this way, the dishwasher saves water by only being in operation for as long as needed. Dishwashers that are installed into standard kitchen cabinets have a standard width and depth of 60 cm or 24 inches, most dishwashers must be installed into a hole a minimum of 86 cm or 34 inches tall. Portable dishwashers exist in 45 and 60 cm or 18 and 24 inch widths, with casters and attached countertops.
Dishwashers may come in standard or tall tub designs. The international standard for the capacity of a dishwasher is expressed as standard place settings. Commercial dishwashers are rated as plates per hour; the rating is based on standard-sized plates of the same size. The same can be said for commercial glass washers, as they are based on standard glasses pint glasses. Present-day machines feature a drop-down front panel door, allowing access to the interior, which contains two or sometimes three pull-out racks. In older U. S. models from the 1950s, the entire tub rolled out when the machine latch was opened, loading as well as removing washable items was from the top, with the user reaching deep into the compartment for some items. Youngstown Kitchens, which manufactured entire kitchen cabinets and sinks, offered a tub-style dishwasher, coupled to a conventional kitchen sink as one unit. Most present-day machines allow for placement of
Deeping St James Priory was a priory in Deeping St James, England. In 1139 Baldwin Fitz Gilbert established the Benedictine Priory of Saint James at Deeping as a cell of Thorney Abbey; the cell was dissolved at the surrender of Thorney in 1539. The priory church remains as the Church of England parish church of Deeping St James and is a Grade I listed building; the church contained an organ dating from 1902 by Smith. On the south-east side of the churchyard was the priory tithe barn, which measured 90 feet by 20 feet, 6 inches internally, it has variously been described as late 15th century, or 17th century. It was demolished in 1963. There are no surface remains of the monastic house; the list of known names is incomplete: Jocelyn, occurs in the 12th century James Nassington, occurs 1299 Thomas of Gosberkirk, occurs from 1329 to 1347 John de Charteris, occurs 1358 and 1365 William Lee, last prior. The Priory Church of St James
Józef Smoleński was a soldier of Polish Legions in World War I and General brygady of the Polish Army. He fought in World War I, Polish–Soviet War and World War II, serving in the military forces from 1914 until 1945. Born on September 18, 1894 in the village of Gostkowo, Russian-controlled Congress Poland, Smoleński studied at the University of Liege, at Warsaw University of Life Sciences, where he joined the Riflemen's Association and moved from Congress Poland to Austrian Galicia. On August 6, 1914, Smoleński marched from Kraków towards Russian Poland, as a soldier of 2nd Platoon, First Cadre Company, he served in 1st Uhlan Regiment of Władysław Belina-Prażmowski. After the Oath crisis, he was interned by the Germans in Szczypiorno, to be released in November 1918. Smoleński joined the newly created Polish Army, serving until September 1922 in the 7th Regiment of Lublin Uhlans, he studied at Wyższa Szkoła Wojenna in Warsaw. After graduation, he became officer of the Polish General Staff, in 1925 - 1928 served in the 4th Cavalry Division in Lwów.
In May 1930, Smoleński was named commandant of the 2nd Regiment of Grochow Uhlans, stationed in Suwałki. In August 1935 he was sent to the Cavalry Training Center in Grudziądz, which he commanded until November 1938. In February 1939, Smoleński became head of the Second Department of Polish General Staff. After the 1939 Invasion of Poland, Smolenski managed to escape to France. In May 1940, General Władysław Sikorski appointed him deputy of General Kazimierz Sosnkowski, commandant of the Union of Armed Struggle. Using nom de guerre Lukasz. Smoleński was responsible for planning of an armed uprising in occupied Poland. In August 1940, after the collapse of France, he came to London, was named commandant of Second Department of the General Staff, he was one of the main advisers of General Sosnkowski. In 1941 - 1945, he held different posts in the Polish Armed Forces in the West, including command of the 3rd Carpathian Rifle Division. After the war, he was an active member of Polish community and chair of Jozef Pilsudski Institute in London.
On January 1, 1964, he was promoted to the rank of General brygady. Józef Smoleński died in London on January 19, 1978, was buried at Gunnersbury Cemetery. Silver Cross of the Virtuti Militari, Commander's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta, Cross of Independence, Cross of Valour Gold Cross of Merit, Commander's Cross of the Order of the Cross of the Eagle. 2nd Regiment of Grochow Uhlans Tadeusz Pełczyński Prometheism Grzegorz Nowik i Maciej Smolenski, Ósmy Ułan Beliny. Generał brygady Józef Marian Smoleński "Kolec", Oficyna Wydawnicza RYTM, 2008, ISBN 978-83-7399-291-7
The Johns Hopkins School of Education is one of nine academic divisions of the Johns Hopkins University. Established as a separate school in 2007, its origins can be traced back to the 1909 founding of Johns Hopkins’ College Courses for Teachers renamed College for Teachers, it was ranked first in the nation among graduate schools of education for 2015 by U. S. News & World Report. Program offerings, including both online and face-to-face, range from initial licensure master's degrees for those entering the teaching profession to advanced doctoral level research designed to prepare future scholars to address preK – 12 policies and practice challenges from early childhood to the adult learner; the School's three centers – the Center for Research and Reform in Education, the Center for Social Organization of Schools, the Center for Technology in Education – are home to some of the nation's most recognized academics and practitioners in educational research and among the top recipients of U. S. Department of Education grants for programs aimed at improving educational outcomes for students.
The Johns Hopkins School of Education is accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. All programs leading to certification are approved by the Maryland State Department of Education; the Johns Hopkins University is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Teacher Preparation Teacher Development and Leadership Special Education Counseling and Human Services Interdisciplinary Studies in Education Division of Public Safety Leadership Center for Research and Reform in Education Center for Technology in Education Hopkins School of Education List of Master Degrees and Graduate Certificate Programs Hopkins Division of Public Safety Leadership
The Pasarlapudi blowout was an oil rig blowout that took place on 6.50 pm, 8 January 1995 in Pasarlapudi, near Amalapuram in the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India. It was the largest blowout recorded in the history of the India's oil and natural gas exploration with a fire that engulfed drilling site number 19, rig number E 1400-18GF; the fire continued for 65 days. Neil Adams Fire Fighters was hired to bring fire under control. After ONGC disagreed with their strategy NAF left and it was brought under control on 15 March 1995 by International Well Control; the blowout did not cause any casualties. Damages to the drilling rig were estimated at Rs 9.2 crore crore as well as about Rs 7 crore of damage to equipment at the well site area. 7 villages within the 2 kilometers radius of the rig 1,500 people were evacuated by APSRTC buses. More people fled in panic from the nearby villages. Oil well fire Konaseema Amalapuram
UFC 41: Onslaught was a mixed martial arts event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship on February 28, 2003, at the Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The event was broadcast live on pay-per-view in the United States, released on DVD. UFC 41 featured two championship bouts, a Heavyweight Championship Bout between Ricco Rodriguez and Tim Sylvia, a Lightweight Championship Bout between BJ Penn and Caol Uno; the event marked the return of Tank Abbott to the UFC. Ken Shamrock served as the color commentator for this card. Ultimate Fighting Championship List of UFC champions List of UFC events 2003 in UFC Official website Sherdog event results Full Contact Fighter March 2003 News