Tableware are the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining. It includes cutlery, serving dishes and other useful items for practical as well as decorative purposes; the quality, nature and number of objects varies according to culture, number of diners and occasion. For example, Middle Eastern, Indian or Polynesian food culture and cuisine sometimes limits tableware to serving dishes, using bread or leaves as individual plates. Special occasions are reflected in higher quality tableware. Cutlery is more known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery means knives and related cutting instruments. Outside the US, flatware is a term for "open-shaped" dishware items such as plates and bowls. "Dinnerware" is another term used to refer to tableware and "crockery" refers to ceramic tableware, today porcelain or bone china. Sets of dishes are referred to dinner service or service set. Table settings or place settings are the dishes and glassware used for formal and informal dining.
In Ireland such items are referred to as delph, the word being an English language phonetic spelling of the word Delft, the town from which so much delftware came. Silver service or butler service are methods for a waiter to serve a meal. Setting the table refers to arranging the tableware, including individual place settings for each diner at the table as well as decorating the table itself in a manner suitable for the occasion. Tableware and table decoration is more elaborate for special occasions. Unusual dining locations demand tableware be adapted. In recent centuries, flatware is made of pottery, ceramic materials such as earthenware, bone china or porcelain; the triumph of ceramics is due to the spread of ceramic glazes, which were slow to develop in Europe. Table ware can be made of other materials such as wood, latten, gold, glass and plastic. Before it was possible to purchase mass-produced tableware, it was fashioned from available materials, such as wood. Industrialisation and developments in ceramic manufacture made inexpensive washable tableware available.
It is sold either by the piece or as a matched set for a number of diners four, eight, or twelve place settings. Large quantities are purchased for use in restaurants. Individual pieces, such as those needed as replacement pieces for broken dishes, can be procured from "open stock" inventory at shops, or from antique dealers if the pattern is no longer in production. Cutlery is made of metal of some kind, though large pieces such as ladles for serving may be of wood; the earliest pottery in cultures around the world does not seem to have included flatware, concentrating on pots and jars for storage and cooking. Wood does not survive well in most places, though archaeology has found few wooden plates and dishes from prehistory, they may have been common, once the tools to fashion them were available. Ancient elites in most cultures preferred flatware in precious metals at the table. In China bowls have always been preferred to plates. In Europe pewter was used by the less well off, the poor, silver or gold by the rich.
Religious considerations influenced the choice of materials. Muhammad spoke against using gold at table, as the contemporary elites of Persia and the Byzantine Empire did, this encouraged the growth of Islamic pottery. On the other hand, Hindus avoided eating off pottery. In Europe the elites dined off metal silver for the rich and pewter for the middling classes, from the ancient Greeks and Romans until the 18th century; the trencher was a large flat piece of either wood. In the Middle Ages this was a common way of serving food, the bread being eaten. Orders survive for large services. At an Este family wedding feast in Ferrara in 1565, 12,000 plates painted with the Este arms were used, though the "top table" eat off precious metal. Possession of tableware has to a large extent been determined by individual wealth; the materials used were controlled by sumptuary laws. In the late Middle Ages and for much of the Early Modern period much of a great person's disposable assets were in "plate", vessels and tableware in precious metal, what was not in use for a given meal was displayed on a dressoir de parement or buffet against the wall in the dining hall.
At the wedding of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, Isabella of Portugal in 1429, there was a dresser 20 feet long on either side of the room, each with five rows of plate. Inventories of King Charles V of France record. Plate was melted down to finance wars or building, or until the 19th century just for remaking in a more fashionable style, hardly any of the enormous quantities recorded in the Middle Ages survives; the French Royal Gold Cup now in the British Museum, in solid gold and decorated with enamel and pearls, is one o
A total of at least five special routes of U. S. Route 322 exist. U. S. Route 322 Business is a 9-mile route following the original alignment of its parent. After the mainline of the route was shifted on to the Mount Nittany Expressway, the business designation came into place; the entire route is known as Atherton Street, which begins in the west as a four-lane road, bordered by residential development. After passing by the southern entrance to Penn State University, the highway narrows to two lanes through the city center. West of downtown, the route is four lanes and offers a mix of periodic commercial development and more rural scenes. U. S. Route 322 Alternate Truck is a truck route of US 322 around a weight-restricted bridge over the East Branch Brandywine Creek in Downingtown, Pennsylvania, on which trucks over 36 tons and combination loads over 40 tons are prohibited; the route follows the US 30 freeway, PA 113, US 30 Bus./US 322 Truck. US 322 Alt. Truck runs concurrent with US 30 Bus. Alt.
Truck along US 30 and PA 113. U. S. Route 322 Truck is a 4-mile route bypass of Downingtown, Pennsylvania that provides a route for trucks around a low clearance underpass; the route travels east from the mainline along U. S. Route 30 Business, lined with shopping centers, it turns south onto Quarry Road near an interchange with U. S. Route 30, travels west past industrial development on Boot Road. Major intersections The entire route is in Chester County. U. S. Route 322 Business is a business route of US 322 in the borough and surrounding townships of West Chester in Chester County, Pennsylvania. US 322 bypasses West Chester to the north and east on the West Chester Bypass while US 322 Bus. heads through the downtown area. The business route begins at US 322 northwest of the borough and heads southeast, entering West Chester on Hannum Avenue. US 322 Bus. heads east into downtown West Chester along the one-way pair of West Market and West Chestnut streets. In the center of town, the route heads south along South High Street, passing through the West Chester University of Pennsylvania campus as it leaves the borough.
US 322 Bus. comes to its eastern terminus at an interchange with US 202/US 322 at the southern terminus of the bypass. In the 1920s, the current routing of US 322 Bus. was designated PA 5 heading northwest of West Chester and US 122/PA 29 along High Street. In the 1930s, US 322 was designated to run through the borough along Hannum Avenue, Gay Street, High Street, replacing PA 5 and running concurrent with US 202. US 322 was moved to a bypass of West Chester in the 1950s, US 322 Bus. was assigned to the former alignment of the route through the borough. US 202 was moved to the bypass by 1970; the concurrent PA 100 designation along High Street between downtown and PA 52 was removed in 2003. U. S. Route 322 Business is a 1.47-mile business route following the former alignment of US 322 through the community of Mullica Hill in Harrison Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey. The route begins at an intersection with US 322/CR 536/CR 536A and Route 45 north of Mullica Hill, heading south concurrent with Route 45/CR 536 on two-lane undivided Main Street.
The road passes some businesses in the community. In the center of Mullica Hill, US 322 Bus./CR 536 splits from Route 45 by heading east on Mullica Road and turns right onto Mullica Hill Road. The route continues through a mix of woods and residential subdivisions. US 322 Bus. reaches its eastern terminus at an intersection with US 322/CR 536A and CR 623, at which point Mullica Hill Road continues east as US 322/CR 536. US 322 Bus. is county-maintained its entire length and is unsigned. US 322 Bus. was created following the rerouting of US 322 onto the Mullica Hill Bypass in 2012. Major intersections The entire route is in Harrison Township, Gloucester County
Silver is the second EP by Jesu, their third release overall, released by Hydra Head Records on 11 April 2006. This album shows a more melodic and poppy side to the band than the previous two Jesu releases, drawing comparisons to shoegazing bands such as My Bloody Valentine and Ride. Pitchfork Media placed the title track at #488 on their "The Top 500 Tracks of the 2000s" list. Decibel ranked the EP the 26th best release of the decade; the Japanese edition of this album contains two additional mixes of the songs "Silver" and "Wolves". "Silver" – 6:44 "Star" – 7:00 "Wolves" – 8:27 "Dead Eyes" – 6:26 "Silver" – 6:57 † "Wolves" – 8:35 †† indicates a track exclusive to the Japanese edition of the album. Justin Broadrick – guitar, programming Diarmuid Dalton – bass Ted Parsons – drums on "Silver"