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Disk read-and-write head

Disk read/write heads are the small parts of a disk drive which move above the disk platter and transform the platter's magnetic field into electrical current or, vice versa, transform electrical current into magnetic field. The heads have gone through a number of changes over the years. In a hard drive, the heads'fly' above the disk surface with clearance of as little as 3 nanometres; the "flying height" is decreasing to enable higher areal density. The flying height of the head is controlled by the design of an air-bearing etched onto the disk-facing surface of the slider; the role of the air bearing is to maintain the flying height constant as the head moves over the surface of the disk. If the head hits the disk's surface, a catastrophic head crash can result. Inductive heads use the same element for both writing; the heads themselves started out similar to the heads in tape recorders—simple devices made out of a tiny C-shaped piece of magnetizable material such as permalloy or ferrite wrapped in a fine wire coil.

When writing, the coil is energized, a strong magnetic field forms in the gap of the C, the recording surface adjacent to the gap is magnetized. When reading, the magnetized material rotates past the heads, the ferrite core concentrates the field, a current is generated in the coil. In the gap the field is strong and quite narrow; that gap is equal to the thickness of the magnetic media on the recording surface. The gap determines the minimum size of a recorded area on the disk. Ferrite heads are large, write large features, they must be flown far from the surface thus requiring stronger fields and larger heads. Metal in Gap heads are ferrite heads with a small piece of metal in the head gap that concentrates the field; this allows smaller features to be written. MIG heads were replaced with thin film heads. Thin film heads were electronically similar to ferrite heads and used the same physics, but they were manufactured using photolithographic processes and thin films of material that allowed fine features to be created.

First introduced in 1979 on the IBM 3370 disk drive, thin-film technology used photolithographic techniques similar to those used on semiconductor devices to fabricate HDD heads with smaller size and greater precision than ferrite-based designs in use. Thin layers of magnetic and copper coil wiring materials are built on ceramic substrates that are physically separated into individual read/write heads integrated with their air bearing reducing the manufacturing cost per unit. Thin film heads were much smaller than MIG heads and therefore allowed smaller recorded features to be used. Thin film heads allowed 3.5 inch drives to reach 4GB storage capacities in 1995. The geometry of the head gap was a compromise between what worked best for reading and what worked best for writing; the next head improvement in head design was to separate the writing element from the reading element allowing the optimization of a thin film element for writing and a separate head element for reading. The separate read element uses the magnetoresistive effect which changes the resistance of a material in the presence of magnetic field.

These MR heads are able to read small magnetic features reliably, but can not be used to create the strong field used for writing. The term AMR is used to distinguish it from the introduced improvement in MR technology called GMR and "TMR"; the transition to perpendicular magnetic recording media has major implications for the write process and the write element of the head structure but less so for the MR read sensor of the head structure. The introduction of the AMR head in 1990 by IBM led to a period of rapid areal density increases of about 100% per year. In 1997 GMR, giant magnetoresistive heads started to replace AMR heads. Since 1990s, a number of studies have been done on the effects of colossal magnetoresistance, which may allow for greater increases in density, but so far it has not led to practical applications because it requires low temperatures and large equipment size. In 2004, the first drives to use tunneling MR heads were introduced by Seagate allowing 400 GB drives with 3 disk platters.

Seagate introduced TMR heads featuring integrated microscopic heater coils to control the shape of the transducer region of the head during operation. The heater can be activated prior to the start of a write operation to ensure proximity of the write pole to the disk/medium; this improves the written magnetic transitions by ensuring that the head's write field saturates the magnetic disk medium. The same thermal actuation approach can be used to temporarily decrease the separation between the disk medium and the read sensor during the readback process, thus improving signal strength and resolution. By mid-2006 other manufacturers have begun to use similar approaches in their products. Head crash The PC Guide: Function of the Read/Write Heads IBM Research: GMR introduction, animations Hitachi Global Storage Technologies: Recording Head Materials

Pontevedra apparitions

The Pontevedra apparitions are the Marian apparitions that Sister Lúcia, the Portuguese visionary of Our Lady of Fátima, reported receiving while living in a Dorothean convent in Spain. Eight years after the Fátima events the last surviving seer, now Sister Lúcia, was living in a Dorothean convent in Pontevedra, Spain. According to Sister Lúcia, on December 10, 1925, she experienced a vision of the Holy Virgin and the Christ Child; the Virgin showed her a heart encircled by thorns. During this alleged apparition, the Child Jesus asked Sister Lúcia "...have compassion on the heart of your most holy Mother, covered with thorns, with which ungrateful men pierce at every moment, there is no one to make an act of reparation to remove them.”At this point, the Virgin Mary is said to have set the parameters of the Five First Saturdays devotion. If one fulfilled these conditions on the First Saturday of five consecutive months, the Virgin Mary promised special graces at the hour of death; the First Saturdays devotion had been an established custom in the Catholic Church.

On July 1, 1905, Pope Pius X approved and granted indulgences for the practice of the first Saturdays of twelve consecutive months in honor of the Immaculate Conception. This apparition at Pontevedra requesting the establishment of the devotion of the Five First Saturdays is reminiscent of the apparitions reported by Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque in the 17th century which led to the establishment of the First Friday Devotion; some devotees of Our Lady of Fatima believe the devotion of the Communion of Reparation on the Five First Saturdays, is an important part of the Message of Fátima. Sister Lúcia reported that on February 15, 1926 while emptying a garbage can outside the garden, she saw a child she thought she recognized. After striking up a conversation with him, the child transformed into the Child Jesus, who reprimanded Sister Lúcia for not doing more to promote the five First Saturdays devotion. Our Lady of Fátima Sanctuary of Fátima First Saturdays Devotion EWTN Notre Dame University Online version of the book: Fátima in Sister Lúcia’s Own Words "How to make the Five First Saturdays"

Sunil Gaikwad

Sunil Baliram Gaikwad is an Indian politician from Latur in the Maharashtra state who belongs to the Bharatiya Janata Party. He combines the roles of proprietor and publisher of Vatsala Baliram Prakashan Kendra's daily newspapers Dainik Suputra, Dainik Lokshasan, Dainik Lokaprabodhan and monthly magazine Anusadhya, he lost the Latur Lok Sabha seat by around 7000 votes in 2009. He won 2014 Lok Sabha elections from Latur as BJP/NDA candidate, he had completed Doctorate PhD Bamu Aurangabad from in the Year 2015He worked for the welfare of people belonging to Dalit Community and strived to ensure social justice and employment for the people belonging to Tribal and Backward Classes. He is associated with Film Production and acted in Marathi film Manoos and Padadya Maagcha Rajkaran. India Bangal Desh coordination Committee international Buddhist peace award winner 2015 at Bangala Desh dr gaikwad is third Indian who got this award before this mother Teresa and Apj abdulkalam got this. May, 2014: Elected to 16th Lok Sabha 1 Sep. 2014 onwards: Member, Standing Committee on Information Technology.

Member parliamentary standing Committee on official language under home Ministry Govt of India. Member - consultative rural development Ministry Govt of India,Hindi salahagar samiti- Dopt Ministry and Fertilizer Ministry and finance ministry,Petroliam ministry

2013 Copa Libertadores second stage

The second stage of the 2013 Copa Libertadores de América was played from February 12 to April 18, 2013. A total of 32 teams competed in the second stage; the draw of the tournament was held on December 21, 2012, 11:00 UTC−3, at the CONMEBOL Convention Centre in Luque, Paraguay. For the second stage, the 32 teams were drawn into eight groups of four containing one team from each of the four seeding pots; the seeding of each team was determined by their qualifying berth. Teams from the same association in Pots 1 and 3 could not be drawn into the same group. However, a first stage winner, whose identity was not known at the time of the draw, could be drawn into the same group with another team from the same association; the following were the seeding of the 32 teams entered into the second stage draw, which included the 26 automatic qualifiers and the 6 first stage winners: The following were the first stage winners: Winner G1: Tigre Winner G2: Grêmio Winner G3: Deportes Tolima Winner G4: Olimpia Winner G5: São Paulo Winner G6: Iquique In the second stage, each group was played on a home-and-away round-robin basis.

Each team earned 3 points for a win, 1 point for a draw, 0 points for a loss. If tied on points, the following criteria were used to determine the ranking: 1. Goal difference. Goals scored. Away goals scored. Drawing of lots; the winners and runners-up of each group advanced to the round of 16. The matches were played on February 12–14, 19–21, 26–28, March 5–7, 12–14, April 2–4, 9–11, 16–18, 2013. Note: A 14-year-old San José fan was killed by a flare launched by Corinthians fans during the match. Copa Bridgestone Libertadores Copa Libertadores,

Juan Guillermo More

Juan Guillermo Moore Ruiz was a British Peruvian navy officer. He was killed during the Battle of Arica. Moore was born in Lima, the son of John Moore, a Scottish sailor and of Dolores Ruiz, a Peruvian lady, he joined the British Navy as an ensign in 1854. He returned to Peru and was commissioned in the Peruvian Navy, he served in the frigates Apurímac and Huaraz, as well as the Guise and the pontoon Iquique. In 1866, during the Chincha Islands War, he was appointed commander of the corvette Unión. A few months Captain Moore took a Peruvian Navy crew to the United States to bring the ironclad Atahualpa to Peru; the monitor sailed from New Orleans, La. in early January 1869 arriving in Peru in June 1870. As a reward, he was appointed as commander of the frigate Independencia and in 1877, General Commander of the Southern Fleet; as such he directed the actions to recapture the monitor Huáscar, captured by Nicolás de Piérola and had rebelled against the central government. During the War of the Pacific between Chile and Peru, he was appointed commander of the strongest unit of the Peruvian Navy, the armoured frigate Independencia.

As such, he participated in the Battle of Punta Gruesa on 21 May 1879, when his ship crashed with a submarine rock while pursuing the Chilean schooner Covadonga, commanded by Captain Carlos Condell. He was rescued from his sinking ship, imprisoned in court martialled by his own comrades, he was dismissed from the navy and forbidden to wear his uniform again. He decided to continue the war as a simple civilian. On 27 February 1880, during the Sea Battle of Arica, while in command of the Manco Capac, he disabled the captured Huascar killing her commander Captain Manuel Thomson. During the siege of Arica, he was in charge of the batteries of the Cape, where he was killed during the Battle of Arica

Skirmish Paintball

Skirmish Paintball is a paintball arena company in the United Kingdom and Australia. Paintball venues operated under the Skirmish trademark are owned. Skirmish Paintball UK was founded in 1984, celebrated their 25 year anniversary in 2009; the company runs 27 sites in the UK. Skirmish Paintball is open to play for anyone aged over 11, caters to group bookings - including bachelor or bachelorette parties, school or college events. Skirmish Paintball sites allow players to hire equipment such as camouflage suits, or pyrotechnics - including simulated hand grenades and smoke bombs. Several sites across the UK provide both Laser tag and Airsoft facilities, playable in the same paintball arenas existing on the sites - along with rental of related playing gear; the Skirmish paintball name was trademarked by Kit Peters, Martin & Simon Peniston-Bird, as the brand name got bigger, the license fee for the rights of the name "Skirmish" is now purchased individually by the private owners of the separate Skirmish sites across the UK.

Pyrotechnics that can be purchased from a Skirmish Paintball site are hand grenades and Smoke bombs, with some providing flash bangs. Hand Grenades Hand Grenades are constructed using a cardboard shell, with a fuse inside that has 20-25 paintballs around the center. To light the fuse, you must tear off the cap, use the reverse side, which resembles the side of a matchbox to spark the fuse; when the fuse is lit, there is an approximate 5 seconds before the grenade shatters and explodes, firing coloured paint in all directions. Smoke Bombs Smoke Bombs use the same lighting technology as the hand grenade, with a reverse side to the cap which you must strike against the fuse; when a smoke bomb is lit, it releases coloured smoke for about 2 minutes, to provide cover, or smoke out other paintball players. Flash Bangs Flash Bangs are more seen on airsoft days; the flash bang has the same lighting technique as the hand grenade and smoke bomb, but after the fuse has been lit, it sparks a bright white flash to temporarily blind the opposition, or any other players that were staring at the pyrotechnic when it went off.

Http:// Skirmish Paintball Official Website Play Skirmish Official Website The United Kingdom Paintball Sports FederationUKPSF - The United Kingdom Paintball Sports Federation