Disk storage

Disk storage is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks. A disk drive is a device implementing such a storage mechanism. Notable types are the hard disk drive containing a non-removable disk, the floppy disk drive and its removable floppy disk, various optical disc drives and associated optical disc media.. Audio information was recorded by analog methods; the first video disc used an analog recording method. In the music industry, analog recording has been replaced by digital optical technology where the data is recorded in a digital format with optical information; the first commercial digital disk storage device was the IBM 350 which shipped in 1956 as a part of the IBM 305 RAMAC computing system. The random-access, low-density storage of disks was developed to complement the used sequential-access, high-density storage provided by tape drives using magnetic tape. Vigorous innovation in disk storage technology, coupled with less vigorous innovation in tape storage, has reduced the difference in acquisition cost per terabyte between disk storage and tape storage.

Disk storage is now used in both computer storage and consumer electronic storage, e.g. audio CDs and video discs. Data on modern disks is stored in fixed length blocks called sectors and varying in length from a few hundred to many thousands of bytes. Gross disk drive capacity is the number of disk surfaces times the number of blocks/surface times the number of bytes/block. In certain legacy IBM CKD drives the data was stored on magnetic disks with variable length blocks, called records. Capacity decreased. Digital disk drives are block storage devices; each disk is divided into logical blocks. Blocks are addressed using their logical block addresses. Read from or writing to disk happens at the granularity of blocks; the disk capacity was quite low and has been improved in one of several ways. Improvements in mechanical design and manufacture allowed smaller and more precise heads, meaning that more tracks could be stored on each of the disks. Advancements in data compression methods permitted more information to be stored in each of the individual sectors.

The drive stores data onto cylinders and sectors. The sectors unit is the smallest size of data to be stored in a hard disk drive and each file will have many sectors units assigned to it; the smallest entity in a CD is called a frame, which consists of 33 bytes and contains six complete 16-bit stereo samples. The other nine bytes consist of eight CIRC error-correction bytes and one subcode byte used for control and display; the information is sent from the computer processor to the BIOS into a chip controlling the data transfer. This is sent out to the hard drive via a multi-wire connector. Once the data is received onto the circuit board of the drive, they are translated and compressed into a format that the individual drive can use to store onto the disk itself; the data is passed to a chip on the circuit board that controls the access to the drive. The drive is divided into sectors of data stored onto one of the sides of one of the internal disks. An HDD with two disks internally will store data on all four surfaces.

The hardware on the drive tells the actuator arm where it is to go for the relevant track and the compressed information is sent down to the head which changes the physical properties, optically or magnetically for example, of each byte on the drive, thus storing the information. A file is not stored in a linear manner, rather, it is held in the best way for quickest retrieval. Mechanically there are two different motions occurring inside the drive. One is the rotation of the disks inside the device; the other is the side-to-side motion of the head across the disk. There are two types of disk rotation methods: constant linear velocity varies the rotational speed of the optical disc depending upon the position of the head, constant angular velocity spins the media at one constant speed regardless of where the head is positioned. Track positioning follows two different methods across disk storage devices. Storage devices focused on holding computer data, e.g. HDDs, FDDs, Iomega zip drives, use concentric tracks to store data.

During a sequential read or write operation, after the drive accesses all the sectors in a track it repositions the head to the next track. This will cause a momentary delay in the flow of data between the computer. In contrast, optical audio and video discs use a single spiral track that starts at the inner most point on the disc and flows continuously to the outer edge; when reading or writing data there is no need to stop the flow of data to switch tracks. This is similar to vinyl records except vinyl records started at the outer edge and spiraled in toward the center; the disk drive interface is the mechanism/protocol of communicat

Liberian companies

Companies in the Republic of Liberia are regulated by a variety of laws. The corporate laws of Liberia were promulgated over 50 years ago to provide an offshore jurisdiction for ship owners and the international financial community. LISCR has been appointed by the Government of Liberia as its agent, to manage the corporate registry, to act as the sole registered agent for corporations registered in Liberia, but having their place of business elsewhere; the corporate registry is managed by LISCR located in Dulles, Virginia in the US and an office in Zurich, Switzerland. There are two income tax treaties with Germany in force. Additionally, Liberia as a corporate jurisdiction is on OECD’s white-list of countries that have implemented tax transparency and meet the internationally agreed tax standard; the Liberian Registry – the second largest in the world – includes over 4,300 ships of more than 160 million gross tons, which accounts for 12 percent of the world's oceangoing fleet. The Liberian fleet is one of the youngest of all nations, with an average vessel age of 12 years.

According to the U. S. Maritime Administration, Liberian-flagged vessels carry more than one-third of the oil imported into the United States; the Liberian Registry is administered by the Liberian International Ship & Corporate Registry, a U. S. owned and operated company that provides the day-to-day management for the Republic of Liberia's ship and corporate registry. In addition to its regional offices in many major maritime centers of the world, the Liberian Registry is supported by a worldwide network with over 400 Nautical Inspectors and Auditors; the Liberian Registry is open to any ship owner in the world. In order to enter the Liberian registry a vessel must be less than 20 years of age and must meet high safety standards. Liberian flagged. There are no crew nationality restrictions and taxes on Liberian vessels are at conservative rates based on the net tonnage. Registration of vessels is eligible to Liberian entities or registered business entities incorporated under other jurisdictions and registered as a Liberian Foreign Maritime Entity.

Liberian corporations, LLCs, not-for-profit businesses are formed. No special documents are required to be submitted other than an order form confirming the details of the entity requested, they however will only accept formation instructions from a professional user of offshore corporations including ship managers, manning agents, ship owners, etc. as well as trust and company managers, accountants, investment companies, etc. They do not accept instructions directly from individuals not engaged professionally in company management or acting as a professional advisor or lawyer; the Articles of Incorporation should include at the name of the corporation. Directors and other officers do not need to be registered in Liberia and thus it is not possible to obtain from the public record any form of evidence of directors, shareholders or officers; this particular feature makes the administration of a Liberian Company simple for offshore trust Companies. It can sometimes create difficulties if a Liberian company is to enter into a contract, since the Counter-Party must follow the paper trail to ensure they are dealing with duly elected officials of the Company.

For this purpose, Liberian corporations can voluntarily file such information as needed to conduct their business. Liberian companies shall keep correct and complete books and records or account and shall keep minutes of all meetings of shareholders, of actions taken on consent by shareholders, of all meetings of the board of directors, of actions taken on consent by directors and of meetings of the executive committee, if any. There is no requirement to file this information in the Public Register. There is no requirement to have audited accounts for a Liberian Corporation. Any decision to audit the accounts is one for the shareholders to take, it costs $713.50 to register a company in Liberia, with an annual registration fee of $450.00 after that. There is no requirement that you or any company director be physically present in Liberia at any time. There are no capital investment requirements to start a Liberian company, but to maintain "non-resident domestic corporation" status at least 75% of the company shares must be owned and controlled by non-residents of Liberia.

Liberia has no special bank secrecy laws like other tax havens, but this is not a deterrent as few Liberian offshore corporations handle their banking transactions within Liberia's territory borders. Moreover, there is no requirement. Certified copies of filed. List of Liberian companies

List of international cricket centuries at the Oval

The Oval is a cricket ground in London, England, it was established in 1845 and has a capacity of 23,500. International cricket has been played at the ground since 1880, when England played Australia in the first Test match staged in England. One Day Internationals have been played at the ground, the first of these was in 1973 between England and the West Indies. 175 Test centuries have been scored at the Oval along with 38 ODI centuries. The Englishman W. G. Grace scored the first Test century at the ground, Grace made 152 against Australia in 1880. In 1938 Len Hutton, another Englishman, broke the record for the highest individual Test innings. Hutton, with his score of 364, surpassed Wally Hammond's previous record of 336 not out. Hutton's innings was the only Test triple century scored at the Oval until Hashim Amla's treble in July 2012, is still the highest by an Englishman at any ground. Herbert Sutcliffe is the only man to have scored five Test centuries at the ground, while Hammond, David Gower and Kevin Pietersen have all scored four centuries.

The most centuries scored by an overseas player at the ground is three, achieved by the South African Bruce Mitchell. The first ODI century scored at the Oval was in 1973 by the West Indian Roy Fredericks, who made 105 against England. West Indian Evin Lewis's innings of 176, scored against England in 2017, is the highest seen at the ground. Two players have scored three ODI centuries at the ground – England's Marcus Trescothick and India's Shikhar Dhawan – however no other batsman has scored more than one. * denotes that the batsman was not out. Inns. Denotes the number of the innings in the match. Balls denotes the number of balls faced in an innings. NR denotes. Parentheses next to the player's score denotes his century number at the Oval; the column title Date refers to the date. The column title Result refers to if the match was drawn; the following table summarises the Test centuries scored at the Oval. The following table summarises the One Day International centuries scored at the Oval