A permanent wave called a perm or "permanent", involves the use of heat and/or chemicals to break and reform the cross-linking bonds of the hair structure. The hair is washed and wrapped on a form and waving lotion or'reagent' is applied; this solution reacts chemically softening the inner structure of the hair by breaking some of the cross links within and between the protein chains of the hair. The hair swells and softens molds around the shape of the form. In addition, the process is used for the chemical hair straightening, or relaxing; this process makes use of the same chemical reactions as that of the permanent wave, but the hair is combed straight rather than wrapped around forms. The first person to produce a practical thermal method was Marcel Grateau in 1872, he devised a pair of specially manufactured tongs, in which one of the arms had a circular cross-section and the other a concave one, so that one fitted inside the other when the tongs were closed. The tongs were heated over a gas or alcohol flame and the correct temperature was achieved by testing the tongs on a newspaper.
The waving itself was safe. The procedure was to comb a lock of hair towards the operator, moving the comb with one hand to maintain some tension, while applying the tongs to the hair successively down the lock of hair towards the point; each time the tongs were applied, they were moved in a direction normal to the lock of hair, thus producing a continuous flat or two-dimensional wave. Skill using the wrist could produce slight variations of the wave. Thus, Marcel waving produced a two-dimensional wave, by thermal means only and the change was produced by plastic flow of the hair, rather than by any chemical means; because of the high temperature used, the process tended to degrade the hair. However, in spite of its drawbacks, forms of Marcel waving have persisted until today, when speedy results and low cost are important; as the demand for self-determination grew among women, hair was shortened so that it did not pass the lower end of the neck. This was not only a political gesture but a practical one, as women began to take over men's work due to the great shortage of labour during the First World War.
At the same time, introduced for lighting and industrial use, began to be used for heating and the application of the electric motor at the small business and domestic level. As shorter hair was improved in appearance by waving more than long hair, it was only a matter of time before an improved form of waving appeared. An early alternative method for curling hair, suitable for use on people was invented in 1905 by German hairdresser Karl Nessler, he used a mixture of cow water. The first public demonstration took place on 8 October 1905, but Nessler had been working on the idea since 1896. Wigs had been set with caustic chemicals to form curls, but these recipes were too harsh to use next to human skin, his method, called the spiral heat method, was only useful for long hair. The hair was wrapped in a spiral around rods connected to a machine with an electric heating device. Sodium hydroxide was applied and the hair was heated to 212 °F or more for an extended period of time; the process took six hours to complete.
These hot rollers were kept from touching the scalp by a complex system of countering weights which were suspended from an overhead chandelier and mounted on a stand. Nessler conducted his first experiments on Katharina Laible; the first two attempts resulted in burning her hair off and some scalp burns, but the method was improved and his electric permanent wave machine was used in London in 1909 on the long hair of the time. Nessler had moved to London in 1901, during World War I, the British jailed Nessler because he was German and forced him to surrender his assets, he escaped to New York City in 1915. In New York, he found that hundreds of copies of his machine were in use, but most did not work well and were unreliable. Nessler opened a shop on East 49th Street, soon had salons in Chicago, Palm Beach and Philadelphia. Nessler developed a machine for home use, sold for fifteen dollars. However, his machine made little impression in Europe and his first attempts were not mentioned in the professional press because they were too long-winded and dangerous.
Eugene Suter was a Swiss immigrant. He claimed to have come from Paris, which in those days was the center of style, he became aware of the possibilities of electrical permanent waving when shorter hair allowed the design of smaller equipment. The system had two parts. Sutter was unsuccessful. Isidoro Calvete was a Spanish immigrant who set up a workshop for the repair and manufacture of electrical equipment in the same area of London in 1917; this equipment was just coming into use for medical professions. Sutter consulted him on the heater and Calvete designed a practical model consisting of two windings inserted into an aluminium tube; this ensured that when inserted over a root winding, the thicker hair nearer to the root became hotter than the thinner hair at the end. Sutter patented the design in his own name and for the next 12 years ordered all his hai
Psychedelic music is a wide range of popular music styles and genres influenced by 1960s psychedelia, a subculture of people who used psychedelic drugs such as LSD, psilocybin mushrooms, mescaline and DMT to experience visual and auditory hallucinations and altered states of consciousness. Psychedelic music may aim to enhance the experience of using these drugs. Psychedelic music emerged during the 1960s among folk and rock bands in the United States and the United Kingdom, creating the subgenres of psychedelic folk, psychedelic rock, acid rock, psychedelic pop before declining in the early 1970s. Numerous spiritual successors followed in the ensuing decades, including progressive rock and heavy metal. Since the 1970s, revivals have included psychedelic funk, neo-psychedelia, psychedelic hip hop, as well as psychedelic electronic music genres such as acid house, trance music, new rave. "Psychedelic" as an adjective is misused, with many so-called acts playing in a variety of styles. Acknowledging this, author Michael Hicks explains: To understand what makes music stylistically "psychedelic," one should consider three fundamental effects of LSD: dechronicization, depersonalization, dynamization.
Dechronicization permits the drug user to move outside of conventional perceptions of time. Depersonalization allows the user to lose the self and gain an "awareness of undifferentiated unity." Dynamization, as Leary wrote, makes everything from floors to lamps seem to bends, as "familiar forms dissolve into moving, dancing structures"... Music, "psychedelic" mimics these three effects. A number of features are quintessential to psychedelic music. Exotic instrumentation, with a particular fondness for the sitar and tabla are common. Songs have more disjunctive song structures and time signature changes, modal melodies, drones than contemporary pop music. Surreal, esoterically or literary-inspired, lyrics are used. There is a strong emphasis on extended instrumental segments or jams. There is a strong keyboard presence, in the 1960s using electronic organs, harpsichords, or the Mellotron, an early tape-driven'sampler' keyboard. Elaborate studio effects are used, such as backwards tapes, panning the music from one side to another of the stereo track, using the "swooshing" sound of electronic phasing, long delay loops, extreme reverb.
In the 1960s there was a use of electronic instruments such as the theremin. Forms of electronic psychedelia employed repetitive computer-generated beats. From the second half of the 1950s, Beat Generation writers like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg wrote about and took drugs, including cannabis and Benzedrine, raising awareness and helping to popularise their use. In the early 1960s the use of LSD and other psychedelics was advocated by new proponents of consciousness expansion such as Timothy Leary, Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley and Arthur Koestler, according to Laurence Veysey, they profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth; the psychedelic lifestyle had developed in California in San Francisco, by the mid-1960s, with the first major underground LSD factory established by Owsley Stanley. From 1964 the Merry Pranksters, a loose group that developed around novelist Ken Kesey, sponsored the Acid Tests, a series of events involving the taking of LSD, accompanied by light shows, film projection and discordant, improvised music known as the psychedelic symphony.
The Pranksters helped popularise LSD use, through their road trips across America in a psychedelically-decorated converted school bus, which involved distributing the drug and meeting with major figures of the beat movement, through publications about their activities such as Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. San Francisco had an emerging music scene of folk clubs, coffee houses and independent radio stations that catered to the population of students at nearby Berkeley and the free thinkers that had gravitated to the city. There was a culture of drug use among jazz and blues musicians, in the early 1960s use of drugs including cannabis, mescaline and LSD began to grow among folk and rock musicians. One of the first musical uses of the term "psychedelic" in the folk scene was by the New York-based folk group The Holy Modal Rounders on their version of Lead Belly's'Hesitation Blues' in 1964. Folk/avant-garde guitarist John Fahey recorded several songs in the early 1960s experimented with unusual recording techniques, including backwards tapes, novel instrumental accompaniment including flute and sitar.
His nineteen-minute "The Great San Bernardino Birthday Party" "anticipated elements of psychedelia with its nervy improvisations and odd guitar tunings". Folk guitarist Sandy Bull's early work "incorporated elements of folk and Indian and Arabic-influenced dronish modes", his 1963 album Fantasias for Guitar and Banjo explores various styles and "could be described as one of the first psychedelic records". Soon musicians began to refer to the drug and attempted to recreate or reflect the experience of taking LSD in their music, just as it was reflected in psychedelic art and film; this trend ran in parallel in both America and Britain and as part of the interconnected folk and rock scenes. As pop music began incorporating psychedelic sounds, the genre emerged as a mainstream and commercial force. Psychedelic rock reached its peak in the last years of the decade. From 1967 to 1968, it was the prevailing sound of rock music, either in the whimsical British variant, or the harder American West Coas
Yesterday and Today
Yesterday and Today is a studio album by the English rock band the Beatles, their ninth album released on Capitol Records and twelfth overall American release. It was issued only in the United States and Canada, in June 1966. Of the Beatles' North American discography until 1967, the album contains songs that Capitol had withheld from its versions of the band's recent EMI albums – in this case, Help! and Rubber Soul – along with others that were issued on non-album singles. The album is remembered for the controversy surrounding its original cover image. Taken by photographer Robert Whitaker, said to be the Beatles' statement against the Vietnam War, this'butcher cover' image showed the band dressed in white smocks and covered with decapitated baby dolls and pieces of raw meat. Others said it was the Beatles protesting the fact that their North American albums had been'butchered' – switched around and not as intended; the album's title plays on the title of the song "Yesterday". Having been deleted from Capitol's catalogue in 1986, Yesterday and Today was reissued on CD in 2014.
In keeping with the record company's policy for all the Beatles' North American LPs until 1967, Capitol Records selected songs for Yesterday and Today that the company had culled from the albums the band released in Britain and other territories overseen by EMI, together with tracks issued on what were non-album singles outside North America. The industry preference in the US for shorter LPs facilitated this policy, as did the fact that the Beatles' A Hard Day's Night and Help! Albums became genuine soundtrack albums there, since the non-film songs had been replaced by orchestral selections from the respective film scores, thus though the group had recorded six albums for EMI by early 1966, Yesterday and Today was the Beatles' tenth American Capitol album, twelfth overall. The two non-Capitol albums were A Hard Day's Night on United Artists Records, Introducing The Beatles on Vee Jay Records.) Yesterday and Today included tracks from the Beatles' two most recent LPs that had not yet been included on American albums, plus three from the LP they began recording in April 1966, plus two songs which were back-to-back on a single: from Help!, the tracks "Yesterday" and "Act Naturally" and from Rubber Soul, the tracks "Nowhere Man" and "What Goes On", plus "Drive My Car" and "If I Needed Someone" both sides of the double A-side single "Day Tripper" / "We Can Work It Out" from the not-yet-released Revolver, the tracks "I'm Only Sleeping", "Doctor Robert" and "And Your Bird Can Sing".
The mono mixes were different from those used for the August 1966 release of Revolver, while the stereo version of Yesterday and Today contained duophonic mixes of the three songs. Subsequent issues of Capitol's album used; the hodge-podge nature in which Capitol compiled their albums for the North American market infuriated the Beatles. In a 1974 interview, John Lennon complained that the band had "put a lot of work into the sequencing" of their albums and that they were told "there was some rule or something" against issuing the full fourteen-song LPs in the US, which led to Capitol releases such as Yesterday and Today. Both Tim Riley and American Songwriter journalist Jim Beviglia classified Yesterday and Today as a compilation album, MusicRadar said it was one in a series of "hit-filled compilation albums" that the American Capitol label "sliced and diced" from the Beatles' original British albums. On 25 March 1966, photographer Robert Whitaker had the Beatles in the studio for a conceptual art piece titled A Somnambulant Adventure.
For the shoot, Whitaker took a series of pictures of the group dressed in butcher smocks and draped with pieces of meat and body parts from plastic baby dolls. The group played along. Whitaker's concept was compatible with their own black humour. Although not intended as an album cover, the Beatles submitted photographs from the session for their promotional materials. According to a 2002 interview published in Mojo, former Capitol president Alan W. Livingston stated that it was Paul McCartney who pushed for the photo's inclusion as the album cover, that McCartney described it as "our comment on the war". In the United States, Capitol Records printed 750,000 copies of Yesterday and Today with this so-called'butcher cover'. A fraction of the original covers were shipped to disc reviewers as advance copies. Reaction was immediate; the record was recalled under orders from Sir Joseph Lockwood, chairman of Capitol's parent company EMI, all copies were ordered shipped back to the record label, leading to its rarity and popularity among collectors.
The cover photo was replaced with a picture of the four band members posed around an open trunk. Lennon described the replacement as "an awful looking photo of us looking just as deadbeat but supposed to be a happy-go-lucky foursome". At the time, some of the Beatles defended the use of the'butcher' photograph. Lennon said that it was "as relevant as Vietnam" and McCartney said that their critics were "soft". However, this opinion was not shared by all band members. George Harrison said in The Beatles Anthology that he thought the whole idea "was gross, I thought it was stupid. Sometimes we all did stupid things thinking it was hip when it was naïve and dumb. In 2007 George Martin, th
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
The Austin Westminster series are large saloon and estate cars that were sold by the British manufacturer Austin from 1954, replacing the A70 Hereford. The Westminster line was produced as the A90, A95, A99, A105, A110 until 1968 when the new Austin 3-Litre took its place. Badge-engineered versions of the Farina Westminsters were produced using the premium Wolseley and Vanden Plas marques. 101,634 Westminsters were built. The Westminster name was used by the Austin Motor Company in the 1930s for a four light version of the 16/6 and the Heavy 12/4; the A90 Six Westminster was introduced at the 1954 London Motor Show at the same time as the small A40/A50 Cambridge saloon range. It used the new BMC C-Series straight-6 engine with single Zenith carburettor which, at 2.6 L, produced 85 hp. The suspension is independent at the front using coil springs and wishbones and leaf spring and anti-roll bar on the live axle at the rear; the four-speed transmission has synchromesh on the top three ratios and from 1955 an overdrive unit could be specified.
The interior, with leather trim on the de luxe version and PVC on the standard model, has a split bench front seat arrangement, although individually adjustable, which if necessary could seat three people abreast. When only two are carried there are, on the de luxe model, fold down centre armrests at the side of each seat; the de luxe model has a central fold down armrest in the rear. The handbrake control is under the dash on the right hand side of the steering column which carries the gear change lever. A heater is optional on the standard version; the Austin Motor Company produced a brochure for an A90 Six Westminster police car which featured a floor gearchange. The British Motor magazine tested a Westminster de luxe saloon in 1955 recording a top speed of 85.7 mph and acceleration from 0–60 mph in 18.9 seconds and a fuel consumption of 20.2 miles per imperial gallon. The test car cost £834 including taxes; the A90 designation had been carried by the 1948–52 Austin Atlantic. 25,532 A90 Six Westminsters were built.
In May 1956, for a brief period only, a derivative of the A90 Six Westminster was announced, a short boot version of the A105 and had the twin SU carburettor/102 hp version of the 2.6-litre C series engine with overdrive as standard. In October 1956 the A105 received the longer wheelbase with overdrive as standard and automatic transmission as an option. Twin fog lights and wheel trims were standard although a radio was still an option. Two tone paint and white wall tyres were introduced for visual effect. Few short boot versions of the A105 were produced and they are now quite rare; the A90 was updated for autumn 1956 as the A95. Along with more power, the A95 was now offered an estate model. Overdrive and an automatic transmission were new as well, something of a novelty in British cars of the time. Both the A95 and A105 were produced together until 1959. 28,065 A95s and 6,770 A105s were built. The Westminster name was dropped from the sales literature for the A95 and the A105 although, the drivers' handbooks still used the name Westminster to title the illustration of the saloon.
The estate version was named Countryman. Most enthusiasts still refer to them as Westminsters. A badge-engineered version of the A95 with different grille and badges and a bench front seat was assembled and sold in Australia as the Morris Marshal from 1957 until 1960. An A105 saloon with overdrive tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1956 had a top speed of 96.3 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 15.4 seconds. A fuel consumption of 22.0 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1109 including taxes; the A105 was the first mass-produced Austin family car to be specially upgraded by coachbuilder Vanden Plas, following the success of the large A135 Austin Princess limousine. This was done after a personal request from Leonard Lord in 1957. Changes included significant new interior fittings, a grey stripe bearing the "Princess" crown on the side of the body; the A99 Westminster appeared in 1959 with new Pininfarina-designed bodywork. Pininfarina had re-styled Austin's compact A40 and mid-sized A55 Cambridge ranges the year before.
Under the bonnet was the 2.9 L C-Series straight-6 engine with twin SU carburettors from the Austin-Healey 3000. This engine produced 103 hp in Westminster tune. A three-speed all-synchromesh manual gearbox with a Borg-Warner overdrive unit was fitted as standard, or a Borg-Warner automatic transmission as an option. Power-assisted Lockheed brakes with 10.75 in discs on the front wheels were new. An A99 saloon with automatic transmission was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1960 and they recorded a top speed of 98.1 mph, acceleration from 0–60 mph in 17.9 seconds and a fuel consumption of 23.0 miles per imperial gallon. The test car cost £1219 including taxes; the manual car cost £1148. A specially trimmed A99 was sold as the Princess 3-Litre, under the Vanden Plas marque as the Vanden Plas Princess. A Wolseley version, the 6/99, was produced. Production ended in 1961 with the introduction of the larger A110. 15,162 A99s were built. The final major update arrived in 1961 with the A110 Westminster.
This version had an extended wheelbase, which allowed more space in the rear compartment as well as improving the road
Martin Ritchie Sharp was an Australian artist, cartoonist and film-maker. Sharp made contributions to Australian and international culture from the early 1960s, was called Australia's foremost pop artist, his psychedelic posters of Bob Dylan and others, rank as classics of the genre, his covers and illustrations were a central feature of OZ magazine, both in Australia and in London. Martin co-wrote one of Cream's best known songs, "Tales of Brave Ulysses", created the cover art for Cream's Disraeli Gears and Wheels of Fire albums, in the 1970s became a champion of singer Tiny Tim, of Sydney's embattled Luna Park. Sharp was born in Bellevue Hill, New South Wales in 1942, educated at Cranbrook private school, where one of his teachers was the artist Justin O'Brien. In 1960, Sharp enrolled at the National Art School at East Sydney, where he contributed to the short-lived student magazine The Arty Wild Oat, along with fellow artists Garry Shead and John Firth Smith, he submitted cartoons to The Bulletin.
In 1961, he enrolled for two terms in architecture at Sydney University before returning to the National Art School. In 1962 Sharp met Richard Neville, editor of the University of NSW student magazine Tharunka, Richard Walsh, editor of its Sydney University counterpart Honi Soit. Both wanted to publish their own "magazine of dissent" and they asked Sharp and Shead to become contributors; the magazine was dubbed OZ. From 1963 though to February 1966 when he left Australia for London, Sharp was its art director and a major contributor. Sydney OZ was first published on April Fool's Day, 1963, its irreverent attitude was in the tradition of the student newspapers, but its satirical and topical coverage of local and national issues and people developed a national profile, made it a target for "the Establishment", soon a prominent casualty of the so-called "Censorship Wars". Sharp held his first one-man exhibition at the Clune Galleries in Sydney in 1965. "Art for Mart's Sake" sold out on the opening night.
One of the paintings exhibited featured in Shead's James Bond spoof Blunderball, made earlier that year. During the life of Australian OZ Sharp and Walsh were twice charged with printing an obscene publication; the first trial was minor, should have been a non-event, but they were poorly advised and pleaded guilty, which resulted in their convictions being recorded. As a result, when they were charged with obscenity a second time, their previous convictions meant that the new charges were more serious; the charges centred on two items in the early issues of OZ—one was Sharp's ribald poem "The Word Flashed Around The Arms", which satirised the contemporary habit of youths gatecrashing parties. Sharp and Walsh were tried and sentenced to prison, their convictions caused a public outcry and they were subsequently acquitted on appeal, but the so-called "OZ Three" realised that there was little future battling such strong opposition. In 1966 Sharp published a selection of cartoons in the book Martin Sharp Cartoons.
"Swinging London" was a mecca for young artists and musicians, after the OZ trials and Neville needed little encouragement to leave Australia. They set off on an overland trek through Asia, parting company in Kathmandu and making their separate ways to London. On arrival, Sharp stayed for a short time with Neville's sister, writer Jill Neville in Knightsbridge before sharing a Chelsea studio with photographer Robert Whitaker, it was at this time that he was introduced to a musician in The Speakeasy. During the evening, Sharp told the musician about a poem he had written. Sharp obligingly wrote out the poem and his address on a serviette and gave it to his new acquaintance; the musician turned out to be guitarist Eric Clapton. The song that resulted from the meeting, "Tales of Brave Ulysses", was recorded as the B-side of Cream's smash hit "Strange Brew" and was included on Cream's second album Disraeli Gears, his friendship with Clapton led to the commission to design the famous'dayglo' psychedelic collage cover for that album, which included painted photographs by Sharp's friend Robert Whitaker, whom Sharp knew from Australia and whose studio was in the same building where Sharp lived.
The following year Sharp designed the gatefold sleeve for Cream's third album, the double LP Wheels of Fire, for which he won the New York Art Directors Prize for Best Album Design in 1969. He designed the cover for the eponymous debut L. P. of London underground band Mighty Baby. Not long after his meeting with Clapton, Sharp moved into The Pheasantry at 152 Kings Road, Chelsea, a Georgian building; as the name suggests, the site was used to raise pheasants for the royal household. In the early 1900s, it was the home of Eleanor Thornton, the favourite model of artist and sculptor Charles Sykes. Thornton is believed to have been the model for Sykes' most famous work, his Rolls Royce mascot the Spirit of Ecstasy. In the 1920s and 1930s, it housed the studio of dance teacher Serafina Astafieva, who trained several of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes dancers and who taught prima ballerinas Alicia Markova and Margot Fonteyn. By the time Sharp moved in, The Pheasantry was a well-known'artists' colony', its rooms rented out as apartments and residential studio spa